A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, urban legends and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes. Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles, published during the late Ming dynasty, is said to be China's first collection of stories about fraud, swindles and other forms of deception. Although practical jokes have existed for thousands of years, one of the earliest recorded hoaxes in Western history was the drummer of Tedworth in 1661; the communication of hoaxes can be accomplished in any manner that a fictional story can be communicated: in person, via word of mouth, via words printed on paper, so on. As the technology of communication has advanced, the speed at which hoaxes spread has advanced: a rumor about a ghostly drummer, spread by word of mouth, will impact a small area at first grow gradually. However, hoaxes could be spread via chain letters, which became easier as the cost of mailing a letter dropped.

The invention of the printing press in the 15th century brought down the cost of a mass-produced books and pamphlets, the rotary printing press of the 19th century reduced the price further. During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites; the English philologist Robert Nares says that the word hoax was coined in the late 18th century as a contraction of the verb hocus, which means "to cheat," "to impose upon" or "to befuddle with drugged liquor." Hocus is a shortening of the magic incantation hocus pocus, whose origin is disputed. Robert Nares defined the word hoax as meaning "to cheat," dating from Thomas Ady's 1656 book A candle in the dark, or a treatise on the nature of witches and witchcraft; the term hoax is used in reference to urban legends and rumors, but the folklorist Jan Harold Brunvand argues that most of them lack evidence of deliberate creations of falsehood and are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes, so the term should be used for only those with a probable conscious attempt to deceive.

As for the related terms practical joke and prank, Brunvand states that although there are instances where they overlap, hoax tends to indicate "relatively complex and large-scale fabrications" and includes deceptions that go beyond the playful and "cause material loss or harm to the victim."According to Professor Lynda Walsh of the University of Nevada, some hoaxes—such as the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, labeled as a hoax by contemporary commentators—are financial in nature, successful hoaxers—such as P. T. Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, so the distinction between hoax and fraud is not clear. Alex Boese, the creator of the Museum of Hoaxes, states that the only distinction between them is the reaction of the public, because a fraud can be classified as a hoax when its method of acquiring financial gain creates a broad public impact or captures the imagination of the masses. One of the earliest recorded media hoaxes is a fake almanac published by Jonathan Swift under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff in 1708.

Swift predicted the death of John Partridge, one of the leading astrologers in England at that time, in the almanac and issued an elegy on the day Partridge was supposed to have died. Partridge's reputation was damaged as a result and his astrological almanac was not published for the next six years, it is possible to perpetrate a hoax by making only true statements using unfamiliar wording or context, such as in the Dihydrogen monoxide hoax. Political hoaxes are sometimes motivated by the desire to ridicule or besmirch opposing politicians or political institutions before elections. A hoax differs from a magic trick or from fiction in that the audience is unaware of being deceived, whereas in watching a magician perform an illusion the audience expects to be tricked. A hoax is intended as a practical joke or to cause embarrassment, or to provoke social or political change by raising people's awareness of something, it can emerge from a marketing or advertising purpose. For example, to market a romantic comedy movie, a director staged a phony "incident" during a supposed wedding, which showed a bride and preacher getting knocked into a pool by a clumsy fall from a best man.

A resulting video clip of Chloe and Keith's Wedding was uploaded to YouTube and was viewed by over 30 million people and the couple was interviewed by numerous talk shows. Viewers were deluded into thinking that it was an authentic clip of a real accident at a real wedding. Governments sometimes spread false information to facilitate their objectives, such as going to war; these come under the heading of black propaganda. There is a mixture of outright hoax and suppression and management of information to give the desired impression. In wartime and times of international tension rumors abound, some of which may be deliberate hoaxes. Examples of politics-related hoaxes: Belgium is a country with a Flemish-speaking region and a French-speaking region. In 2006 French-speaking television channel RTBF interrupted programming with a spoof report claiming that the country had split in two and the royal family had fled. On Saturday 13 March 2010 the Imedi television station in Georgia broadcast a f

Willie Tyler

Willie Tyler is an American ventriloquist and actor. Tyler has been credited as Willie Tyler & Lester, he has appeared in many television commercials and films. Tyler got his first big break in 1972 on Martin's Laugh-In. Tyler was born in Red Level and raised in South East Detroit, Michigan, he attended Detroit's Northeastern High School in the late 1950s. He is the father of actor Cory Tyler. Tyler has had guest roles in The Parent'Hood, Pacific Blue, What's Happening Now!!, The White Shadow and The Jeffersons, as well as serving as host of the Saturday morning children's anthology series ABC Weekend Specials throughout the early 1980s. He appeared in the 1978 film Coming Home. In addition, he has appeared in television commercials in the 1980s for McDonald's, Hires Root Beer, he appeared as himself in the 2004 BET Comedy Awards, Frank McKlusky, C. I. For Da Love of Money, In the House, the 4th Annual Black Gold Awards, The 1st Annual Soul Train Music Awards, Motown Returns to the Apollo, Lou Rawls Parade of Stars, The White Shadow, American Bandstand, Vegetable Soup, The Flip Wilson Show, The Statler Brothers Show, The Hollywood Palace, Match Game and Family Feud.

On September 18, 2006, Tyler was the first ventriloquist to appear on the Late Show with David Letterman's Ventriloquist Week. On May 21, 2019, Tyler appeared as a 1972 TV version of himself on the ABC sitcom The Kids are Alright. Official website Willie Tyler on IMDb An Interview with Willie Tyler Part One, February 2012 An Interview with Willie Tyler Part Two, February 2012 Willie Tyler at Richard De La Font Agency Willie Tyler at Funny Business Agency Willie Tyler on Tom Green Live

Manx Electric Trailers 45-48

This article details Trailer Nos. 45–48 of the Manx Electric Railway on the Isle of Man. Supplied by G. F. Milnes & Co. in 1899 each seating 44 passengers, these trailers all remain today with the exception of 45 which lost its body during the winter of 2003 and was converted into a flat wagon in a way that summed up the management's attitude to their historic tramcar fleet. The bodywork has however been retained for future use. Mike Goodwyn. Manx Electric. Platform Five. ISBN 978-1-872524-52-8. Keith Pearson. 100 Years Of Manx Electric Railway. Leading Edge. ISBN 0-948135-38-7. Robert Hendry. Manx Electric Album. Hillside Publishing. ISBN 0-9505933-0-3. Norman Jones. Isle Of Man Tramways. Foxline Publishing. ISBN 1-870119-32-0. Manx Manx Electric Railway Fleetlist Manx Electric Railway Society Island Island Images: Manx Electric Railway Pages Jon Wornham Official Tourist Department Page Isle Of Man Heritage Railways