American Film Institute
The American Film Institute is an American film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership fees; the institute is composed of leaders from the film, entertainment and academic communities. A board of trustees chaired by Sir Howard Stringer and a board of directors chaired by Robert A. Daly guide the organization, led by President and CEO, film historian Bob Gazzale. Prior leaders were Jr. and Jean Picker Firstenberg. The American Film Institute was founded by a 1965 presidential mandate announced in the Rose Garden of the White House by Lyndon B. Johnson—to establish a national arts organization to preserve the legacy of American film heritage, educate the next generation of filmmakers, honor the artists and their work. Two years in 1967, AFI was established, supported by the National Endowment for the Arts, the Motion Picture Association of America and the Ford Foundation.
The original 22-member Board of Trustees included actor Gregory Peck as chairman and actor Sidney Poitier as vice-chairman as well as director Francis Ford Coppola, film historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. lobbyist Jack Valenti, other representatives from the arts and academia. The institute established a training program for filmmakers known as the Center for Advanced Film Studies. Created in the early years were a repertory film exhibition program at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the AFI Catalog of Feature Films — a scholarly source for American film history; the institute moved to its current eight-acre Hollywood campus in 1981. The film training program grew into an accredited graduate school. AFI moved its presentation of first-run and auteur films from the Kennedy Center to the historic AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center, which hosts the AFI DOCS film festival, making AFI the largest nonprofit film exhibitor in the world. AFI educates audiences and recognizes artistic excellence through its awards programs and 10 Top 10 Lists.
On November 3, 2017, Ilana Bar-Din Giannini claimed that the AFI expelled her after she accused Dezso Magyar of sexual harassing her in the early 1980s. AFI educational and cultural programs include: AFI Awards – an honor celebrating the creative ensembles of the most outstanding motion picture and television programs of the year. AFI Catalog of Feature Films and AFI Archive – the written history of all feature films during the first 100 years of the art form – accessible free online. AFI Conservatory – a film school led by master filmmakers in a graduate level program. AFI Directing Workshop for Women – a production-based training program committed to increasing the number of women working professionally in screen directing. AFI Life Achievement Award – a tradition since 1973, a high honor for a career in film. AFI 100 Years... series – television events and movie reference lists. AFI's two film festivals – in Los Angeles, AFI Fest presented by Audi and AFI Docs, which takes place in Washington, D.
C. and Silver Spring, Maryland. AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center – an historic theater with year-round art house, first-run and classic film programming in Silver Spring, Maryland. American Film – magazine that explores the art of new and historic film classics, now a blog on AFI.com. In 1969, the institute established the AFI Conservatory for Advanced Film Studies at Greystone, the Doheny Mansion in Beverly Hills, California; the first class included filmmakers Terrence Malick, Caleb Deschanel, Paul Schrader. That program grew into the AFI Conservatory, an accredited graduate film school located in the hills above Hollywood, providing training in six filmmaking disciplines: cinematography, editing, production design, screenwriting. Mirroring a professional production environment, Fellows collaborate to make more films than any other graduate level program. Admission to AFI Conservatory is selective, with a maximum of 140 graduates per year. In 2013, Emmy and Oscar-winning director and screenwriter James L. Brooks joined AFI as Artistic Director of the AFI Conservatory where he provides leadership for the film program.
Brooks' artistic role at the AFI Conservatory has a rich legacy that includes Daniel Petrie, Jr. Robert Wise, Frank Pierson. Award-winning director Bob Mandel served as Dean of the AFI Conservatory for nine years. Jan Schuette took over as Dean in 2014 and served until 2017. Film Producer Richard Gladstein became Dean on July 1, 2017. AFI Conservatory's alumni have careers on the web, they have been recognized with all of the major industry awards—Academy Award, Emmy Award, guild awards, the Tony Award. Among the alumni of AFI are Andrea Arnold, Darren Aronofsky, Carl Colpaert, Doug Ellin, Todd Field, Jack Fisk, Carl Franklin, Patty Jenkins, Janusz Kamiński, Matthew Libatique, David Lynch, Terrence Malick, Victor Nuñez, Wally Pfister, Robert Richardson, many others; the AFI Catalog, started in 1968, is a web-based filmographic database. A research tool for film historian
Central Los Angeles
Central Los Angeles is a 57.87-square-mile region of Los Angeles County, comprising twenty-three neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles, as well as Griffith Park, the city's largest public park. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the Central Los Angeles region consists of: In the 2000 United States Census, Central Los Angeles had 836,638 residents in its 57.87 square miles, including the uninhabited Griffith and Elysian parks, which amounted to 14,458 people per square mile. The densest neighborhood was Koreatown, the least dense was Elysian Park; the four densest regions by population were in Central Los Angeles: Koreatown with 42,611 residents per square mile, followed by Westlake, 38,214. About 81 % of the area's population lived in rental units. Westlake was the neighborhood with the highest rental occupancy, Hollywood Hills West had the lowest; the latter district had the oldest population, Pico-Union had the youngest. Hollywood Hills West was the wealthiest neighborhood, Downtown was the poorest.
Hollywood Hills West was the neighborhood with the largest percentage of residents holding a four-year academic degree, Pico-Union had the lowest percentage. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was Latino, 46.1%. Mid-Wilshire was Pico-Union the least. Other regions of Los Angeles County
Universal City, California
Universal City is an unincorporated area within the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. 415 acres within and around the surrounding area is the property of Universal Pictures, one of the six major film studios in the United States: about 70 percent of the studio's property is inside this unincorporated area, while the remaining 30 percent is within the Los Angeles city limits. Located within the area of Universal City is the Universal Studios Hollywood film studio and theme park, as well as the Universal CityWalk shopping and entertainment center. Within the Los Angeles city limits lies 10 Universal City Plaza, a 36-floor office building for Universal and NBC; the Metro Red Line underground station of the same name is located opposite the 10 Universal Plaza. A Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department station is located at Universal CityWalk, the community houses the only government-funded fire station located on private property; the Los Angeles County Fire Department Station 51 is of special significance to Universal, as "Station 51" was the fictional setting of the Universal and Jack Webb television series Emergency!.
However, the current Station 51 was not used for external shots, or used as a model for the interior shots seen on the show. Universal City's ZIP code is 91608, the community is inside area code 818. Carl Laemmle opened the Second Universal City on March 15, 1915, on the 230-acre Taylor Ranch property. At the launch event, in what is now the North Hollywood area, a crowd of men and women eagerly awaited the display of the film stages, daredevil stunt pilots and silent film idols, as well as the movie cameras Laemmle had brought along. "See how slapstick comedies are made. See your favorite screen stars do their work. See how we make the people laugh or cry or sit on the edge of their chairs the world over!" Stated a poster touting Universal's opening. "C'mon out! Aw, c'mon!"Laemmle, a German immigrant, was Universal Pictures' founder who opened his first nickelodeon in Chicago in 1906. He moved to New York City, where he soon joined half a dozen small motion picture companies to create the movie company he called Universal Pictures.
In 1912, Laemmle operated three small studios - Bison and Oak Crest Ranch. After a court battle with New York Motion Picture Company, control of the Bison lot was returned to the New York Motion Picture Company; the court allowed Carl Laemmle to retain use of the name "Bison" as "Bison 101" for his westerns, which were filmed on the Oak Crest property in the San Fernando Valley. The Oak Crest Ranch is; the Providencia Land and Water company, called "Oak Crest Ranch" in the trade papers, became the first Universal City location. In 1913, Laemmle consolidated the Nestor studio and Oak Crest ranch property, his first Universal City was too small, so he ordered a search for a new and larger property in the valley, a location with more space. Laemmle leased Providencia ranchland in the San Fernando Valley in 1912. If it was a city, it was a haphazard one: with the help of nearly 300 movie hands and actors, Laemmle erected makeshift buildings, set up cameras and began churning out hundreds of one- and two-reel silent westerns.
Other studio chiefs called the place "Laemmle's Folly", mocking that the property was so far out of town and that Laemmle could film scenery for free anywhere he wanted. Laemmle worried that he had made a huge mistake, though Universal was a success because the public could observe movies being made. In the meantime, Laemmle added a zoo to the Oak Crest Ranch –, open to visitors to generate free advertising by word of mouth; the Rotarians of Los Angeles were one of the groups permitted to visit the Oak Crest - Universal City. The Oak Crest ranch being too small for his larger Universal City, Laemmle bought the Lankershim Land and Water property, the 230-acre Taylor Ranch for $165,000, calling it his "New Universal City". In 1914, operations at The Oak Ranch were moved to the Taylor ranch; the Universal ranch zoo was moved to the Back Ranch of the Lankershim property. The new Universal City was opened for Universal staff in 1914. Laemmle went on an eight-day whistle-stop tour from Chicago to Los Angeles the week before Universal City's grand public opening.
His promoters sold the grand lie that Laemmle had persuaded the Secretary of the Navy to send a battleship up the Los Angeles River to fire a salvo on opening day. Easterners, would believe anything they heard about California. After World War I, Laemmle brought more kin over from war-torn Europe, increasing the payroll to 70, his cheerful nepotism was immortalized in humorist Ogden Nash's couplet: Uncle Carl Laemmle has a large faemmle. Carl Laemmle was responsible for creating the "star system" rather than just using anonymous actors in films. Laemmle was forced to end studio tours in the 1920s, when talkies came along and "quiet on the set" became an absolute, he sold his sprawling entertainment empire in 1936. Before his death in 1939, at age 72, he helped bring more than 200 German-Jewish refugees to Los Angeles. A nephew, founded the local Laemmle Theatres chain. Universal City did not welcome tourists again until July 15, 1964, with the opening of the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park and its included Studio Tour.
The next few decades saw the arrival of hotel
Victoria's Secret is an American designer and marketer of women's lingerie and beauty products. Founded in 1977 as a response to packaged underwear, which the company's founder considered to be "ugly, floral-print nylon nightgowns", the company is now the largest American retailer of women's lingerie. Victoria's Secret was founded by Roy Raymond, his wife Gaye Raymond, in San Francisco, California, on June 12, 1977. Eight years prior to founding Victoria's Secret, in the late 1960s, Raymond was embarrassed when purchasing lingerie for his wife at a department store. Newsweek reported him looking back on the incident from the vantage of 1981: "When I tried to buy lingerie for my wife," he recalls, "I was faced with racks of terry-cloth robes and ugly floral-print nylon nightgowns, I always had the feeling the department store saleswomen thought I was an unwelcome intruder." Raymond spent the next eight years studying the lingerie market. At the time when Raymond founded Victoria's Secret, most women in America purchased "dowdy", "pragmatic", "foundation garments" by Fruit of the Loom and Jockey in packs of three from department stores and saved "fancier items" for "special occasions" like honeymoons.
"Lacy thongs and padded push-up bras" were niche products during this period found "alongside feathered boas and provocative pirate costumes at Frederick's of Hollywood" outside of the mainstream product offerings available at department stores. In 1977, Raymond borrowed $40,000 from his parents and $40,000 from a bank to establish Victoria's Secret: a store in which men could feel comfortable buying lingerie; the company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center in California. Raymond picked the name "Victoria" after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom to associate with the refinement of the Victorian era; the "Secret" was. The "angels" comes from his wife being in Pi Beta Phi, where their mascot was an angel. Victoria's Secret grossed $500,000 in its first year of business, enough to finance the expansion from a headquarters and warehouse to four new store locations and a mail-order operation. By 1982, the fourth store was added at 395 Sutter Street. Victoria's Secret stayed at that location until 1990, when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis.
In April 1982, Raymond sent out his 12th catalog. Catalog sales accounted for 55% of the company's $7 million annual sales in 1982; the Victoria's Secret stores at this time were "a niche player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street." In 1982, Victoria's Secret had grown to five stores, a 40-page catalog, was grossing $6 million annually. Raymond sold Victoria's Secret Inc. to Leslie Wexner, creator of Limited Stores Inc of Columbus, for $1 million. In 1983, Wexner revamped, he discarded the money-losing model of selling lingerie to male customers and replaced it with one that focused on female customers. Victoria's Secret transformed from "more burlesque than Main Street" to a mainstay that sold broadly accepted underwear; the "new colors and styles that promised sexiness packaged in a tasteful, glamorous way and with the snob appeal of European luxury" meant to appeal to female buyers. To further this image, the Victoria's Secret catalog continued the practice that Raymond began: listing the company's headquarters on catalogs at a fake London address, with the real headquarters in Columbus, Ohio.
The stores were redesigned to evoke 19th century England. Howard Gross took over as president from his position as vice-president in 1985. In October of that year, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret was stealing market share from department stores; the New York Times reported on Victoria's Secret's rapid expansion from four stores in 1982 to 100 in 1986, analysts' expectations that it could expand to 400 by 1988. In 1987, Victoria's Secret was among the "best-selling catalogs". In 1990, analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses; the New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear." Victoria's Secret released their own line of fragrances in 1992. By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret faced a gap in management that led the company to be "plagued by persistent quality problems". Howard Gross, who had grown the company since Wexner's 1982 purchase, was moved to the poorly performing L Brands subsidiary Limited Stores.
Business Week reported that "both divisions have suffered". Grace Nichols, who became President and CEO beginning in 1992, worked to resolve the quality problems. Victoria's Secret introduced the Miracle Bra selling two million within the first year, but faced competition from Sara Lee's WonderBra a year later; the company responded with a TV campaign. By 1998, Victoria's Secret's market share of the intimate apparel market was 14 percent; that year Victoria's Secret entered the $3.5 billion cosmetic market. In 1999, the company aimed to increase its coverage with the Body by Victoria brand. In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney of Neiman Marcus Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret Direct to turn around catalog sales that were lagging behind other divisions. Forbes reported Turney stating, as she flipped through a Victoria's Secret catalog, "We need to quit focusing on all that cleavage." In 2000, Turney
Whitley Heights, Los Angeles
Whitley Heights is a residential neighborhood and historic preservation overlay zone in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Central Los Angeles, California. Known as a residential area for actors and other people in the motion-picture industry, it is divided between a hillside single-family district and an apartment area, it is notable for an attempt by its homeowners' group and the city to close off public streets to outside traffic, an effort, ruled illegal by the courts The preservation zone is split into two parts by the Hollywood Freeway running through the Cahuenga Pass. Streets within the zone's northern part are a one-block portion of Cahuenga Boulevard, Iris Drive and some of Whitley Avenue; the southern zone, about 80% of the original plot, embraces Fairfield Avenue, Wedgewood Place, Whitley Avenue, Cerritos Place, Hollyhill Terrace, Grace Avenue, Emmet Terrace, Las Palmas Avenue and Milner Road and is exclusively zoned for apartments. It is within walking distance of the Hollywood Bowl, Hollywood Boulevard is nearby.
Hobart Johnstone Whitley bought the hillside area in 1901-03 and hired architect Arthur Barnes to build houses in a Mediterranean style which he thought would suit Southern California's climate. Five years Whitley Heights was seen as a "magnificent hill of forty acres situated in the center of Hollywood and overlooking the entire city." On June 30, 1907, a fire kindled by a resident at the foot of the hill swept over the land, covered by a heavy growth of wild mustard and barley, destroyed "many rare and valuable trees and shrubs" that Whitley had planted. It threatened a large reservoir owned by the United Hollywood Water Company atop the rise and burned several tons of hay; the fire was quenched the same day by the volunteer Hollywood fire department headed by E. Fossler. A contemporary account noted that "This hill has been one of the show places of Hollywood for some time. Here Mr. Whitley intends erecting a handsome home at some future date, toward this end he has cultivated and beautified the grounds, laying them out in winding roads and planting a great variety of rare trees and shrubs, some of which were imported from the Hawaiian Islands and Mexico."Whitley had sold some of his land for one dollar to the water company for the reservoir about 1904 and bought it back sixteen years at a cost of $30,000.
In 1918, Whitley commissioned architect A. S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean village on the steep hillsides above Hollywood Boulevard. Whitley sent Barnes to tour the Mediterranean area to study its architecture and landscaping of Italy's historic hill towns before returning to the Southland, where he designed most of the Whitley Heights houses between 1918 and 1928; the development grew during the 1920s, it became the first Hollywood celebrity community. The streets in the development were dedicated to public use in 1920 and 1921, they were improved by the city between 1924 and 1927. Most of them had no sidewalks, with stairways built from level to level to encourage walking. On the evening of June 23, 1920, the residential subdivision of Whitley Heights was opened with a festive barbecue that gathered an assemblage of businessmen and politicians; the Times noted that "The occasion was attended with a special significance as it was the scene of a reunion of many men who were connected with Mr. Whitley in his first efforts to make the vegetable gardens into a wealthy city more than twenty years ago, men who had gathered at a similar affair in 1902 to watch the turning on of the first electric lights in Hollywood."
The subdivision had several homes on the terraces that divided the hill into foiur grades. Three years in 1923, the Whitley Heights Civic Association was founded. In 1982 Whitley Heights was made a state historic district by the California Historical Resources Commission after research done by actor Brian Moore, president of Whitley Heights Homeowners. Moore traced property titles in the area, gathered old photographs and articles and read through the papers of Hobard J. Whitley, which were housed in the special collections library at the University of California, Los Angeles, he was impelled to begin his research in 1981 after a bungalow was demolished by a developer who wanted to build tract homes. To qualify for the designation, an area had to be at least fifty years old and retain many of its original characteristics. At the time all of the homes, with their red tile roofs and arched windows and doorways, were original; the district was made a national historic place, the first such in Hollywood.
In 2004 the area was made into a Los Angeles city historic preservation overlay zone. Over time, the placid nature of Whitley Heights and its 168 homes changed. In April 1983 the Whitley Heights Civic Association was incensed at a developer's plans to build an apartment complex on Las Palmas Avenue, which stirred up a community surge on behalf of fencing off streets around the neighborhood as protection against what one resident called "animal people" who walked up the hill to burglarize homes.. By 1985, there were burglaries, assaults and car thefts. Prostitutes came up from nearby Hollywood Boulevard to work in parked cars, the area extending north from Hollywood Boulevard into Whitley Heights had the highest crime rate in Hollywood. For four years, residents had been beseeching the city of Los Angeles to approve the installation of 10 gates across the public streets leading into the community, in May 1985 the Public Works Committee of the City Council agreed with the area's City Council representative, Peggy Stevenson, recommended that streets to the enclave be closed to non-residents.
In 1991, the City of Los Angeles issued
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Christina María Aguilera is an American singer, songwriter and television personality. Her work has earned her five Grammy Awards, one Latin Grammy Award, a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, she has sold more than 75 million records worldwide, making her one of the world's best-selling music artists. In 2009, she ranked at number 58 on Rolling Stone's list of 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Billboard recognized her as the 20th most successful artist of the 2000s, in 2013, Time included Aguilera on their annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world. Born in Staten Island, New York and raised in Pennsylvania, she appeared on the television series Star Search and The Mickey Mouse Club in her early years. After recording "Reflection", the theme for Disney's 1998 film Mulan, Aguilera signed with RCA Records. Aguilera earned the title "Pop Princess" in her early years. Aguilera earned two number-one albums on the US Billboard 200 with her self-titled debut album in 1999 and Back to Basics in 2006.
Her albums Stripped, Bionic and Liberation all reached the top-ten in the United States. Furthermore, her Spanish-language album Mi Reflejo and the holiday album My Kind of Christmas each topped Billboard component charts in 2000. Several of Aguilera's songs have experienced international success, including "Genie in a Bottle", "What a Girl Wants", "Come On Over Baby" from her self-titled debut, which each topped the Billboard Hot 100, "Dirrty", "Beautiful", "Fighter" from Stripped, "Ain't No Other Man" and "Hurt" from Back to Basics, the collaborations "Lady Marmalade", "Moves like Jagger", "Feel This Moment", "Say Something". Beyond her music career, Aguilera starred in the film Burlesque and has been featured as a coach on six seasons of the reality competition television series The Voice since 2011. Aside from her work in the entertainment industry, Aguilera is involved in charitable activities through her work as a UN ambassador for the World Food Programme. Christina María Aguilera was born in the Staten Island borough of New York City, on December 18, 1980, to Shelly Loraine Kearns, a musician, Fausto Xavier Aguilera, a United States Army soldier.
Her father is Ecuadorian, while her mother has German, Irish and Dutch ancestry. Her family moved because of her father's military service, lived in places including New Jersey, New York, Japan. Aguilera and her mother alleged that her father was physically and abusive, claims which he denied. Aguilera used music as a form of escape from her turbulent household. Following her parents' divorce when she was six years old, her younger sister Rachel, her mother, moved into her grandmother's home in the Pittsburgh suburb of Rochester, Pennsylvania. After several years of being estranged, Aguilera expressed interest in reconciling with her father in 2012. Growing up, known locally as "the little girl with the big voice", aspired to be a singer, singing in local talent shows and competitions, she won her first talent show at the age of 8, in which she performed Whitney Houston's "I Wanna Dance with Somebody". In 1990, she appeared on Star Search singing "A Sunday Kind of Love", was eliminated during the semi-final rounds.
She performed the same song during an appearance on Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV's Wake Up with Larry Richert. Throughout her youth in Pittsburgh, Aguilera sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" before Pittsburgh Penguins hockey, Pittsburgh Steelers football, Pittsburgh Pirates baseball games, in addition to the 1992 Stanley Cup Finals, she attended Rochester Area School District in Rochester and Marshall Middle School near Wexford, attended North Allegheny Intermediate High School before being homeschooled due to bullying. In 1991, Aguilera auditioned for a position on The Mickey Mouse Club, although she did not meet its age requirements, she joined the television series two years where she performed musical numbers and sketch comedy until its cancellation in 1994. Her co-stars included Ryan Gosling, Keri Russell, Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake; when she was fourteen, Aguilera recorded her first song, the duet "All I Wanna Do" with Japanese singer Keizo Nakanishi. She sent her cover version of Houston's "Run to You" to Walt Disney Pictures in hopes of being selected to record the theme song "Reflection" for their animated film Mulan.
"Reflection" peaked at number 19 on the U. S. Billboard Adult Contemporary Chart. After the recording of "Reflection", Aguilera attracted attention of RCA Records A&R Ron Fair and was signed with the label afterwards; the label started presenting Aguilera with tracks to record and laid foundation for her debut album. While catering to making Aguilera's debut a "wonder introduction of a singer" like Barbra Streisand, RCA was pressured by contemporary teen pop craze involving Aguilera's peers including Britney Spears, leading to the label rushing the production process and aligning Aguilera to be part of the teen pop trend, they decided the lead single off the album would be "Genie in a Bottle", a trendy pop and R&B track released in June 1999. The single was a major commercial success, peaking atop the Billboard Hot 100 and record charts of 20 other countries, it has sold over 7 million copies. Following the success of the single, Aguilera's eponymous debut album was released in August to commercial success, peaking at number one on the Billboard 200 and was certified eight times platinum by the Recording Industry Associa