click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Yalobusha County, Mississippi

Yalobusha County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,678, its county seats are Water Coffeeville. Yalobusha is a Native American word meaning "tadpole place," and before the county was formed, it was the home of both the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian tribes. In 1816, General Andrew Jackson ordered the surveying of the Choctaw-Chickasaw Line; the line as surveyed cut a perfect diagonal across the area of the present day Yalobusha County. In 1830, the Choctaws ceded their Mississippi lands to the United States in the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Two years the Chickasaw signed the Treaty of Pontotoc, ceding their lands to the United States. Both tribes moved west to new lands in present-day Oklahoma. In 1833, the Mississippi Legislature authorized the formation of 17 counties, including Yalobusha, on what until had been Indian land. Yalobusha County was organized and its first officials elected on February 21, 1834; the first Board of Police held its first meeting at Hendersonville the largest town in the county.

Hendersonville had been established in 1798 by John Henderson, a Presbyterian missionary, one of the first white men to settle in the area. Other early settlements included Elliot, Tuscohoma, Talahoma, Preston, Pharsalia and Washington. At its first meeting the Board of Police solicited donations of land for a county seat. At its second meeting, the Board selected the site, naming it Coffeeville in honor of General John Coffee, who had represented the United States in the treaties with the Choctaws and the Chickasaws; the next meeting was held in the new settlement, in 1837 the first courthouse was built. The same year, G. B. Ragsdale, one of the early settlers in the northeastern part of the county, established a stagecoach stand near what is now Water Valley. In 1848 the town of Oakland, was chartered on the site. Yalobusha County had a population of 12,248 when its first census was taken in 1840. In 1844, a post office was opened at Ragsdale's Stand. Three years the post office and stagecoach stand were moved to land owned by William Carr, the name was changed to Water Valley.

James K. Polk of Tennessee, president of the United States from 1845 to 1849, was prominent early Yalobusha County landowner, he purchased a plantation south of Coffeeville in 1835. After his death in 1849, Polk's wife managed the plantation for a number of years before selling it. In 1850, the county's population had grown to 17,258. In 1852, Calhoun County was formed, a tier of townships on the eastern border of Yalobusha County were taken to form part of the new county; the Illinois Central Railroad built a branch line from Jackson, Tennessee to Grenada, passing through Water Valley and Coffeeville, in the late 1850s. ICRR officials could not obtain the property they wanted. Residents of the fledgling town of Water Valley offered to donate the needed land to the railroad, it was chartered in 1858, at that time had a population of 300. In 1860, the county's population was 16,952. Water Valley had become a thriving community with several churches; the first church in Water Valley was the Presbyterian Church, built in 1843.

Two years the First Methodist Church was organized, followed in 1860 by the First Baptist Church of Water Valley. With the completion of the railroad from New Orleans to the Ohio River, Water Valley was an important railroad community on the Mississippi Central railroad at the outset of the Civil War. In 1862, during Union General Ulysses S. Grant's overland attempt to capture Vicksburg, the men in blue captured Water Valley, but were defeated in battle by the Confederates north of Coffeeville, Grant was forced to withdraw. Grant's men burned most of the town during their retreat. After the war, the ICRR railroad shops were built at Water Valley, bringing a large influx of new residents to the town. In 1867, Yalobusha County's first manufacturing industry, Yacona Mills, was the world's largest manufacturer of twine; the Reconstruction Legislature in Mississippi created a number of new counties. Grenada County was formed in 1870 and included nearly two tiers of townships, the southern part of Yalobusha County.

In March, 1873, Yalobusha County was divided into two judicial districts, Water Valley was named the county seat of the second judicial district. Because the town overlapped the Yalobusha-Lafayette County line, the legislature gave Yalobusha a two-mile strip of land from the southern portion of Lafayette County; the town of Tillatoba was chartered in 1873. In 1880, Yalobusha County's population was 15,649. In 1889, Coffeeville's second courthouse, built in 1840 at a cost of $25,000, burned down. A new courthouse costing $25,000, was built in 1890; that year, the county population was 16,629. Famed railroad engineer J. L. "Casey" Jones moved from Jackson, Tennessee to Water Valley in 1893. In 1896, four years before his death in a train wreck which brought him fame, Jones moved back to Jackson. A new courthouse was built in Water Valley in 1896, but 16 years it was destroyed by an accidental fire The second judicial district offices were moved to the Water Valley City Hall, but within a month, it too burned.

The courthouse was restored after the fire, a third floor was added but never completed. Yalobusha County's population peaked in 1910, with the census showing a population of 21,519. By 1920, the population had fallen to 18,738, it continued to decline for the next 50 years. Between 1926–1928, Ya

Gustav Sobottka

Gustav Sobottka was a German politician in East Germany. He was in exile during the Nazi era, he returned to Germany in 1945 as head of the Sobottka Group and worked in the East German government. Gustav Sobottka was born in the administrative district of Johannisburg in East Prussia, his father, Adam Sobottka, was a roofer and day laborer, his mother was Auguste Sobottka. In 1895, the family moved to Röhlinghausen, today the southwestern part of Herne, in the Ruhr region; the family were a pious movement within the Lutheran church. Sobottka began working in the coal mines that same year. In 1909, he married Henriette, née Schantowski, called "Jettchen", he and his wife had two sons. In World War I Sobottka served in the German Army from August 1914 to November 1918. Sobottka joined the Social Democrats in 1910 and his wife joined in 1912, he was one of the founders of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany and became the leader in the Bochum-Gelsenkirchen district. At the end of 1920, he joined the Communist Party.

He was one of the founding members and head of the "Miners' Group" in the communist-leaning Union of Manual and Intellectual Workers, whose 1925 merger into the confederation of unions, the Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, he opposed, but worked to accomplish. Sobottka served in the Prussian Landtag as a representative of the KPD and he was the leader of the mining industry group of the KPD Central Committee. After he was expelled in 1928 from the Free Trade Unions' Miners' Association, in 1929, he became one of the founders and leading members of the Revolutionary Trade Union Opposition. In 1930, he became general secretary of the International Committee of Miners. In 1932, he was not nominated to be a candidate for the Prussian Landtag and so began working with the Rote Hilfe. After the Nazi Party seized power, as communists were threatened by arrest and attack, he worked underground went to the Saarland still under foreign occupation, he went to Paris and continued his work. In spring 1935, the International Red Aid summoned him to Moscow.

Toward the end of 1935, his wife and son, Gustav, Jr. were able to travel to the Soviet Union via Paris. His other son, remained in Germany, he was imprisoned in Nazi concentration camp. He died in the infirmary, shortly afterward. Before fleeing to the Soviet Union, Gustav Sobottka, Jr. had been in two Nazi concentration camps. He was arrested by the NKVD on February 5, 1938, as part of the so-called Hitler Youth Conspiracy, after which his mother had a nervous breakdown. Sobottka, Jr. was tried to commit suicide. In a letter he wrote after more than two years in custody, he said, he died in Moscow's Butyrka prison in September 1940. Because of his son's arrest, Sobottka, Sr. was fired from his job on the unions' central council of in March 1938 and was himself investigated. In 1943, Sobottka was condemned to death in absentia for high treason by the Reich Military Court. In 1945, Sobottka returned to Germany from the Soviet Union as leader of the Sobottka Group, which along with the Ulbricht Group and the Ackermann Group, were sent to lay the groundwork for the Soviet Military Administration in Germany.

Sobottka reported on the chaos in Germany as forced labour from Poland and Russia turned on their former masters. Those who left would take animals and farm machinery with them leaving whole villages without either a cow or a farm worker. Sobottka's group was sent to Mecklenburg, where he prepared reports on the state of the agriculture for the Soviet Central Committee. From 1947 to 1948, he was president of the Central Administration for the Combustible Fuel Industry. From 1949 to 1951, he worked for the East German Ministry for Heavy Industry. Sobottka retired with an honorary pension as an "Honored Miner of the German Democratic Republic", but was depressed about his son's death in Moscow and his wife's ill health. On 5 March 1953 he learned about the death of Joseph Stalin and was so overcome he died the following day in Berlin, his wife was away at a health resort at the time. Gustav Sobottka, Jr. was rehabilitated in 1956. Sobottka received an "Honorary pension, Fighter against Fascism" and was awarded "Honored Miner of the German Democratic Republic".

The VEB Braunkohlenwerk in Röblingen was named for Gustav Sobottka, as were many streets and schools. Some have since been renamed, but in Zeitz, there is still a Gustav-Sobottka-Straße A number of units in the National People's Army were named after Gustav Sobottka, as well. In 1996, there was a documentary film made about Sobottka, it was made by Hans-Dieter Rusch and was called Vom Geheimnis eines Revolutionärs — Nachdenken über Gustav Sobottka. It was released by the film company Havel-Barbelsberg on 12 March 1996. Hermann Weber, Die Wandlung des deutschen Kommunismus. Die Stalinisierung der KPD in der Weimarer Republik. Band 2. Frankfurt am Main, p. 308 Peter Erler, Helmut Müller-Enbergs, Wer war wer in der DDR?, 5th edition. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin ISBN 978-3-86153-561-4, Band 2 Gustav Sobottka in the German National Library catalogue Catherine Epstein, The Last Revolutionaries: German Communists and Their Century President and Fellows of Harvard College, p. 57. ISBN 0-674-01045-0. Retrieved November 30, 2011

Mike Hunt (American football)

Michael Anthony Hunt is a former professional American football player who played linebacker for three seasons for the Green Bay Packers, appearing in a total of 22 games. The Packers selected Hunt from the University of Minnesota in the second round of the 1978 NFL Draft. Hunt played all 16 games in his rookie season, but began to suffer from the effects of head and neck injuries, he appeared in only three games in 1979, when he was forced to the injured reserve list because of knee surgery, three more in 1980. On September 21, 1980, Hunt was kneed in the head during a game against the Los Angeles Rams and suffered a concussion; as a result of these injuries, this was to be his final NFL game. After spending 1981 on the reserve-retired list, Hunt attempted a comeback in the 1982 preseason, but was forced to retire on August 3, 1982 because of recurring concussions

Railway speed record

The world record for a conventional wheeled passenger train is held by France's TGV, set in 2007 when it reached 574.8 km/h on a 140 km section of track. Japan's experimental maglev train L0 Series achieved 603 km/h on a 42.8 km magnetic levitation track in 2015. Legend: Arr: Disposition and number of elements forming the train. Loc Multi Single. Power: DC, DC 3rd rail, AC, Single phase, Diesel-elec. Gas, Diesel-hydraulic, Rocket, Jet. State: "Proto.", "Unmod.", "unknown", "Tuned" The following is a complete list of absolute world speed records for all trains designed to carry passengers, regardless of gauge, propulsion or type of rail, The following is a list of verified absolute world speed records for conventional wheeled rail vehicles. The following is a list of speed records for rail vehicles with electric traction motors and powered by electricity transferred to the train; the following is a list of speed records for rail vehicles with on-board fuel to generate electricity for traction motors such as diesel-electric locomotive, diesel electric multiple unit and gas turbine-electric locomotive trains.

The following is a list of speed records for rail vehicles with on-board fuel to mechanical energy to drive vehicle's wheels such as diesel-hydraulic trains and gas turbine locomotive trains that use mechanical transmission to power the drive wheels. The following is a list of speed records for steam locomotives. Note: All records with a faster speed than 202.6 km/h are claimed and have not been verified. The following is a list of speed records for rail vehicles that use air propulsion to move rail vehicles while the wheels are rolling along the track. Using an air cushion and a Monorail, the Aérotrain set on 5 March 1974 a mean speed of 417.6 km/h and a peak speed of 430.4 km/h. The following are the lists of world record average operating speeds between two stations; the average speeds are measured by the distance between the two stations. Styles: - Land speed record List of vehicle speed records List of high-speed trains High-speed rail Schienenzeppelin, experimental car, driven by Propeller, speed record for rail vehicles on 21 June 1931, 230.2 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg Railway TGV 2007 record TGV 2007 record - SNCF Press release, SNCF Press release 2 Alstom V 150, Alstom Press release Reuters TGV record, Reuters TGV record video Fastest steam locomotive RDECOM magazine'Super Roadrunner' breaks land speed record 846 TS HYPERSONIC UPGRADE PROGRAM World Speed Survey 1997 Retrouvez sur cette page les chiffres clés des records sur rail dans le monde Railway developments worldwide World Speed Survey 2007 Railway Gazette International September 2007 Photos of the fastest trains

Happy Xmas (album)

Happy Xmas is the first Christmas album by Eric Clapton, his twenty-first solo studio album, released on 12 October 2018. It includes 13 covers of Christmas-themed songs, both well-known and obscure ones, arranged in a predominantly blues style, one new composition by Clapton and producer Simon Climie. Tracks 15 and 16 were released, for Record Store Day 2018, on a 12" shaped picture disc, included on the European December 2018 re-release of the album. During the 23-minute television special A Clapton Christmas, which includes excerpts from a longer interview with producer/musician Simon Climie, Clapton says that the original inspiration for the album came from his wife Melia about three years before the album was produced, she had been listening to the Christmas-themed playlists which her husband created every year on his mobile phone for the end-of-year holiday season. Clapton was reluctant, as many of his favourite artists had done before him, but he was convinced after he started working with pianist and keyboard player Walt Richmond, who came up with unconventional harmonizations and arrangements for most of the tracks."For Love on Christmas Day" was written in early 2018 as "Living in a Dream World", when Clapton completed a fragmentary tune by Simon Climie and wrote lyrics to it.

At the time, the album was supposed to be a regular studio album rather than a Christmas one. Upon deciding to make it such, Clapton changed two lines of lyrics in the last verse - the only ones which include the word "Christmas". "Home for the Holidays" and "It's Christmas" are taken from American soul singer Anthony Hamilton's 2014 holiday-themed album called Home for the Holidays. Clapton discovered his music on Spotify and called him "the best soul singer on the planet"; the song "Christmas in My Hometown", according to Clapton's comments on a flexi disc included with the deluxe edition of the album, was discovered by him on a Christmas compilation album, which he found by scouring the Internet while looking for unusual Christmas songs to cover. The original version of this song, recorded by its writer Sonny James in 1954, sounded to Clapton like a pub song and reminded him of a scene he saw on a TV documentary, depicting a group of Romani people singing and having fun in a pub, so he arranged it in that style.

The artwork for the album, consisting of cartoonish, childlike drawings, was created by Clapton himself, who drafted all of it quickly on some sheets of paper he found in his hotel. The front cover features a Santa character who looks vaguely like Clapton, while the inner spread includes a Santa sleigh pulled by reindeer under a four-pointed Christmas star, as well as a Christmas tree. In his interview with Climie, Clapton jokes that the artwork took him "months and months" of failed attempts, before revealing the truth, he states that he was inspired by Bob Dylan, who, as an accomplished painter, came up with his own artwork for several of his albums. The "Happy Xmas"/"E. C." lettering on the front cover, as well as the whole of the tracklist on the back, are in Clapton’s own handwriting. Producers – Eric Clapton and Simon Climie Engineer – Alan Douglas Mixing – Simon Climie MasteringBob Ludwig at Gateway Mastering. Layout – Jessie Kohn and John Logsdon Artwork – Eric Clapton

Felipe Massa

Felipe Massa is a Brazilian Formula E and former Formula One racing driver. He competed in 15 seasons of Formula One between 2002 and 2017, where he scored 11 Grand Prix victories, 41 podiums and finished as championship runner-up in 2008. Massa started his career in go-karting from the age of eight continuing in national and regional championships for seven years, he claimed the championship. He won the title along with the European championship. Massa went into Euro Formula 3000 taking the championship in 2001. Massa started his Formula One career with Sauber before joining Scuderia Ferrari as a test driver for 2003, he returned to Sauber for 2004 and 2005 before rejoining Ferrari where he won two races in 2006 including his home Grand Prix becoming the first Brazilian since Ayrton Senna to win the Brazilian Grand Prix. Massa won three races in 2007, he finished second in the 2008 Drivers' World Championship after a long title battle with Lewis Hamilton, winning six races to Hamilton's five. At the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Massa was injured by a suspension spring off the Brawn GP car of Rubens Barrichello.

Massa was forced to miss the rest of the season but returned in 2010. Massa suffered a dip in form in 2011 scoring no podiums but scoring points. Massa contributed to Ferrari's Constructors' Championships in 2007 and 2008 and was under contract to race for the team until the end of the 2013 season. On 10 September 2013, he confirmed. Massa replaced Pastor Maldonado alongside Valtteri Bottas at Williams from 2014. Massa announced. However, the abrupt retirement of 2016 Formula One Champion Nico Rosberg from Mercedes precipitated the late move of Valtteri Bottas from Williams to Mercedes, leaving a late vacancy at Williams. Massa subsequently postponed his retirement, returning to Williams to partner rookie Lance Stroll for the 2017 season. On 4 November 2017, Massa confirmed that he would be retiring from Formula One at the end of the 2017 season. Since retirement from Formula One, Massa has pursued a career in the FIA's all electric series Formula E. Massa was born in São Paulo and grew up in Botucatu, in the interior of the state of São Paulo.

He is of Italian descent. His grandparents come in the province of Foggia, Italy, he began karting. He continued in national and international championships for 7 years, in 1998 moved into Formula Chevrolet, finishing the Brazilian championship in fifth place. During the following season, he claimed the championship. In 2000, Massa moved to Europe to compete in the Italian Formula Renault series, winning both the Italian and the European Formula Renault championships that year, he could have moved to Formula Three, but instead chose the Euro Formula 3000, where he won 6 of the 8 races and the 2001 championship. He was offered a Formula 1 test with the Sauber team, who signed him for 2002, he drove for Alfa Romeo in the European Touring Car Championship as a guest driver. In his rookie year in Formula 1, Massa was paired with 1999 International Formula 3000 champion Nick Heidfeld, he proved he was a competitive driver, but made several mistakes, including spinning off the track several times. Massa scored 4 championship points in his first season, his best result a 5th place at the Spanish Grand Prix at the Circuit de Catalunya.

He suffered a one race suspension late in the season, forcing him to miss the United States Grand Prix. Heinz-Harald Frentzen, Sauber's former driver, drove for Massa in his place. Massa returned to the driver's seat for the Japanese Grand Prix, but Sauber confirmed that Frentzen would partner Heidfeld in 2003, leaving Massa without a race seat. Instead, he spent a year with Sauber's engine suppliers, gaining experience by testing for the championship-winning team. Sauber re-signed Massa for the 2004 season. In 2004, he scored 12 of Sauber's 34 points, his best result being a fourth place at the Belgian Grand Prix. Giancarlo Fisichella scored the team's other 22 points. Massa remained at Sauber in 2005. Though he scored only 11 points, he outpaced his teammate Jacques Villeneuve through most of the season, beat him in the Drivers' Championship. After Sauber was taken over by BMW, Massa was replaced by his former teammate Heidfeld. In 2006, Massa re-joined Ferrari, paired with Michael Schumacher.

Massa started well at Ferrari, qualifying second at the opening race in Bahrain, coming from 21st position to 5th in Malaysia, beating teammate Michael Schumacher, who had started from 14th. In Bahrain, however, in both Saturday practice and the race, Massa resumed his tendency to spin, narrowly missing Fernando Alonso, the eventual winner of the race. At the Australian GP he crashed his Ferrari in qualifying collided with Christian Klien and Nico Rosberg at the first corner of the race. Massa scored his first career podium at the Nürburgring, finishing third behind Michael Schumacher and Fernando Alonso, he set the fastest lap at Barcelona in 2006. Massa had four more podium finishes in 2006, took his first F1 pole position and his first F1 win at the Turkish Grand Prix at the Istanbul Park circuit, his future position at Ferrari was secured when Michael Schumacher announced on 10 September 2006, he would retire from F1 at the end of the 2006 season. On 22 October, Massa won his home race at the Brazilian Grand Prix, making it the first time a Brazilian driver had won at Interlagos since Ayrton Senna in