Presidency of Ronald Reagan
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States, ended on January 20, 1989. Reagan, a Republican, took office following a landslide victory over Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. Reagan was succeeded by his Vice President, George H. W. Bush, who won the 1988 presidential election with Reagan's support. Reagan's 1980 election resulted from a dramatic conservative shift to the right in American politics, including a loss of confidence in liberal, New Deal, Great Society programs and priorities that had dominated the national agenda since the 1930s. Domestically, the Reagan administration enacted a major tax cut, sought to cut non-military spending, eliminated federal regulations; the administration's economic policies, known as "Reaganomics", were inspired by supply-side economics. The combination of tax cuts and an increase in defense spending led to budget deficits, the federal debt increased during Reagan's tenure.
Reagan signed the Tax Reform Act of 1986 and the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Reagan appointed more federal judges than any other president, including four Supreme Court Justices. Reagan's foreign policy stance was resolutely anti-communist. Under this doctrine, the Reagan administration initiated a massive buildup of the United States military. S. troops since the end of the Vietnam War. The administration created controversy by granting aid to paramilitary forces seeking to overthrow leftist governments in war-torn Central America and Afghanistan; the Reagan administration engaged in covert arms sales to Iran to fund Contra rebels in Nicaragua that were fighting to overthrow their nation's socialist government. During Reagan's second term, he sought closer relations with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, the two leaders signed a major arms control agreement known as the INF Treaty. Leaving office in 1989, Reagan held an approval rating of 68%; this rating matches the approval ratings of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Bill Clinton as the highest rating for a departing president in the modern era.
Historians and political scientists rank Reagan as an above-average president. Due to Reagan's impact on public discourse and advocacy of American conservatism, some historians have described the period during and after his presidency as the Reagan Era. Reagan was the leader of a dramatic conservative shift that undercut many of the domestic and foreign policies that had dominated the national agenda for decades. A major factor in the rise of conservatism was the growing distrust of government to do the right thing on behalf of the people. While distrust of high officials had been an American characteristic for two centuries, the Watergate scandal engendered heightened levels of suspicion of the government; the media was energized in its vigorous search for scandals, which impacted both major parties at the national state and local levels. At the same time there was a growing distrust of long-powerful institutions such as big business and labor unions; the postwar consensus regarding the value of technology in solving national problems came under attack.
An unexpected new factor was the emergence of the religious right as a cohesive political force that gave strong support to conservatism. Meanwhile, liberalism was facing divisive issues, as the New Left challenged established liberals on such issues as the Vietnam War, build a constituency on campuses and among younger voters. A "culture war" was emerging as a triangular battle among conservatives and the New Left, involving such issues as individual freedom, sexual freedom and homosexuality, topics such as hair length and musical taste; the triumphal issue for liberalism was the achievement of civil rights legislation in the 1960s, which won over the black population and created a new black electorate in the South. The argument that whites had to vote Democratic in order to protect segregation in the South was dead, it became acceptable for conservative whites to vote Republican at the presidential level in the South. This was true for well educated suburbanites. By the late 1980s they were voting Republican in state and local elections.
Reagan, who had served as Governor of California from 1967 to 1975, narrowly lost the 1976 Republican presidential primaries to incumbent President Gerald Ford. With the defeat of Ford by Democrat Jimmy Carter in the 1976 election, Reagan became the front-runner for the 1980 Republican presidential nomination. A darling of the conservative movement, Reagan faced more moderate Republicans such as George H. W. Bush, Howard Baker, Bob Dole in the 1980 Republican presidential primaries. After Bush won the Iowa caucuses, he became Reagan's primary challenger, but Reagan won the New Hampshire primary and most of the following primaries, gaining an insurmountable delegate lead by the end of March 1980. Ford was Reagan's first choice for his running mate, but Reagan backed away from the idea out of the fear of a "copresidency" in which Ford would exercise an unusual
Bienville National Forest
Bienville National Forest is a United States National Forest in central Mississippi. It is named for Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. In descending order of land area it lies in parts of Scott, Smith and Newton counties, it has an area of 178,541 acres. The forest is headquartered in Jackson, as are all six National Forests in Mississippi, but there are local ranger district offices located in Forest; the Forest lies within the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion and supports mixed forests of pine and oak. The upper courses of the Leaf and Strong Rivers flow through the forest. Visitors can enjoy boating and fishing for bass and crappie on Marathon Lake and Shongelo Lake, campgrounds and trails are open for hiking and camping. There are three Wildlife Management Areas within Beinville National Forest: Bienville WMA; each of these WMAs offer excellent hunting opportunities for white-tailed deer, wild turkey, various small game. Recent years have seen an influx of invasive wild pigs, which can be taken with legal weapons for any open season.
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
National Trails System
The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act, codified at 16 U. S. C. § 1241 et seq. The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." The Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles.
These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS; these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites and viewsheds. More than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System.
The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most on October 18, 2004. National Scenic Trails are established to provide access to spectacular natural beauty and to allow the pursuit of healthy outdoor recreation; the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail. These provide access to viewing the subtle beauties of the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, wandering the North Woods from New York to North Dakota on the North Country Trail, or experiencing the vast diversity of landscapes of the southwest on the Arizona National Scenic Trail. Of the eleven national scenic trails, Natchez Trace, Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation.
They represent the earliest travels across the continent on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. They commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. There are 19 Historic Trails. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails. National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, amending the National Trails System Act of 1968 The act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. To date, only two national side trails have been designated, both in 1990: The Timms Hill Trail, which connects the Ice Age Trail to Wisconsin's highest point, Timms Hill, the 86-mile Anvik Connector, which joins the Iditarod Trail to the village of Anvik, Alaska. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail National Historic Trails Interpretive Center Recreational Trail Program Protected areas of the United States List of long-distance footpaths Long-distance trails in the United States Karen Berger, Bill McKibben & Bart Smith: America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Natchez Trace, Pacific Northwest, New England.
Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413 About the Partnership for National Trails System PNTS Find a Trail Historic Trail Facts National Trails System Text of the National Trails System Act
Union County, Mississippi
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,134, its county seat is New Albany. According to most sources, the county received its name by being a union of pieces of several large counties, like other Union counties in other states. However, other sources say that the name was meant to mark the re-union of Mississippi and the other Confederate states after the Civil War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 417 square miles, of which 416 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Interstate 22 U. S. Route 78 Mississippi Highway 9 Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 30 Mississippi Highway 178 Mississippi Highway 348 Mississippi Highway 349 Mississippi Highway 355 Benton County Tippah County Prentiss County Lee County Pontotoc County Lafayette County Marshall County Holly Springs National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 25,362 people, 9,786 households, 7,241 families residing in the county.
The population density was 61 people per square mile. There were 10,693 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.42% White, 14.95% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. 1.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,786 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families. 23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,682, the median income for a family was $39,666. Males had a median income of $29,087 versus $21,418 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,700. About 9.60% of families and 12.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 20.80% of those age 65 or over. New Albany Myrtle Sherman Blue Springs Alpine Enterprise Etta Ingomar Jugfork Keownville New Harmony Wallerville National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Mississippi