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Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City known by its former name of Saigon, is the most populous city in Vietnam with a population of 8.4 million as of 2017. Located in southeastern Vietnam, the metropolis surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres. From 1955 to 1975, Saigon was the capital of the Republic of Vietnam known as South Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City is the financial centre of Vietnam and is classified as a Beta+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange by total market capitalization in Vietnam and the headquarters of many national and international banks and companies. As a major gateway to Vietnam, the city received over 8.6 million international visitors in 2019. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Tan Son Nhat International Airport, the busiest airport in Vietnam handling over 40 million passengers in 2019. Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic and political groups.

A trading port city of the Khmer Empire known as Prey Nokor, it is still known as Prey Nokor to Cambodians today. In time, under the control of the Vietnamese, it was renamed Gia Dinh, a name, retained until the time of the French conquest in the 1860s, when it adopted the name Sài Gòn, westernized as Saïgon, although the city was still indicated as 嘉定 on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891; the current name, Ho Chi Minh City, was given after the Fall of Saigon in 1975 to honor Ho Chi Minh. Today, the informal name of Sài Gòn remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally among the Vietnamese diaspora. However, there is a technical difference between the two terms: Sài Gòn is used to refer to the city center in District 1 and the adjacent areas, while Ho Chi Minh City refers more to the entire modern city with all its urban and rural districts. An etymology of Saigon is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word meaning "firewood, twigs; this name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas.

It may refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor referred. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment", Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Prey means forest or jungle, nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, related to the English word'Nation' – thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom". Truong Mealy, says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor, "Royal City"; the current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, adopted in 1976 and abbreviated TP. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville, abbreviated HCMV; the name commemorates the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his years, it combines a common Vietnamese surname with a given name meaning "enlightened will", in essence, meaning "light bringer".

The earliest settlement in the area was a Funan temple at the location of the current Phụng Sơn Buddhist temple, founded in the 4th century AD. A settlement called; when the Cham Empire was invaded by the Khmer people, Baigaur was renamed Prey Nokor, which meant "Forest City". An alternative name was Preah Reach Nokor which, according to a Khmer Chronicle, meant "Royal City". Prey Nokor grew on the site of a small fishing area of forest; this area is where modern Ho Chi Minh City now lies, was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnamese. Beginning in the early 17th century, colonization of the area by Vietnamese settlers isolated the Khmer of the Mekong Delta from their brethren in Cambodia proper and resulted in their becoming a minority in the delta. In 1623, King Chey Chettha II of Cambodia allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn civil war in Vietnam to settle in the area of Prey Nokor and to set up a customs house there. Increasing waves of Vietnamese settlers, which the Cambodian kingdom could not impede because it was weakened by war with Thailand Vietnamized the area.

In time, Prey Nokor became known as Saigon. Prey Nokor was the most important commercial seaport to the Khmers; the loss of the city and the rest of the Mekong Delta cut off Cambodia's access to the East Sea. Subsequently, the only remaining Khmers' sea access was south-westerly at the Gulf of Thailand e.g. at Kampong Saom and Kep. In 1698, Nguyễn

The Lights of Zetar

"The Lights of Zetar" is the eighteenth episode of the third season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek. Written by Jeremy Tarcher and his wife Shari Lewis and directed by Herb Kenwith, it was first broadcast on January 31, 1969. In the episode, strange incorporeal aliens threaten the Enterprise; the Federation starship Enterprise is en route to Memory Alpha, a planetoid, home to the Federation's central library. A storm-like phenomenon moving at warp speed is on course to the planetoid; the Enterprise intercepts the storm, which enters the ship, affecting some crew members' nervous systems. Lieutenant Mira Romaine, assigned to Memory Alpha, faints from the effects of the storm. Chief Medical Officer Dr. McCoy examines Romaine, who seems unresponsive apart from strange grunting sounds; the storm proceeds to Memory Alpha, with the Enterprise in pursuit, destroys the stations's computer core. Captain Kirk, along with Science Officer Spock, Dr. McCoy, Mr. Scott beam to the station to inspect the damage.

Meanwhile, Romaine has visions of corpses at Memory Alpha. The landing party finds the Memory Alpha's archives damaged, its staff dead, save one who makes the same guttural noises as Romaine, dies from what McCoy determines to be a brain hemorrhage. Kirk has Romaine beamed to the station, she is terrified to see the exact scene from her vision, warns that the storm is returning. Scans of the storm determine that it is a group of life forms, Kirk tries to communicate with them through the universal translator, but gets no response. After firing phaser warning shots, Kirk resorts to a full attack, as the beams strike the storm, Romaine seems to react in pain. Scott, noticing this, begs Kirk to stop the attack. During a discussion in the briefing room, McCoy reports that Romaine's brain wave pattern has been altered, Spock reveals that the new pattern matches sensor data from the storm, they conclude. To prevent this, they devise a plan to allow the aliens to take partial control and subject Romaine to high atmospheric pressure.

Before they can place her into the pressure chamber, the aliens enter Romaine's body, begin to speak through her, identifying themselves as survivors from the long-dead planet of Zetar. They intend to live out their remaining existence using Romaine's body. With some difficulty, Scott succeeds in getting Romaine into the pressure chamber, the aliens are driven out and destroyed. With the conclusion of the crisis, Spock, McCoy, Scott all agree that Romaine is fit to return to duty, with a new assignment to oversee salvaging and repairs of Memory Alpha's archives. Episode co-writer Shari Lewis was best known as a children's entertainer, being the original puppeteer of the sock puppet, Lamb Chop. In the non-canon novel, Memory Prime, Romaine participates in a project to rebuild the archives in a more secure structure; the project is soon thrown into turmoil by a murder plot that escalates into a looming crisis that threatens to repeat Memory Alpha's disaster. However, with the aid of the crew of the USS Enterprise, Romaine manages to avert it.

Memory Alpha, the wiki devoted to the Star Trek franchise, was named after the planetoid in this episode. "The Lights of Zetar" at "The Lights of Zetar" on IMDb "The Lights of Zetar" at Memory Alpha "The Lights of Zetar" at "The Lights of Zetar" Review of the remastered version at

Gatorade Player of the Year awards

The Gatorade Player of the Year awards are given annually to up and coming high school student-athletes in the United States. They are given for boys' baseball, boys' football, girls' softball, girls' volleyball, boys' basketball, girls' basketball, boys' cross country, girls' cross country, boys' soccer, girls' soccer, boys' track & field, girls' track & field. A "State Player of the Year" award is given to the best student-athlete in each of the twelve sports in the District of Columbia and each of the fifty states, where each sport is recognized as an interscholastic sport. Selection is based on three criteria: athletic achievement, academic excellence, exemplary character. Twelve "National Player of the Year" awards are given, to the best student-athlete in each of the twelve sports, chosen from the state winners in the respective sport. One male Athlete of the Year and one female Athlete of the Year are selected from the twelve National Player of the Year recipients; the two winners are voted on by a national panel that includes 400 sports journalists and others.

The two athletes of the year receive their awards at a special ceremony prior to The ESPY Awards, in Los Angeles, California. The Gatorade Company established these awards in 1986; the selection process was administered by ESPN RISE, ESPN's division for high-school sports. The selection process is administered by the Gatorade Player of the Year Selection Committee. Past national winners include Peyton Manning and Emmitt Smith for football, LeBron James and Kobe Bryant for basketball, Allyson Felix for track and field, Kerri Walsh for volleyball. For biographical sketches of the current winners, see footnote See also: Sporting News High School Athlete of the Year and Athlete of the Year For the official list of winners, see footnote. See footnote For the official list of state winners from 1985 to the present, see footnote. Wendy's High School Heisman National High School Hall of Fame Naismith Prep Player of the Year Award Mr. Basketball USA List of U. S. high school basketball national player of the year awards List of sports awards honoring women Official website


Ithycythara is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Mangeliidae. The spiral sculpture consists of microscopic striae. There may be a few basal threads; this genus is related to Pseudorhaphitoma. This marine species occurs in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Species within the genus Ithycythara include: Ithycythara acutangulus Ithycythara apicodenticulata Robba et al. 2003 Ithycythara auberiana Ithycythara chechoi Espinosa & Ortea, 2004 Ithycythara cymella Ithycythara funicostata Robba et al. 2006 Ithycythara hyperlepta Haas, 1953 Ithycythara lanceolata Ithycythara muricoides Ithycythara oyuana Ithycythara parkeri Abbott, 1958 Ithycythara penelope Ithycythara pentagonalis Ithycythara psila Ithycythara rubricata Ithycythara septemcostata Species brought into synonymy Ithycythara edithae Nowell-Usticke, 1971: synonym of Cryoturris edithae † Ithycythara kellumi Fargo, W. G. 1953: synonym of Ithycythara psila Extinct species † Ithycythara defuniak Gardner 1938 † Ithycythara elongata Gabb 1873 † Ithycythara ischna Woodring 1928 Ithycythara lanceolata Adams 1850 † Ithycythara maera Woodring 1928 Ithycythara psila Bush 1885 † Ithycythara psiloides Woodring 1928 † Ithycythara scissa Woodring 1928 † Ithycythara tarri Maury 1910 W. P. Woodring.

1928. Miocene Molluscs from Jamaica. Part 2: Gastropods and discussion of results. Contributions to the Geology and Palaeontology of the West Indies W. P. Woodring. 1970. Geology and paleontology of canal zone and adjoining parts of Panama: Description of Tertiary mollusks. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 306:299–452 Todd, Jonathan A. "Systematic list of gastropods in the Panama Paleontology Project collections." Budd and Foster 2006 Bouchet P. Kantor Yu I. Sysoev A. & Puillandre N. A new operational classification of the Conoidea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308. Worldwide Mollusc Species Data Base: Mangeliidae Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1–1295

Wittemann brothers

Paul W. Wittemann and Adolph Wittemann and Charles Rudolph Wittemann were early aviation pioneers, they were the children of Emily Wittemann of Missouri. Their father, who died prior to 1910, was from Germany. Charles and Adolph had C. & A. Wittemann of Staten Island, New York. At Teterboro they built the largest bomber of the time. Adolph left the company and Charles teamed up with Samuel P. Lewis to form the Wittemann-Lewis Aircraft Company, Inc. In 1920 Charles was living in New Jersey, he died in July 1967 in New Jersey. Other siblings include aka Harold. All the Wittemann children were born in New York City on Staten Island. 1884 Birth of Charles Rudolph Wittemann c. 1905 Death of father 1906 Charles and Adolph Wittemann, Aeronautical Engineers, Ocean Terrace & Little Clove Road, Staten Island 1910 Living on Staten Island 1917 Charles founder of Teterboro Airport c. 1917 Wittemann-Lewis Aircraft Company, Inc. founded by Charles Rudolph Wittemann with Samuel P. Lewis 1918 Charles president of Wittemann-Lewis Aircraft Company, Inc. in Newark, New Jersey 1919 Teterboro, New Jersey factory 1919 Contractors to United States Postal Service and United States Navy for aircraft 1920 Wittemann brothers in the 1920 United States Census with Charles Randolph Wittemann in Hackensack, New Jersey 1923 Ended production to concentrate on engineering research 1924 Bankruptcy and Teterboro, New Jersey property acquired by Anthony Fokker 1967 Death of Charles Rudolph Wittemann Wichita University Aeroplane Boland brothers Wright brothers Voisin brothers Early Birds: Wittemann brothers

ARO M461

The ARO M461 was an off-road vehicle built in post World War II Romania by ARO. The first model was IMS-57, named by the factory initials and the year it was released. A total of 914 vehicles were built between 1957 and 1959 handcrafted. During World War II, on the site of a paper plant belonging to Letea company from Câmpulung-Muscel, the production of plane propellers and shooting equipment for airplanes produced by IAR Brașov was organized. After the production was abandoned, a group of workers begun building the first Romanian motorcycles in 1953; the design and production of the first Romanian all-terrain vehicle IMS-57 began in 1957, using the parts that were produced as well as upgrading. The 914 IMS-57 produced had the following characteristics: coachwork with two doors and tarpaulin, 3260 cc gasoline engine, 50 hp at 2,800 rpm, 80 km/h, 24 L/100 km consumption; the construction was handicraft: the equipped chassis in functioning condition were tested on the route Câmpulung-Colibași where they were bodyworked and finished in the Pitești factory UAP.

The tin parts were made on wooden lasts. Among other oddities, the IMS-57 had manual windshield wipers. In 1959, the IMS-57 was replaced by M59, a substantial improvement over its predecessor. Launched two years the new type M59 signified a step forward compared to IMS-57: its engine had 56 hp, a maximum speed enhanced to 90 km/h, the manual wind screen wiper replaced with an electric one; the cars were bodyworked and finished in Câmpulung. During the four years in production the number of vehicles built jumped from 803 to 3,222. A new model, the M461, was started in 1964; the design was similar to the previous models but every panel was different and the cars are distinguishable. It showed look and finishing improvements, a redesigned mechanics, its engine had four in-line cylinders, 70 hp, a maximum speed of 100 km/h, a 17 l at 80 km/h consumption. The export of M461 begun to China and Colombia; the M461 was a good performer for its time, having won a few international competitions: 1970 Forests Rally, 1973 Sons of Beaches.

With improvements in their technology and performances, some 80,233 M461 land vehicles were produced by 1975, out of which 46,549 were exported and more were used by Romanian Army. About 3,000 M461s are still on the road in Romania, with a active owners' club. Many of the cars were until used by the army. Late versions were known as M473 on the German market. ARO 10 Series ARO 24 Series ARO M461 Club website ARO Club Romania History of IMS 57 Shop online for Aro M-461 Blog for rebuilt Aro M-461 M461 at Retromobil Club Romania