SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Holotype

A holotype is a single physical example of an organism, known to have been used when the species was formally described. It is either the single such physical example or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype. Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a holotype is one of several kinds of name-bearing types. In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and ICZN the definitions of types are similar in intent but not identical in terminology or underlying concept. For example, the holotype for the butterfly Plebejus idas longinus is a preserved specimen of that subspecies, held by the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. An isotype is a duplicate of the holotype and is made for plants, where holotype and isotypes are pieces from the same individual plant or samples from the same gathering. A holotype is not "typical" of that taxon, although ideally it should be. Sometimes just a fragment of an organism is the holotype in the case of a fossil.

For example, the holotype of Pelorosaurus humerocristatus, a large herbivorous dinosaur from the early Jurassic period, is a fossil leg bone stored at the Natural History Museum in London. If a better specimen is subsequently found, the holotype is not superseded. Under the ICN, an additional and clarifying type could be designated an epitype under Article 9.8, where the original material is demonstrably ambiguous or insufficient. A conserved type is sometimes used to correct a problem with a name, misapplied. In the absence of a holotype, another type may be selected, out of a range of different kinds of type, depending on the case, a lectotype or a neotype. For example, in both the ICN and the ICZN a neotype is a type, appointed in the absence of the original holotype. Additionally, under the ICZN the Commission is empowered to replace a holotype with a neotype, when the holotype turns out to lack important diagnostic features needed to distinguish the species from its close relatives. For example, the crocodile-like archosaurian reptile Parasuchus hislopi Lydekker, 1885 was described based on a premaxillary rostrum, but this is no longer sufficient to distinguish Parasuchus from its close relatives.

This made the name Parasuchus hislopi a nomen dubium. Texan paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee proposed that a new type specimen, a complete skeleton, be designated; the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature considered the case and agreed to replace the original type specimen with the proposed neotype. The procedures for the designation of a new type specimen when the original is lost come into play for some recent, high-profile species descriptions in which the specimen designated as the holotype was a living individual, allowed to remain in the wild. In such a case, there is no actual type specimen available for study, the possibility exists that—should there be any perceived ambiguity in the identity of the species—subsequent authors can invoke various clauses in the ICZN Code that allow for the designation of a neotype. Article 75.3.7 of the ICZN requires that the designation of a neotype must be accompanied by "a statement that the neotype is, or upon publication has become, the property of a recognized scientific or educational institution, cited by name, that maintains a research collection, with proper facilities for preserving name-bearing types, that makes them accessible for study", but there is no such requirement for a holotype.

Allotype Genetypes—genetic sequence data from type specimens Paratype Type Type species BOA Photographs of type specimens of Neotropical Rhopalocera

Smithy Bridge railway station

Smithy Bridge railway station serves the village of Smithy Bridge and Hollingworth Lake near Rochdale in Greater Manchester, England. The station is on the Caldervale Line 12 3⁄4 miles north of Manchester Victoria on the way to Leeds; the station is unstaffed, but there are ticket machines available to allow intending passengers to purchase or collect tickets prior to travelling. Both platforms have waiting step-free access. There is a basic half-hourly service from the station to Manchester Victoria southbound and to Todmorden northbound on weekdays. From there, trains continue alternately to Blackburn via Burnley Manchester Road and to Leeds via Brighouse. Most westbound services run beyond Manchester to Wigan Southport. In the early morning & evenings trains to Leeds run via Halifax but on the same frequency, whilst in Sundays the service is hourly and provided by the Southport/Manchester to Blackburn trains. From the December 2019 timetable change, services will start or terminate at Wigan westbound, with passengers needing to change there for onward connections to Southport.

The station was first opened by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in October 1868. In 1915, the station was the scene of a tragic accident involving an express train and an empty stock train. Four people died and many others were injured, it was closed on 2 May 1960 by British Rail but reopened on its original site, albeit with a different platform layout, on 19 August 1985 with financial assistance from Greater Manchester PTE. The signal box here, which controlled the level crossing and acted as a'fringe' box to Preston PSB from 1973 onwards, was downgraded in late 2011 from a block post to a crossing box; the signalling is remotely operated from the new'Rochdale West' panel at Castleton and the crossing is now automatic. Smithy Bridge Crossing box has since been demolished; the Weighvers Seaport by A W Colligan in association with George Kelsall Train times and station information for Smithy Bridge railway station from National Rail

June Struggle

The June Struggle known as the June Democracy Movement and June Democratic Uprising was a nationwide democracy movement in South Korea that generated mass protests from June 10 to June 29, 1987. The demonstrations forced the ruling government to hold elections and institute other democratic reforms which led to the establishment of the Sixth Republic, the present day government of South Korea. On June 10th, the military regime of President Chun Doo-hwan announced its choice of Roh Tae-woo as the next president; the public designation of Chun's successor was seen as a final affront to a delayed and deferred process to revise the South Korean constitution to permit direct election of the President. Although pressure on the regime, in the form of demonstrations by students and other groups, had been building for some time, the announcement triggered massive and effective protests. Unwilling to resort to violence before the 1988 Olympic Games, believing that Roh could win competitive elections anyway given divisions within the opposition and Roh acceded to the key demands of direct presidential elections and restoration of civil liberties.

Although Roh was duly elected as president that December with a bare plurality, the democratic consolidation of South Korea was underway. Since the 1972 implementation of the Yushin Constitution by president Park Chung-hee, South Korean presidents were elected indirectly by an electoral college; this system persisted after Park was assassinated and replaced by Choi Kyu-hah, himself replaced by Chun after the Coup d'état of December Twelfth. Since the college was hand picked by the regime itself, it did not represent any sort of democratic check on presidential power. Seeking to enhance his domestic and international standing by providing a veneer of democratic representation, Chun held elections in 1985; the result was a major moral victory for the opposition, led by Kim Young-sam. The opposition's key demand was direct presidential elections, Chun sought to foil this by initiating a campaign of delay and deferment. A parliamentary committee debated various proposals for months; this action intensified unrest, but resulting demonstrations did not impress the regime and Chun decided to continue his program to install Roh as his successor.

Throughout this period, the labor movement, university students, churches in particular joined in a mutually supporting alliance to put increasing pressure on the regime. This mobilized portion of civil society, in addition to the political opposition, formed the core of the resistance that would become generalized during the decisive events of June. In the 1980s, many student activists in universities struggled against Chun Doo-hwan's dictatorship and the aftermath of the 1980 Gwangju Massacre. Park Jong-chol, the president of the student council in the linguistics department of Seoul National University, was one of those students. Detained during an investigation into such activities, Park refused to confess the whereabouts of one of his fellow activists. During the interrogation, authorities used waterboarding techniques to torture him leading to his death on 14 January 1987. Information surrounding the events of Park Jong-chol's death was suppressed. However, the Catholic Priests Association for Justice, revealed the truth to the public on May 18, further inflaming public sentiment.

CPAJ planned a June 10th demonstration in his honor. As demonstrations intensified, students in Yonsei University swore to take the field and demonstrated at the university on June 9. During the protest, Yonsei student Lee Han-yeol was injured when a tear gas grenade penetrated his skull. In critical condition, he became a symbol of the subsequent protests over the weeks that followed, he died of his wounds on July 5, after the regime had agreed to the people's demands. Over 1.6 million citizens participated in his national funeral, held on July 9. He was buried at May 18th National Cemetery. On June 10, Roh Tae-woo was nominated as a candidate for the presidency in a party convention of Democratic Justice Party at Jamsil Arena. Major demonstrations occurred throughout the country, with an estimated 240,000 people participating in 22 cities including Seoul. Many people of all social standings supported participants. On June 18, the National rally for banishment of tear gas grenades brought 1.5 million people into the streets across at least 16 cities.

The white collar workers who had before remained on the sidelines joined protests, throwing rolls of toilet paper and otherwise voicing their support. On June 19th, Chun issued orders to mobilize the army, but fearing a reprise of the violent Gwangju Massacre, he rescinded them within hours. On June 26, the Great National March of Peace was held by Guk-bon. Roh Tae-woo issued the June 29 Declaration, capitulating to the demands of the protesters by promising to amend the Constitution and to release Kim Dae-jung. After the June Democratic Uprising, Hyundai Engine Trade Union was established in Ulsan on July 3. Many workers started to strike. Between July and September, 1,060 new labor unions were organized and walkouts occurred 3,458 times. After the 6.29 Declaration, amendment of the Constitution began in earnest. On October 12 the constitutional bill was passed, on October 28 it was approved, it too