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Holy Ampulla

The Holy Ampulla or Holy Ampoule was a glass vial which, from its first recorded use by Pope Innocent II for the anointing of Louis VII in 1131 to the coronation of Louis XVI in 1774, held the chrism or anointing oil for the coronation of the kings of France. The role played by the Sainte Ampoule in the sacre of the kings of France is specified in a document of ca 1260 republished and examined in detail. There was an early legend associated with St Remigius known as the Legend of the Baptism of the Moribund Pagan, according to which a dying pagan asked for baptism at the hands of St Remigius, but when it was found that there was no Oil of the Catechumens or sacred Chrism available for the proper administration of the baptismal ceremony, St Remigius ordered two empty vials be placed on an altar and as he prayed before them these two vials miraculously filled with the necessary Oil of the Catechumens and Chrism; when the sepulcher containing the body of St. Remi was opened in the reign of Charles the Bald and while Hincmar was the Archbishop of Reims, two small vials were found, the contents of which gave off an aromatic scent the likes of, like nothing known to those present.

When St Remigius died the ancient art of perfumery was still known and practiced in the collapsing Roman Empire, but was unknown in the Carolingian empire four hundred years later. These vials may have simply been bottles of unguents used to cover the scent of decay of St Remigius's corpse during his funeral, but the memory of the two vials miraculously filled in the story of the Baptism of the Moribund Pagan and the unusual otherworldly scents issuing from these two vials found buried with St Remigius combined to suggest to those present that these two vials were the miraculously-filled vials of the legend, it was not uncommon for chalices and other sacred vessels to be buried with high ranking clergymen. Hincmar adroitly combined the discovery of these two vials with their unique, unearthly fragrance, the Legend of the Baptism of the Moribund Pagan and the historical memory that St Remigius had baptized Clovis into a new legend identifying one of these vials as the actual vial of Chrism used at the baptism of Clovis to create the new Legend of the Holy Ampulla, which Hincmar used to strengthen his claim that his own archepiscopal see of Reims-—as the possessor of this heaven-sent Chrism—-should therefore be recognized as the divinely chosen site for all subsequent anointings of French kings.

The fate of the second vial is uncertain. It has been suggested that since in the original form of the legend this would have been the vial containing the Oil of the Catechumens and that the French coronation ordinals prescribe the Oil of the Catechumens, rather than Chrism, for the anointing of queens, it was subsequently used for anointing the queens of France and it is possible that a vial identified by some of the Bourbon Legitimists as the Holy Ampulla is this second vial; the ampoule, a vial of Roman glass about 1½ inches tall, came to light at Reims in time for the coronation of Louis VII in 1131. The legend, associated with it at that time, asserted that it had been discovered in the sarcophagus of Saint Remi and identified it with the baptism of Clovis I, the first Frankish king converted to Christianity; as C. Meredith Jones remarked, in reviewing Sir Francis Oppenheimer's monograph of the Holy Ampulla, "It gained a reputation for holiness and authenticity that brought fame and great honours to the see of Reims."

An order of knights named after the ampoule, the Knights of the Holy Ampulla was created for the coronation of kings. The Bishop of Laon held the right to carry the Holy Ampoule during the coronation ceremony. Only three of the kings who ruled between Louis the Pious and Charles X were not anointed with holy oil at Reims Cathedral; the ampoule was destroyed in 1793 by French revolutionaries, when the Convention sent Philippe Rühl to smash the ampoule publicly on the pedestal of the statue of Louis XV with a hammer. The day before its destruction the constitutional curé, Jules-Armand Seraine and a municipal officer, Philippe Hourelle had largely emptied the ampulla of its balm and they as well gave some part of it to Bouré, curé of Berry-au-Bac and Lecomte, judge at the tribunal of Reims. Furthermore, Louis Champagne Prévoteau ensured the preservation of two pieces of the glass vial with some remaining balm on them. All these fragments except the one kept by Hourelle, lost were gathered on 25 May 1825 by the Archbishop of Reims.

These were placed in a new reliquary made in time for the coronation of Charles X four days, now displayed at the Palace of Tau. Since 1906, the preserved contents of the Holy Ampulla are kept at the Archbishopric of Reims. Among the implements used in the Coronation of the British Monarch is a golden, eagle-shaped Ampulla and spoon; the Ampulla was believed to have been first used in the coronation of Henry IV in 1399. According to legend, it was made to contain the oil presented by the Virgin Mary to St Thomas of Canterbury, its accompanying golden spoon, of the 13th century, is used to anoint the Sovereign on several parts of the body. Monza ampullae Oppenheimer, Sir Francis The Legend of the Ste. Ampoule. London: Faber & Faber La Sainte Ampoule et le sacre des rois de France

Kealoha (poet)

Kealoha is the first Poet Laureate of Hawaii and the first poet to perform at a Hawaii governor’s inauguration. He is an internationally acclaimed poet and storyteller who has performed throughout the world from the White House to ‘Iolani Palace and including hundreds of live venues. In 2010, he was honored as a "National Slam Legend" at the National Poetry Slam and was selected as a master artist for a National Endowment for the Arts program. In the genre of storytelling, he has gained national recognition by showcasing at events such as the National Storytelling Network Conference, the Bay Area Storytelling Festival, the Honolulu Storytelling Festival, he is of multi-ethnic heritage with Hawaiian and Caucasian descent. With a degree in Nuclear Engineering from MIT in 1999, Kealoha has developed a poetic style that combines analysis with creative writing to investigate social and philosophical themes, he has worked for interscope records since 2001. He is the founder of HawaiiSlam, First Thursdays, Youth Speaks Hawai`i.

Kealoha's work involves many focal themes such as nature and culture, that can be found throughout all of his poetry. He is a proponent of "the spoken word" and believes it to be one of the most powerful tools that humans possess, saying "It makes us laugh and cry and wonder and empathize, it provides a mirror for us so we can see who we are as as a collective. It documents our many cultures through space and time, it expresses all facets of our humanity from the beautiful to the ugly. It shows us, it inspires us. It shifts our paradigms, it helps us grow." In fact, "the spoken word" is what inspired him to drop his life in Nuclear engineering and pursue poetry. It was exposure to slam poetry that made Kealoha rethink his path and return to Hawaii to pursue slam poetry, his best known work is the performance poem Dichotomy, an identity piece that demonstrates conflicting arguments within the Native Hawaiian community. Written in 2004, Dichotomy has been used in classrooms throughout the state of Hawaii to spark debate and dialogue within Hawai`i's youth.

Dichotomy debuted outside of Hawai`i in 2007 at the National Poetry Slam, helping Kealoha to place 8th individually out of over 350 of the world's best slam poets. Other signature pieces include Recess, The Male Feminist, Zoom Out and most "The Story of Everything". Kealoha lives in Honolulu, serves as HawaiiSlam's SlamMaster, he hosts the First Thursdays poetry slam at Fresh Cafe, the largest registered poetry slam in the world. He did nuclear fusion research, management consulting, surf instructing prior to making a living as a professional slam poet in 2002, his website can be found at and he can be found at @kealohapoetry on instagram Performed at the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: National Philanthropic Briefing. Represented Hawai`i at 7 National Poetry Slams and performed on the finals stage four times. Ranked 8th individually out of 350 poets in 2007, was captain of the 5th ranked team in 2009. At the 2010 National Poetry Slam, was a performer for the opening ceremonies and was honored as a "National Slam Legend."

Featured at major venues throughout the world including the Nuyorican Poets Cafe, the Bowery Poetry Club, the Green Mill, New Jersey Performing Arts Center, the Schiffbau, the Rokerij, the Bienal do Ibirapuera, the NFL Pro Bowl halftime show. Featured on HBO’s Brave New Voices series presented by Russel Simmons. Coached the Youth Speaks Hawai`i team that won the championship for the International Youth Poetry Slam in 2008. Poetic vocalist for Henry Kapono's Wild Hawaiian project, whose album was nominated for a Grammy. Featured storyteller at the National Storytelling Network Conference, the Bay Area Storytelling Festival, the Honolulu Storytelling Festival. Wrote, performed in, co-directed the State of Hawaii's "Can't Fool the Youth" anti-smoking campaign. Interview subject on PBS's Long Story Short with Leslie Wilcox Actor in the film "Get a Job," winner of "Jury Award" at Las Vegas Film Festival, "Best Comedy" at Ventura Film Festival and Detroit Windsor International Film Festival, nominee for "Best Film" at Marbella Internacional Film Festival Composed and performed two original pieces for the Na Hoku Hanohano Awards show, once for the opening sequence and once with Henry Kapono and Mick Fleetwood Performed poetry at the World Invitational Hula Festival Featured 4 times on the "World's Greatest Poetry Slam" DVD series and starred in the movie "Hawaii Slam: Poetry in Paradise."

Has conducted prisons throughout his career. Kealoha's Official Website Kealoha's MySpace Page HawaiiSlam Website

Indian locomotive class WDM-3D

The WDM-3D class is diesel-electric locomotive, used by Indian Railways. It is the higher-powered version of the Indian locomotive class WDM-3A; these locos have a 3300 hp power pack, with maximum available traction power of 2925 hp. The engine is an enhanced version of the 16-cylinder Alco 251C model with a max. speed of 160 km/h. The bogies are Improved Fabricated Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co bogies with stem type vertical and lateral dampers in place of'eye' type which helps reduce wheel slip and maintenance of The loco features Left hand drive, WDG-3A style High Adhesion bogies, air cylinder under footboard, WDP-4 style fuel tanks, engine doors like WDP-4, marker lights outside cabin doors, electronic horn, High capacity buffers. Components and auxiliaries have been improved with the aim of making the duty schedule longer between maintenance visits to the shed. WDM-3D was developed in by Diesel Locomotive Works and Research Design and Standards Organisation in 2003, it was the result of DLW integrating the best features of EMD GT46MAC and EMD GT46PAC with the alco platform.

The first one was built in July, 2003, numbered #11101. The first few units were all homed at krishnarajapuram but were transferred to Erode. Serial production started in late 2005 with locos being alloted to all major BG diesel sheds. Earlier WDM3Ds had issues with their electronics which led to the development of the WDM3B in 2005, the same WDM3D without microprocessor control; the class is considered successful with over 590 units being built. The production has now ceased. One unit #11121 has a modified Short hood, similar to WDP-4 and is homed at Erode Pune Kalyan Howrah Samastipur Visakhapatnam Lucknow Jhansi Izzatnagar Malda Town New Guwahati Erode Gooty Guntakal Bondamunda Krishnarajapuram Ratlam Vatva Itarsi New Katni Junction Ten WDM-3D locomotives were purchased by Sri Lanka Railways in 2012, they were the most powerful locomotives owned by Sri Lanka Railways at that time. They were allocated the M10 class; however some specifications are somewhat different for SLR. This class was used for the construction work of Kankasanthurei railway lines.

After extending the northern line to Jaffna and beyond, M10s were used for passenger services including Yal Devi on the northern line. History of rail transport in India Indian Railways Locomotives of India Rail transport in India Sri Lanka Railways M10

Three Tigers Against Three Tigers

Three Tigers Against Three Tigers is a 1977 comedy film directed by Sergio Corbucci and Steno. It consists of three segments. First SegmentRenato Pozzetto as Don Cimbolano Cochi Ponzoni as Father Joe Martini Corinne Cléry as The Nanny Kirsten Gille as Diana Massimo Boldi as Romeo Ugo Bologna as Major Borsetti Ester Carloni as Don Cimbolano's Maid Gabriella Giorgelli as The BartenderSecond SegmentEnrico Montesano as Oscar Bertoletti Dalila Di Lazzaro as Countess Lucrezia Marini Giuseppe Anatrelli as Count Rodolfo Peppino Marini di Lampedusa Nanni Loy as Himself Piero Gerlini as The Commissioner Franco Giacobini as Luigino Gabriella Giorgelli as The MaidThird SegmentPaolo Villaggio as Lawyer Scorza Anna Mazzamauro as Giada Nardi Daniele Vargas as Lawyer Berchielli Renzo Marignano as Lorenzo, marito di Giada Dino Emanuelli as Lawyer Dal Pino Ferruccio Amendola as Control Tower Officer List of Italian films of 1977 Three Tigers Against Three Tigers on IMDb

Maria Kalaw Katigbak

Maria Villanueva Kalaw Katigbak was a Filipina politician and beauty queen. She served as a Senator of the Philippines from 1961 to 1967 during the Fifth Congress. Kalaw Katigbak was born Maria Villanueva Kalaw on February 14, 1912 to Filipino journalist and former revolutionary Teodoro M. Kalaw of Batangas and Filipino-Spanish Purificación "Pura" García Villanueva of Iloilo in the city of Manila, her father was a prominent politician who worked under Manuel L. Quezon's administration as executive secretary and secretary of Interior, her mother was a civic rights leader and was crowned as the first Manila Carnival Queen in 1908. Maria was the eldest of the four surviving children of the Kalaw, she studied at the Jefferson Elementary School and St. Scholastica's College Manila for about a year while taking religion courses. In 1928, she graduated high school valedictorian at Philippine Women's University. In 1932, she finished her degree of philosophy and masters of social work at the University of the Philippines.

While in college, she joined the writing staff of the prominent student-newspaper The Philippine Collegian, became a secretary of the UP Student Council, president of UP Women's Club, secretary of the UP Debating Club and a member of the UP Writers Club. Upon graduation, she received the Most Distinguished Senior Student Award, she was awarded the Barbour Scholarship and finished a master's degree in literature at the University of Michigan in 1933. During her stay, she became active in organizations such as Philippine-Michigan Club and the Cosmopolitan Club for Foreign Students, she attended the University of Santo Tomas where she received her doctor of philosophy's degree in social sciences, magna cum laude. In 1931, she was crowned as the Queen of the Orient of the Manila Carnival, 23 years after her mother's coronation, she gathered a lead of about one million votes, which came from different sponsors. Kalaw wrote a column in The Manila Times entitled "Checkpoint", her essays appeared in the Literary Apprentice: “Far Away” and were included in Filipino Essays in English: 1910-1954.

In 1961, Kalaw Katigbak ran for Senate under the Liberal Party ticket. She landed on the 7th spot garnering 2,546,147 votes, she became the second female senator of the Philippines, after Geronima Pecson in 1947, the lone woman in the Fifth Congress. As a senator, Kalaw Katigbak championed the Senate Bill No. 652 restoring the old school calendar to June and excluding the hot summer months which promote sleepiness and thus, may not be conducive for learning, changed earlier by Education Secretary Alejandro Roces. She was the author of the Senate Bill No. 84, now known as Republic Act No. 3765 or the "Truth in Lending Act of 1963", which extends protection to consumer buying goods on an installment plan and enabling credit transactions. She authored the Senate Bill No. 30 which aimed to amend Republic Act No. 621, or "An Act Creating the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization National Commission of the Philippines". In 1964, she wrote the Republic Act No. 4165, or the law that mandated the creation and appropriation of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

During her term, she handled the Senate committees on education and industry. In 1965, she was joined in the Senate by Eva Estrada-Kalaw. From 1962 to 1966, she served as the chairperson of UNESCO General Conference of the Philippines, she unsuccessfully bid for re-election in 1967, ended up being 11th. In 1974, she published Few There Were about her father. In 1983, she wrote a book about her mother Legacy: Pura Villanueva Kalaw, Her Times and Works, 1886-1954. In 1984, Kalaw Katigbak translated from Spanish to English her father Teodoro's work Aide-de-Camp to Freedom, in which she inserted a chapter about former president Manuel Quezon. From 1981 to 1986, she headed the Board of Review for Motion Pictures and Television, which would be MTRCB; the precursor agencies of BRMPT and MTRCB, Philippine Board of Censorship for Motion Pictures was headed first by her father after its creation in 1929. Kalaw Katigbak was the president of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines for many years, she headed the Municipal Symphony Orchestra, Quezon City Girl Scouts Council, the Philippine Women’s Writers Association.

From 1962 to 1964, she became a member of the UP Board of Regents. She held several positions at the Catholic Women's League, Catholic Charities of Manila, as the governor of the Philippine Red Cross, the Board of National Education, Board of State Colleges, Philippine Normal College, Philippine College of Commerce, Philippine College of Arts and Trade, Samar Institute of Technology, Mindanao Institute of Technology, Philippine Board of Scholarships for Southeast Asia and the Commission on Appointments; as an educator, she taught both in UP and PWU, headed the UST Graduate School of Social Work. She became a member of the Philippine delegation for Afro-Asian Conference of Girl Scouts in Athens, Second World Congress of Lay Apostolate in 1957, the 21st UNESCO General Conference in 1982. Kalaw Katigbak was married to Jose Roxas Katigbak, an obstetrician-gynecologist, whom they had four children: Marinela, Josefina and Norberto, her second sibling, Teodoro "Teddy" Kalaw Jr. was a lawyer. Teddy's wife, Eva Estrada-Kalaw was a senator from 1965-1972 and was unsuccessful for the vice presidential bid in 1992.

She had three farms Lipa, birthplace of her father

Humanum genus

Humanum genus is a papal encyclical promulgated on 20 April 1884 by Pope Leo XIII. Released in the ascent of the industrial age and the aftermath of the September 20, 1870, Capture of Rome by the Kingdom of Italy military forces from the Papal States, Humanum genus is principally a condemnation of Freemasonry, it states that the late 19th century was a dangerous era for the Roman Catholic Church due to numerous concepts and practices it attributes to Freemasonry, namely naturalism, popular sovereignty, the separation of church and state. Some of the strictures found in Humanum genus still remain in force today. Following the French withdrawal of its military garrison in Rome in the anticipation of the Franco-Prussian War, the 1870 Capture of Rome itself was a major battle within the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, marking the final military defeat of the Papal States under Pope Pius IX by the Kingdom of Italy; this unification of the Italian peninsula by King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy ended the approximate 1,116 year temporal reign of the Papal States by the papacy.

Humanum genus asserted that the late 19th century was a time of particular danger for Roman Catholics as the "partisans of evil" were now far less secretive, as evidenced by the new openness of Freemasonry. Freemasonry had been condemned by previous popes as being contrary to Catholic doctrine, but according to Humanum genus, the nature of Freemasonry was changing as Freemasons were far more open in society with their practices and affiliations. Humanum genus condemned certain practices of the Freemasons, including: religious indifference; the Holy See has forbidden Roman Catholics from becoming Freemasons since 1738 with the issuing of the Pope Clement XII's bull In eminenti apostolatus. According to the 1983 Declaration on Masonic Associations, "the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged". Several popes before Leo XIII had addressed the problems that they associated with Freemasonry and said that the principles of that secret society were incompatible with the teachings of the Church.

Previous papal pronouncements on Freemasonry include: Pope Clement XII – In eminenti apostolatus, a papal bull in 1738 Pope Benedict XIV – Providas Romanorum, an Apostolic constitution in 1751 Pope Pius VIIEcclesiam a Jesu Christo, an Apostolic constitution in 1821 Pope Leo XII – Quo graviora, an Apostolic constitution Pope Pius VIII – Traditi humilitati, an encyclical in 1829 Pope Gregory XVI – Mirari vos, an encyclical in 1832 Pope Pius IX – Qui pluribus, an encyclical in 1846Leo XIII's denunciation of Freemasonry in Humanum genus can be seen as a call for Roman Catholics to oppose it in the context of his examination of socialism, his defence of Christian marriage, his ideas about the role of government. Because of the secrecy in Freemasonry, it was believed by the Holy See to have enormous disciplinary control over its members, which Leo viewed as enslavement. By this definition, although individual Masons may be decent people, those same individuals would be led to commit evil acts through their participation in Freemasonry.

Humanum genus leads with the presentation of the Augustinian dichotomy of the two cities, the City of Man and the City of God. The human race is presented as "separated into two diverse and opposite parts, of which the one steadfastly contends for truth and virtue, the other of those things which are contrary to virtue and to truth; the one is the kingdom of God on earth, the true Church of Jesus Christ... The other is the kingdom of Satan,", "led on or assisted" by Freemasonry:At every period of time each has been in conflict with the other, with a variety and multiplicity of weapons and of warfare, although not always with equal ardour and assault. At this period, the partisans of evil seems to be combining together, to be struggling with united vehemence, led on or assisted by that organized and widespread association called the Freemasons. No longer making any secret of their purposes, they are now boldly rising up against God Himself, they are planning the destruction of holy Church publicly and and this with the set purpose of utterly despoiling the nations of Christendom, if it were possible, of the blessings obtained for us through Jesus Christ our Saviour.

Lamenting these evils, We are constrained by the charity which urges Our heart to cry out to God: "For lo, Thy enemies have made a noise. They have taken a malicious counsel against Thy people, they have consulted against Thy saints, they have said,'come, let us destroy them, so that they be not a nation.' Humanum genus depicted the fundamental doctrine of Freemasonry as naturalism, asserting that this leads to deism and Gnosticism. This was seen as driving Freemasons headlong toward a fundamental clash with the teachings of the Church in light of Freemasons' support of separation of church and state by their efforts to enact and enforce civil constitutional obstacles to the establishment of state churches, it contrasted the idea of Original Sin in Catholic teaching to freemasonry and naturalism liberal approach:...human nature was stained by original sin, is therefore more disposed to vice than to virtue. For a virtuous life it is necessary to restrain the disorderly movements of the soul, to make t