Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn
The Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1281 to 1802. The Diocese of Paderborn was founded in 799 by Pope Leo III. In the early years it was subordinated to the bishop of Würzburg. Since 855 the clergy had the right to elect the bishop; the diocese included the larger part of Lippe and nearly half of the County of Ravensberg. In 1180 when the Duchy of Saxony ceased to exist, the rights which the old dukedom had exercised over Paderborn were transferred to the Archbishopric-Electorate of Cologne; the claims of the archbishops of Cologne were settled in the 13th century wholly in favor of Paderborn. Under Bernhard II of Ibbenbüren the bailiwick over the diocese, which since the middle of the 11th century had been held as a fief by the Counts of Arnsberg, returned to the bishops; this was an important advance in the development of the bishops' position as a secular ruler in his temporalities, forming a Hochstift of imperial immediacy since.
From this time on the bishops did not grant the bailiwick as a fief, but managed it themselves, had themselves represented in the government by one of their clergy. They strove to obtain the bailiwicks over the abbeys and monasteries situated in their diocese. Bishop Otto von Rietberg had to contend with Cologne. After the defeat of the Cologne arch bishop at the Battle of Worringen 1288 the bishops of Paderborn became sovereigns, though not over the whole of their diocese. Bernhard V of Lippe established a first territorial constitution; however he had to acknowledge the city of Paderborn as free from his judicial supremacy. Heinrich III Spiegel zum Desenberg Abbot of Corvey, left his spiritual functions to a suffragan. Simon II, Count of Sternberg, involved the bishopric in feuds with the nobility, who after his death devastated the country. Wilhelm Heinrich van Berg, elected 1399, sought to remedy the evils which had crept in during the foregoing feuds, but when in 1414 he interested himself in the vacancy in the Archbishopric of Cologne, the cathedral chapter in his absence chose Dietrich III of Moers.
The wars of Dietrich Archbishop of Cologne, brought heavy debts upon the bishopric. Under Eric, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, the Protestant Reformation obtained a foothold in the diocese, although the bishop remained loyal to the Church. Hermann von Wied Archbishop of Cologne, sought to introduce the new teaching at Paderborn as well as Cologne, but he was opposed by all classes; the countships of Lippe and Pyrmont, the part of the diocese in the County of Ravensberg, most of the parishes on the right bank of the Weser became Protestant. Heinrich IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg was a Lutheran. In the city of Paderborn only the cathedral and the Monastery of Abdinghof remained faithful. To save the Catholic cause, the cathedral chapter summoned the Jesuits to Paderborn in 1580. Dietrich IV of Fürstenberg restored the practice of the Catholic religion, built a gymnasium for the Jesuits, founded the University of Paderborn in 1614. During the German Mediatisation in 1802, the bishopric became Prussian, from 1807 until 1813 it was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia, part of the Prussian province of Westphalia.
While the bishopric as a state had been permanently dissolved, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paderborn was recreated by Pope Pius VII in 1821. Through the Prussian Concordate, it was promoted to an archdiocese in 1930; the dioceses of Fulda and Hildesheim were made subordinate to it. When the Diocese of Essen was created in 1958, Paderborn lost a significant portion of its district to it. In 1994 Paderborn lost the part of its district located in the former East Germany to the newly created Diocese of Magdeburg. Both Magdeburg and the Diocese of Erfurt were made subordinate to Paderborn. At the same time, Hildesheim was made subordinate to the Archdiocese of Hamburg. In the 1990s, the conflict between the Archdiocese and renegade priest Eugen Drewermann made headlines; the current archbishop is Hans-Josef Becker. Bernhard V, Lord of Lippe Baldwin of Steinfurt Henry III of Spiegel zum Desenberg OSB Simon II of Sternberg Rupert of Berg John I of Hoya Bertrando d'Arvazzano William I of Berg Dietrich III of Moers Simon III of Lippe Herman I of Hesse Eric of Brunswick-Grubenhagen Hermann of Wied Rembert of Kerssenbrock John II of Hoya Salentin of Isenburg Henry IV of Saxe-Lauenburg Dietrich IV of Fürstenberg Ferdinand I of Bavaria Dietrich Adolf
Wilhelm Carl Grimm was a German author and anthropologist, the younger brother of Jacob Grimm, of the library duo the Brothers Grimm. Wilhelm was born in Hesse-Kassel. In 1803, he started studying law at the University of Marburg, one year after his brother Jacob started there; the two brothers spent their entire lives close together. In their school days, they had one table in common, they always had their books and property in common. In 1825, 39-year-old Wilhelm married pharmacist's daughter Henriette Dorothea Wild known as Dortchen. Wilhelm's marriage did not change the harmony of the brothers. Richard Cleasby visited the brothers and observed, “they both live in the same house, in such harmony and community that one might imagine the children were common property.” Wilhelm and Henriette had four children together: Jacob, Herman Friedrich, Rudolf Georg, Barbara Auguste Luise Pauline Marie. Wilhelm's character was a complete contrast to that of his brother; as a boy, he was strong and healthy, but while growing up he suffered a long and severe illness which left him weak the rest of his life.
He had a less comprehensive and energetic mind than his brother, he had less of the spirit of investigation, preferring to confine himself to some limited and bounded field of work. He utilized everything that ignored the rest; these studies were always of a literary nature. Wilhelm took great delight in music, for which his brother had but a moderate liking, he had a remarkable gift of story-telling. Cleasby relates that “Wilhelm read a sort of farce written in the Frankfort dialect, depicting the ‘malheurs’ of a rich Frankfort tradesman on a holiday jaunt on Sunday, it was droll, he read it admirably.” Cleasby describes him as “an uncommonly animated, jovial fellow.” He was, much sought in society, which he frequented much more than his brother. A collection of fairy tales was first published in 1812 by the Grimm brothers, known in English as Grimms' Fairy Tales. From 1837-1841, the Grimm brothers joined five of their colleague professors at the University of Göttingen to form a group known as the Göttinger Sieben.
They protested against Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, whom they accused of violating the constitution. All seven were fired by the king. Wilhelm Grimm died in Berlin of an infection at the age of 73. Grimm Brothers' Home Page Works by Wilhelm Grimm at Project Gutenberg Works by Wilhelm Carl Grimm at Faded Page Works by or about Wilhelm Grimm at Internet Archive Works by Wilhelm Grimm at LibriVox Wilhelm Grimm on IMDb Household Tales by the Brothers Grimm, translated by Margaret Hunt Literature by and about Wilhelm Grimm in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Wilhelm Grimm in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek There is literature about Wilhelm Grimm in the Hessian Bibliography
The Brothers Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Karl and Wilhelm Carl, were German academics, cultural researchers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the first and best-known collectors of folk tales, popularized traditional oral tale types such as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince", "The Goose-Girl", "Hansel and Gretel", "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Sleeping Beauty", "Snow White", their classic collection Children's and Household Tales, was published in two volumes, in 1812 and in 1815. The brothers were born in the town of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel and spent most of their childhood in the nearby town of Steinau, their father's death in 1796 affected the brothers for many years after. They attended the University of Marburg where they began a lifelong dedication to researching the early history of German language and literature, including German folktales; the rise of Romanticism during the 18th century had revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the Grimms and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture.
The Brothers Grimm established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between the first edition of 1812-15, the seventh and final edition of 1857, they revised their collection many times, so that it grew from 156 stories to more than 200. In addition to collecting and editing folk tales, the brothers compiled German legends. Individually, they published a large body of literary scholarship. Together, in 1838 they began work on a massive historical German dictionary, which, in their lifetimes, they completed only as far as the word Frucht,'fruit'. Many of Grimms' folk tales have enjoyed enduring popularity; the tales are available in more than 100 languages and have been adapted by filmmakers including Lotte Reiniger and Walt Disney, with films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Sleeping Beauty. During the 1930s and 40s, the tales were used as propaganda by the Third Reich. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on 4 January 1785, his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm was born on 24 February 1786.
Both were born in Hanau, in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel within the Holy Roman Empire, to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel city councilman. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate; the family became prominent members of the community. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of country life"; the children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. They attended local schools. In 1796, Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse.
Jacob was the eldest living son, he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities for the next two years. The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious; the brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kassel, arranged and paid for by their aunt. By they were without a male provider, forcing them to rely on each other, they became exceptionally close; the two brothers differed in temperament. Sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to "high-born" students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in 1803 and Wilhelm in 1804. After graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasium, the brothers attended the University of Marburg; the university was small with about 200 students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally.
They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded from tuition aid, their poverty kept them from university social life. The brothers were inspired by their law professor Friedrich von Savigny, who awakened in them an interest in history and philology, they turned to studying medieval German literature, they shared Savigny's desire to see unification of the 200 German principalities into a single state. Through Savigny and his circle of friends—German romantics such as Clemens Brentano and Ludwig Achim von Arnim—the Grimms were introduced to the ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder, who thought that German literature should revert to
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
County of Rietberg
The County of Rietberg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It was situated on the upper Ems in Westphalia between the Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn and the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, it existed as an independent territory from 1237 to 1807, when it was mediatised to the Kingdom of Westphalia. Rietberg was first mentioned as Rietbiche around the year 1100; this name is composed of German words ried, an old name for reed and bach. There was a castle. Since 1237 until 1807, Rietberg was an independent German territory, yet small; the county had its own militia, its own currency and its own laws. Until the 17th century, Rietberg coined its own money. In 1699 Rietberg came to the Moravian noble family Counts of Kaunitz through the marriage of Rietberg heiress Maria Ernestine Franziska with Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz – and that family subsequently renamed to Kaunitz-Rietberg. Under the rule of this count family, this territory remained until the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the year 1807, Rietberg became mediatised to the Kingdom of Westphalia. With dissoluting of that kingdom, the territory of the county became part of the Kingdom of Prussia, which integrated it into its Province of Westphalia; the title Count Rietberg remains extant in the House of Liechtenstein, who claimed it since 1848, when the last member of the Moravian branch of the Kaunitz family died. Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein and each born member of his dynasty and their dynastic wives bearing the title currently
According to both Anglican and Catholic canon law, a cathedral chapter is a college of clerics formed to advise a bishop and, in the case of a vacancy of the episcopal see in some countries, to govern the diocese during the vacancy. These chapters are made up of canons and other officers, while in the Church of England chapters now includes a number of lay appointees, they can be "numbered", in which case they are provided with a fixed "prebend", or "unnumbered", in which case the bishop indicates the number of canons according to the rents. In some Church of England cathedrals there are two such bodies, the lesser and greater chapters, which have different functions; the smaller body consists of the residentiary members and is included in the larger one. It referred to a section of a monastic rule, read out daily during the assembly of a group of canons or other clergy attached to a cathedral or collegiate church, it came to be applied to the group of clergy itself. Typical roles within England's cathedrals have included: Historically, there was no distinction between the monastic cathedral chapters and those of the secular canons, in their relation to the bishop or diocese.
In both cases the chapter was the bishop's consilium which he was bound to consult on all important matters and without doing so he could not act. Thus, a judicial decision of a bishop needed the confirmation of the chapter before it could be enforced, he could not change the service books, or "use" of the church or diocese, without capitular consent, there are episcopal acts, such as the appointment of a diocesan chancellor, or vicar general, which still need confirmation by the chapter. In its corporate capacity the chapter takes charge sede vacante of a diocese. In England, this custom has never obtained, the two archbishops having, from time immemorial, taken charge of the vacant dioceses in their respective provinces. When, either of the sees of Canterbury or York is vacant the chapters of those churches take charge, not only of the diocese, but of the province as well, incidentally, therefore, of any of the dioceses of the province which may be vacant at the same time; the normal constitution of the chapter of a secular cathedral church comprised four officers, in addition to the canons.
These are the precentor, the chancellor and the treasurer. These four officers, occupying the four corner stalls in the choir, are called in many of the statutes the quatuor majores personae of the church. A dean seems to have derived the designation from the Benedictine "deans" who had ten monks under their charge; the dean came into existence to supply the place of the provost in the internal management of the church and chapter. In England every secular cathedral church was headed by a dean, elected by the chapter and confirmed in office by the bishop; the dean is president of the chapter and within the cathedral has charge of the celebration of the services, taking specified portions of them by statute on the principal festivals. Deans sit in the principal stall in the choir, the first on the right hand on entering the choir at the west. Next to the dean is the precentor, whose special duty is that of regulating the musical portion of the services. Precentors preside in the dean's absence and occupy the corresponding stall on the left side, although there are exceptions to this rule, where, as at St Paul's Cathedral, the archdeacon of the cathedral city ranks second and occupies what is the precentor's stall.
The third officer is the chancellor. The chancellor of the cathedral church is charged with the oversight of its schools, ought to read theology lectures and superintend the lections in the choir and correct slovenly readers. Chancellors are the secretary and librarian of the chapter. In the absence of the dean and precentor the chancellor is president of the chapter; the easternmost stall, on the dean's side of the choir, is assigned to the chancellor. The fourth officer is the treasurer, they are ornaments of the church. It was their duty to provide candles and incense, they regulated such matters as the ringing of the bells. The treasurer's stall is opposite to that of the chancellor. In many cathedral churches there are additional officers, such as the praelector, vice-chancellor, succentor-canonicorum, whose roles came into existence to supply the places of the other absent officers, for non-residence was the fatal blot of the secular churches, in this they contrasted badly with the monastic churches, where all the members were in continuous residence.
There were ordinary canons, each of whom, as a rule, held a separate prebend or endowment, besides receiving their share of the common funds of the church. For the most part the canons speedily became non-resident, this led to the distinction of residentiary and non-residentiary canons, until in most churches the number of resident canons became limited in number and the non-residentiary canons, who no longer shared in the common funds, became known as prebendaries only, although by their non-residence they did not forfeit their position as canons and retained their votes in chapter like the others; this system of non-residence led to the institution of vicars choral, each canon having their own vicar, who sat in their stall in their absence and, when th
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the Holy Roman Emperor who would receive the Papal coronation after assuming the titles of King in Germany and King of Italy. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the Austrian House of Habsburg, the Electors ratified the Habsburg succession; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors had exclusive privileges that were not shared with the other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector; the heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose.
In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht; as Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and precedence over other subjects.
The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes. In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes.
Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors. The lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes; the assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted on religious lines, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers, thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant.
The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was granted a new electorate in 1648, there was a dispute between the two as to, vicar. In 1659, both purported to act as vicar; the two electors made a pact to act as joint vicars, but the Imperial Diet rejected the agreement. In 1711, while the Elector