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A hobo is a migrant worker or homeless vagrant one, impoverished. The term originated in the Western—probably Northwestern—United States around 1890. Unlike a "tramp", who works only when forced to, a "bum", who does not work at all, a "hobo" is a traveling worker; the origin of the term is unknown. According to etymologist Anatoly Liberman, the only certain detail about its origin is the word was first noticed in American English circa 1890. Liberman points out that many folk etymologies fail to answer the question: "Why did the word become known in California by the early Nineties?" Author Todd DePastino has suggested it may be derived from the term hoe-boy meaning "farmhand", or a greeting such as Ho, boy! Bill Bryson suggests in Made in America that it could either come from the railroad greeting, "Ho, beau!" or a syllabic abbreviation of "homeward bound". It could come from the words "homeless boy". H. L. Mencken, in his The American Language, wrote: Tramps and hobos are lumped together, but see themselves as differentiated.

A hobo or bo is a migrant laborer. Lower than either is the bum, who neither works nor travels, save when impelled to motion by the police, it is unclear when hobos first appeared on the American railroading scene. With the end of the American Civil War in the 1860s, many discharged veterans returning home began hopping freight trains. Others looking for work on the American frontier followed the railways west aboard freight trains in the late 19th century. In 1906, Professor Layal Shafee, after an exhaustive study, put the number of tramps in the United States at about 500,000, his article "What Tramps Cost Nation" was published by The New York Telegraph in 1911, when he estimated the number had surged to 700,000. The number of hobos increased during the Great Depression era of the 1930s. With no work and no prospects at home, many decided to travel for free by freight train and try their luck elsewhere. Life as a hobo was dangerous. In addition to the problems of being itinerant and far from home and support, plus the hostility of many train crews, they faced the railroads' security staff, nicknamed "bulls", who had a reputation of violence against trespassers.

Moreover, riding on a freight train is dangerous in itself. British poet W. H. Davies, author of The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp, lost a foot when he fell under the wheels when trying to jump aboard a train, it was easy to be trapped between cars, one could freeze to death in bad weather. When freezer cars were loaded at an ice factory, any hobo inside was to be killed. According to Ted Conover in Rolling Nowhere, at some unknown point in time, as many as 20,000 people were living a hobo life in North America. Modern freight trains are much faster and thus harder to ride than in the 1930s, but they can still be boarded in railyards. Hobos were noted among other things, the distinctive lingo that arose among them; some examples follow: Many hobo terms have become part of common language, such as "big house", "glad rags", "main drag", others. From the beginning of the existence of hoboes, as soon as the 1870s, it has been reported that hoboes communicated with each other by way of a system of cryptic "hobo signs," which would be chalked in prominent or relevant places to clandestinely alert future hoboes about important local information.

Many listings of these symbols have been made. A few symbols include: A triangle with hands, signifying. A horizontal zigzag signifying a barking dog. A circle with two parallel arrows meaning "Get out fast," as hobos are not welcome in the area. A cat signifying that a kind lady lives here. Reports of hoboes using these symbols appeared in newspapers and popular books straight through the Depression, continue to turn up in American popular culture. Displays on hobo signs have been exhibited in the Steamtown National Historic Site at Scranton, operated by the National Park Service, in the National Cryptologic Museum in Annapolis Junction and Webster's Third New International Dictionary supplies a listing of hobo signs under the entry for "hobo". Despite an strong record of authentication, there is doubt as to whether hobo signs were actually in practical use by hoboes; the alternative hypothesis is that the signs were invented early on by a writer or writers seeking to add to the fantastical mythos that began to surround hoboes soon after they first appeared.

Several hoboes during the days that the signs were most in use asserted that they were in fact a "popular fancy" or "a fabrication". Nels Anderson, who both hoboed himself and studied hoboes extensively for a University of Chicago master's thesis, wrote in 1932,Another merit of the book is that the author has not subscribed to the fiction that American tramps have a sign language, as so many professors are wont to believe. Though newspapers in the early and peak days of hoboing printed photos and drawings of hoboes leaving these signs, no known photos exist showing hobo signs fou

Dina Kawar

Dina Kawar is a Jordanian diplomat who since June 2016 has served as Ambassador of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the United States. Ambassador Kawar served as the Permanent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations from August 2014 to June 2016, she has led the Jordanian delegation during Jordan's non-permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council from 2014 to 2015 and became the first Arab woman to preside over the Council. In February 2016, she was appointed by the President of the General Assembly as a co-facilitator for the high-level meeting of the plenary of the General Assembly on the large movement of refugees and migrants to take place in September 2016. Prior to her position in New York, Her Excellency Dina Kawar served as the Ambassador of Jordan to France from 2001 to 2013, with concurrent accreditation to the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization and to the Holy See, since 2002, she served as Ambassador of Jordan to Portugal from 2005 to 2013.

Ambassador Kawar was awarded the Medal of Independence of the first degree by His Majesty King Abdulla II of Jordan and holds a number of decorations including the “Commandeur De La Legion d’ Honneur" from France, the “Medalha de D. Afonso Henriques” from Portugal and the “Insignes de Dame de Grand-Croix de l’Ordre de Saint Grégoire le Grand” from the Holy See. Ambassador Kawar holds a master's degree in international affairs from Columbia University and a bachelor's degree in international relations from Mills College, both in the United States, she attended Harvard's Center for International Affairs from 1986 to 1987. She speaks Arabic and English. Kawar received her higher education in the United States where she got a bachelor's degree in international relations from Mills College and a master's degree in international affairs from Columbia University and attended Harvard's Center for international affairs in 1986; the ambassador is fluent in Arabic and French. From 1985 to 1990, Kawar was appointed as the head of Prince Hassan's office in Amman heading the Paris office of the Bureau de S.

A. R Prince El Hassan from 1991 to 2000. In 2000, she became Director of Bureau Privé de Sa Majesté le Roi Abdullah II in Paris. Kawar served as the Ambassador of Jordan to France from 2001 to 2013, with frequent accreditation to the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization and to the Holy See and to Portugal. Kawar was appointed as the Permanent Representative of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the United Nations in August 2014, replacing Prince Zeid who became the High Commissioner of the Office of the United Nations for Human Rights, she has led the Jordanian delegation during Jordan's non-permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council between 2014 and 2015, became the first Arab woman and first Arab Christian to preside over the Council. In February 2016, she was appointed by the President of the General Assembly as a co-facilitator for a meeting in the General Assembly on the large movement of refugees and migrants to take place in September 2016. Kawar is married to Vincent Cortes and speaks Arabic and French.

Jordan: Grand Master of the Order of Independence Holy See Grand Officer of the Order of St. Gregory the Great Portugal Grand Master of the Medalha de D. Afonso Henriques France: Grand Master of the Legion of Honour medal Christianity in Jordan The Embassy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Washington, DC: Ambassador Dina Kawar


Hafenlohr is a community in the Main-Spessart district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany and a member of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of Marktheidenfeld. Hafenlohr lies in the Würzburg Region 3 km from Marktheidenfeld, it is located on the confluence of the rivers Main. The community has the following Gemarkungen: Windheim, Fürstlich Löwenstein ` scher Park. Hafenlohr was mentioned first in 1324 but its origins go back to around the year 1000, it was a centre of the pottery industry. The area was property of the Kloster Neustadt since the late 8th century. From the mid-12th century it belonged to the Counts of Rieneck until their male line died out in 1333 and the property reverted to the Hochstift of the Bishop of Würzburg; as part of the Oberamt of Rothenfels of the Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg, Hafenlohr passed at Secularization to the Counts of Löwenstein-Wertheim. By mediatization in 1806 it passed to the Principality of Aschaffenburg, with which it passed in 1814 to Bavaria.

In the course of administrative reform in Bavaria, the current community came into being with the Gemeindeedikt of 1818. Within town limits, 1,804 inhabitants were counted in 1970, 1,721 in 1987 and in 2000 1,877; the mayor is Thorsten Schwab, reelected in 2014 with 87% of the vote. The community’s arms might be described thus: Gules edged Or a fess wavy argent at the nombril point, above which a jug of the second. According to official statistics, there were 260 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls working in producing businesses in 1998, in trade and transport this was 0. In other areas, 37 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls were employed, 687 such workers worked from home. There were 17 processing businesses. No businesses were in construction, furthermore, in 1999, there were 15 agricultural operations with a working area of 103 ha, of which 47 ha was cropland and 55 ha was meadowland. Municipal taxes in 1999 amounted to €952,000, of which net business taxes amounted to €126,000.

In 1999 the following institutions existed in Hafenlohr: Kindergartens: 73 places with 65 children Primary schools: 1 with 12 teachers and 184 pupils Technisches Hilfswerk, Marktheidenfeld chapter Hafenlohr volunteer fire brigade Windheim volunteer fire brigade Official website

The Better Half

The Better Half is an American comic strip created by Bob Barnes. It follows the lives of a married couple and Harriet Parker, the usual annoyances couples have with one another after years of marriage. In 1958, the strip won Barnes the National Cartoonist Society Newspaper Panel Cartoon Award. James Coco and Lily Tomlin made a sitcom pilot based on the strip for ABC in the early 1970s, but no series was made; the Better Half was distributed by the Register and Tribune Syndicate in 1956–1986 and King Features Syndicate from 1986 to 2014. Creator Bob Barnes produced the panel from its debut on June 25, 1956 until his death in 1970, his wife Ruth Barnes and illustrator Dick Rogers continued the strip until September 30, 1979. It passed to Vinnie Vinson and Randy Glasbergen. Between 1982 and 1992, Glasbergen did the strip under the pseudonym "Jay Harris," so as not to confuse publishers who were familiar with his different style of humor and character design; as he was able to transform the characters to his own style, he began using his own name.

In the process, Stanley lost his scruffy mustache. At the end of syndication, The Better Half was appearing seven days a week in 150 print and online newspapers around the world; the strip ended on November 2014, after a 58-year run. Stanley Parker is a stocky, middle-aged office manager who tends to be lazy at home. Harriet Parker is Stanley's thin wife, her cooking does not always agree with Stanley. Bert is the head cook of Bert's Beanery, a greasy spoon which Stanley frequents. Strickler, Dave. Syndicated Comic Strips and Artists, 1924-1995: The Complete Index. Cambria, California: Comics Access, 1995. ISBN 0-9700077-0-1 "NCS Awards: Newspaper Panel". Retrieved 6 December 2008. Andy Capp

Poland and the euro

Poland does not use the euro as its currency. However, under the terms of their Treaty of Accession with the European Union, all new Member States "shall participate in the Economic and Monetary Union from the date of accession as a Member State with a derogation", which means that Poland is obliged to replace its currency, the złoty, with the euro. There is no target date for Polish euro adoption, no fixed date for when the country will join ERM-II; the country's former Deputy Prime Minister Janusz Piechociński has stated that Poland will not join the Euro until at least 2020. Euro adoption will require the approval of at least two thirds of the Sejm to make a constitutional amendment changing the official currency from the złoty to the euro; the ruling Law and Justice Party opposes euro adoption. Former PM Donald Tusk has said that he may agree to a referendum on euro participation in order to gain their support for a constitutional amendment. Public opinion is against participation according to polls, with more than 70 percent believing that adoption of the euro would be bad for the Polish economy according to one poll from September 2012.

There is not yet any official information on the design process for the Polish national sides of the euro coins. The euro adoption process in Poland is regulated by the Strategic Framework for National Euro Changeover Plan and the National Euro Changeover Plan; the plan comprises an economic impact assessment of the euro adoption, followed by a chapter on the measures needed to ensure Polish compliance with the "Maastricht convergence criteria", a roadmap for the euro changeover process. On 10 September 2008, speaking at the launch of an economic forum in a Polish resort of Krynica-Zdrój, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk announced the ruling government's objective to join the Eurozone in 2012, confirmed by the government on 28 October 2008. However, Poland's President Lech Kaczynski wanted euro adoption put to a referendum. Finance Minister Dominik Radziwill said on 10 July 2009 that Poland could meet the fiscal criteria by 2012 and enter the Eurozone in 2014. On 5 November 2009, speaking at the news conference, Polish Deputy Finance Minister Ludwik Kotecki said the government may announce a national strategy for euro adoption in mid-2010.

In an interview for Rzeczpospolita daily 22 October 2009 he said Poland could adopt the euro in 2014 if the general government deficit is reduced in 2012. Former President Lech Kaczyński said at a news conference that Poland was unable to join Eurozone before 2015, that date was still optimistic. Polish government officials had confirmed that Poland wouldn't join Eurozone in 2012. On Friday, 11 December 2009, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk said Poland could join the eurozone in 2015. Speaking during Finance Ministry-organized seminar on the euro-adoption process on 15 December 2009, Deputy Minister of Finance Ludwik Kotecki said the year 2015 is more than 2014, however he declined to specify the official target date. In the years following the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, economic statistics showed that the devaluation of its floating currency the złoty led Polish products to become more competitively priced to foreign buyers, because of that Poland had a higher economic GDP growth in subsequent years than if the country had been a part of the eurozone.

The Polish government advocated in 2012 that it would only be wise for Poland to join the eurozone once the euro crisis had ended, based on the argument that delaying their accession would minimise the risk for Poland to become one of the net financial creditors to other eurozone countries in financial difficulties. In December 2011, Polish foreign minister Radosław Sikorski said that Poland aimed to adopt the euro on 1 January 2016, but only if "the eurozone is reformed by and the entrance is beneficial to us." The current Polish government plans to comply with all the Euro convergence criteria by 2015. In autumn 2012 the Monetary Policy Council of the Polish National Bank published its official monetary guidelines for 2013, confirming earlier political statements that Poland should only join the ERM-II once the existing eurozone countries have overcome the current sovereign-debt crisis, to maximise the benefits of monetary integration and minimise associated costs; the governor of the National Bank, Marek Belka, has stated that the euro won't be adopted before the end of his term in 2016.

In late 2012, Tusk announced that he planned to launch a "national debate" on euro adoption the following spring, in December 2012 Polish Finance Minister Jacek Rostowski said that his country should strive to adopt the euro as soon as possible. On 21 December 2012 it was announced by the Ministry of Finance that they planned to update the country's National Euro Changeover Plan in 2013 due to the recent institutional changes in the eurozone which require additional considerations. One of the key details investigated as part of the work to update the plan is whether or not an amendment to Article 227 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland will need to be passed to change the currency from the Złoty to the euro and to enact changes to the central bank; the opposition Law and Justice Party opposes euro adoption and the governing parties do not have enough seats in the Sejm to make the required constitutional amendment. The Polish Finance Minister emphasised that the government's support for euro adoption remained unchanged as a strategic goal, would not be changed in the updated plan.

At the same time, recent turbulences in the EU and in the world have caused the government to adopt a kind of additional criterion for

Anne Igartiburu

Anne Igartiburu Verdes is a Spanish Basque television presenter and actress. She studied Industrial Marketing, she started working in the local television of Mondragón in 1993. She worked in Euskal Telebista, in Telecinco, hosting Una pareja feliz alongside Antonio Hidalgo in the 1994-1995 season. Since 1997, Igartiburu has presented daily celebrity news programme Corazón on Televisión Española, except for a period in 2012-2013 when she presented daily infotainment show +Gente. From 2005 to 2009 she hosted the Spanish adaptation of Dancing with the Stars. In 2006 she hosted the special show Gala 50 años de TVE, which celebrated the 50th anniversary of TVE, alongside Laura Valenzuela and Paula Vázquez. Since 2005, Igartiburu has presented the annual New Year's Eve celebration broadcast for TVE live from Madrid's Puerta del Sol. Igartiburu has been associated with the Eurovision Song Contest: she was the Spanish spokesperson in the 2002, 2003 and 2004 contests, she hosted the Spanish national final in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2016.

She was married to ballet dancer Igor Yebra from 2004 to 2006. Igartiburu has two adopted daughters and Carmen. In 2015, she married conductor Pablo Heras-Casado. On 13 June 2016 she gave birth to their first baby son, Nicolás. Antena de Oro 2005 Anne Igartiburu on IMDb