Hurden is a village in the municipality of Freienbach in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. First mentioned in 1217, the name de Hurden was used for the peninsula and for the fish made of woven work, called Hürden or Hurden. The village of Hurden is located on an peninsula protruding from the shore of Lake Zürich at its narrowest point. The peninsula has its origin in the retreat of the Linth glacier at the end of the last glacial period when Lake Zürich was formed and this retreat left a moraine across the valley now occupied by Lake Zürich. The higher southern section of this moraine extends above the water level and forms the peninsular. Together these separate Lake Zürich into two parts, the lower lake to the north-west, and the smaller upper lake to the east. To the west of the Seedamm, there is a bridge for pedestrians. Since the construction of the Hurden ship canal, across the base of the peninsular, the Sternenbrücke bridge carries both road and railway across the ship canal. At Hurden the Frauenwinkel protected area is situated and its name origins from a donation by the emperor Otto I in 965 AD to the pin Unserer lieben Frau to the Einsiedeln Abbey.
The village is transited by the Rapperswil–Pfäffikon railway line and by a major road, Hurden railway station, in the village, is served by Zürich S-Bahn lines S5 and S40. In 1943 southern Hurden was divided by the construction of the Hurden ship canal, now the ships of the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft were able to pass from Lake Zürich to the upper Lake Zürich, and the peninsula actually was a real island which was cut off from the mainland. The Sternenbrücke bridge, across the Hurden ship canal, was renewed between March 15 and November 2010 to allow 40 ton trucks to cross the Seedamm, by 1358, ferry services between Rapperswil and Hurden are mentioned. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, a small wooden bridge from Ufenau island to Hurden is mentioned around 1430, so-called «Kilchweg in die Uffnow», meaning chorchgoing to the Ufnau island. During Old Zürich War in 1443 the bridge was set on fire, during the Helvetic Republic, in 1798, Hurden became part of the new established Distrikt Rapperswil in the Canton of Linth, and in 1803 it was part of the new established Pfäffikon.
In 1873 the Swiss federal parliament approved the construction of the todays stone dam, beginning in 1990, luxurious villas were widely built in Hurden, which in part on newly reclaimed area created for and with a private harbour. In 2001 a new footbridge was opened alongside the dam for the first 840 meters meters of the crossing. It was built in quite the same place as the bridge linking Rapperswil with the nearby bridge chapel. Because the lake has grown in size over time, the piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres
Stadtpfarrkirche St. Johann is a Roman Catholic parish church in the city of Rapperswil, canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland. The church is located next to Rapperswil Castle on the so-called Herrenberg hill to the northeast of Stadtmuseum Rapperswil. The Catholic city cemetery is situated to the north of the church, some meters to the northwest there is the so-called Liebfrauenkapelle situated, as of today its the cemeterys chapel and popular for weddings thanks to its location overlooking Kempratnerbucht at Kempraten lake shore. Rapperswil Castle, the walls of the former locus Endingen. The former parish church was located at Busskirch on upper Zürichsee lake shore, even the citizens of Rapperswil had to attend services in Busskirch until Count Rudolf II built his own parish church on he Herrenberg hill next to the castle. Legally, Rapperswil church was subordinated to 1253 the parish of St. Johann Busskirch, in 1489 the adjacent Liebfrauenkapelle was built, the cemetery chapel that still exists.
On 30 January 1881 the church was destroyed by fire. The Romanesque hall church and the church tower were built around 1220/29 by Count Rudolf II of Rappperswil. In 1441 a smaller but massively southern church tower was built, collection campaigns in 1493/97 allowed to rebuilt the hall church into a tripartite Gothic choir with arched ceiling and tracery windows. Following the Reformation in Switzerland, two Renaissance wing altars in the chapels were added respectively latter moved to other chappels. Advised by the art historian Johann Rudolf Rahn, the architect Xaver Müller rebuilt the destroyed building. The obtained towers were increased by 1.2 metres, a choir with neo-Gothic vaulting star was added, the nave extended by a few meters and a double wooden ceiling. The neo-Gothic altars and the pulpit are created by Atelier Marggraf in Munich, the rededication took place on October 6,1885. The large chandelier was built in 1894 by the company Benziger & Co. in Einsiedeln, renovations were done in 1959/60, in 1971/73 and 1981.
The church bells in the southern tower have a prominent sound by seven bells, one of 1537. The bells weight about 16,000 kilograms, on Saturdays at 3 pm for about eight minutes all the bells rung for Sunday. The pipe organ in the gallery was installed by Mathys Orgelbau AG in 1975, the parish St. Johann was founded by Count Rudolf III von Rapperswil in 1253, and is now the Catholic parish Rapperswil-Jona comprising about 3900 devotees and the area of the city of Rapperswil. John the Baptist is the saint of the parish since 1253
Rapperswil Castle is a castle, built in the early 13th century AD by the House of Rapperswil in the former independent city of Rapperswil. It is located on the eastern Zürichsee respectively western Obersee lakeshore in Rapperswil, since 1870, the castle has been home to the Polish National Museum established by Polish émigrés, including the castles lessee and restorer, Count Wladyslaw Broel-Plater. Schloss Rapperswil and the museum are listed in the Swiss inventory of property of national and regional significance as Class A objects of national importance. It is surrounded on three sides by the Lake Zürich and by upper section on the northwestern Seedamm area. The castle is situated next to Stadtpfarrkirche Rapperswil and the present cemetery chapel, Rapperswil Castle dates back around 1200 to 1220 AD, and it was first mentioned in 1229 on occasion of the foundation of the Rüti Abbey. As before in the 11th and 12th century AD, the family acted as Vogt of the Einsiedeln Abbey, sandstone from the Lützelau island was used to build the castle, the town walls and the city.
The chapel adjoining the ossuary dates back to the time when the parish passed from the Busskirch church to the Rapperswil church, the first chapel was associated to the castle, but the chapel was located outside of its walls and separated by a trench. The preceding building of the Liebfrauenkapelle was built as an ossuary around 1220 to 1253, the charnel house was first mentioned as intra cymeterium ecclesia, meaning church in the cemetery. The Counts of Rapperswil became extinct in 1283 with the death of the 18-year-old Count Rudolf V, the Herrschaft Rapperswil proper passed to the house of Homberg represented by Count Ludwig by fist marriage of Countess Elisabeth von Rapperswil. Around 1309 the bailiwick passed to Count Rudolf von Habsburg-Laufenburg by second marriage of Countess Elisabeth, in 1350 an attempted coup by the aristocratic opposition in the city of Zürich was forcefully put down, and the town walls of Rapperswil and the castle were destroyed by Rudolf Brun. Eis-zwei-Geissebei, a Carnival festival hold in Rapperswil on Shrove Tuesday, may go back to the siege, the battlements and the castle were rebuilt by Albrecht II, Duke of Austria in 1352/54.
After the extinction of the line of Habsburg-Laufenburg in 1442, the castle was given to the citizens of Rapperswil, over the course of time, the castle fell into disrepair. In 1870 the castle was leased for 99 years from the authorities by a post-November 1830 Uprising Polish émigré, Count Wladyslaw Broel-Plater. At his own expense he restored the castle, and on 23 October 1870 the Polish National Museum was established, except for two hiatuses, the museum has existed to the present day — an outpost of Polish culture in Switzerland. In 2008 some Rapperswil residents petitioned local authorities to evict the Polish Museum from its home in the castle, rebuilt by Duke Albert II, since 1354 the castle forms an almost equilateral triangle, and each corner of the castle is reinforced with a tower. The highest tower in the southwest is the donjon, commonly called Gügeliturm in Swiss-German language, the five-sided Zeitturm, a clock tower in the east, houses three bells and beside a sundial and two large clocks.
Between these two towers the castles six-storey palais is situated, in addition, ramparts respectively battlements are leading to the third tower in the northwest, the so-called Pulverturm. From 1698 to 1837 there was a drawbridge, at the present lower gate towards the castle chapel
Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are primarily as a protection against flooding. The shady space under the house can be used for work or storage, houses where permafrost is present, in the Arctic, are built on stilts to keep permafrost under them from melting. Permafrost can be up to 70% water, while it is frozen, it provides a stable foundation. If heat radiating from the bottom of a home melts the permafrost, other means of keeping the permafrost from melting are available, but raising the home off the ground on stilts is one of the most effective ways. In the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, stilt-house settlements were common in the Alpine, remains have been found at the Ljubljana Marshes in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for example. Reconstructed stilt houses are shown in museums in Unteruhldingen and Zürich. In June 2011, the pile dwellings in six Alpine states were designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
A single Scandinavian pile dwelling, the Alvastra stilt houses, has excavated in Sweden. According to archeological evidence, stilt-house settlements were a norm in the Caroline Islands and Micronesia. Today, stilt houses are still common in parts of the Mosquito Coast in northeastern Nicaragua, northern Brazil, South East Asia, Papua New Guinea. In the Alps, similar buildings, known as raccards, are still in use as granaries, in England, granaries are placed on staddle stones, similar to stilts, to prevent mice and rats getting to the grain. Stilted granaries are a feature in West Africa, e. g. in the Malinke language regions of Mali. Stilt houses are common in the western hemisphere, and appear to have been an indigenous creation by the Amerindians in pre-Columbian times. Palafitos are especially widespread along the banks of the river valleys of South America, notably the Amazon. Stilt houses were such a prevalent feature along the shores of Lake Maracaibo that Amerigo Vespucci was inspired to name the region Venezuela, as the costs of hurricane damage increase and more houses along the Gulf Coast are being built as or converted to stilt houses.
Stilt houses are a part of the Hollywood Hills, a neighborhood of Los Angeles at the Santa Monica Mountains. Kelong - Built primarily for fishing, but often doubling up as offshore dwellings in the countries, Malaysia, Indonesia
Canton of Schwyz
Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz. It is one of the cantons of Switzerland, Switzerlands Standard German name, die Schweiz, is derived from the name of the canton. For the history of the name, see Schwyz, the Swiss Federal Charter is on display in Schwyz. Northeast of the town of Schwyz is the Einsiedeln Abbey, the earliest traces of humans in Schwyz are from the Upper Paleolithic and Early Mesolithic or about 12,500 BC. An excavation of the karst caves in the valley of the Muota river revealed numerous sites, the alpine meadows at Bödmeren, Twärenen and Silberen were stone age hunter-gatherer camps. Ibex and red deer bones along with charcoal indicate that the animals were butchered and cooked in these camps, in 2009 the first stone age tool in the canton, a stone drill, was discovered. During the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age there were a number of pile dwellings, the two settlements at Hurden in Freienbach are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Hurden sites are related to the western Cortaillod culture, sites on the island of Lützelau and the shore zone at Freienbach are eastern Pfyn culture and Corded Ware culture. During the Bronze Age several bridges were built between the promontory of Endingen in Rapperswil, St. Gallen and the settlements at Hurden, over 200,000 posts and seven bridges have been discovered, along with several settlements and ritual sites. On the Schwyz side of the lake, ten different settlements from 4300-2700 BC have been discovered, after 1200 BC there is very little evidence for further Bronze Age settlements in the canton. Only eight Iron Age sites have been discovered in the canton from the 8th to 1st centuries BC, during the Roman era a Roman Vicus was established at Kempraten in Rapperswil around the massive bridge at Seedamm which crossed into Schwyz. A Gallo-Roman temple was built on Ufenau island around AD200 on the site of the present chapel of Sts, a few Roman coin hoards were discovered at Küssnacht and Rickenbach bei Schwyz and Küssnacht may have been the site of a Roman estate.
In 561 Schwyz became part of the Ducatus alamannorum and remained independent under the Alemanni dukes until the second quarter of the 8th century. The Alemanni began to settle into the valleys around 680, but for centuries the Germanic speaking Alemanni, Romansh remained the main language in Einsiedeln until the 10th century. In the 8th and 9th centuries the land was under the Counts of the Zürichgau, the low-laying land along Lake Zürich was relatively easy to reach and was settled throughout the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the Muotathal area was used by seasonal herders, Küssnacht was first mentioned in the 9th century, but it is likely that there were earlier settlements. The forests around Einsiedeln were lightly settled, a visit of the Irish monks and Columbanus in 611 is mentioned in the Gallusviten. However, their efforts were unsuccessful in Schwyz
The Walensee is one of the larger lakes in Switzerland. About 2/3 of its surface in the Canton of St. Gallen and it is known as Lake Walen or Lake Walenstadt, after Walenstadt. Other towns and villages at the lake include, Quinten, the three main rivers leading to this lake are the Seez and Linth. The latter continues its course from Walensee to Lake Zurich, the Schnittlauchinsel, located at the eastern end of the lake, is the only island in the Walensee. The Churfirsten range raises steeply on the side from the lakes level at 419 m to 2,306 m above sea level. On the south, the lake is overlooked by the massif of the Mürtschenstock, the highest point of the lakes drainage basin is the Tödi. The lake provided the inspiration for a piano piece by Hungarian romantic composer Franz Liszt. The piece is part of a collection of piano works inspired by the composers travels in 1830s Switzerland. Media related to Walensee at Wikimedia Commons Waterlevels of Walensee at Murg
Vitudurum is the name of a Roman Vicus, those remains are located in Oberwinterthur, a locality of the municipality of Winterthur in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Vitudurum was established nearby productive resources and a route from Lake Geneva to Lake Constance in the late first century BC or early first century AD. The Roman timber buildings were dated around 4 BC. In 7 AD the Romans rebuilt the passageway in the Oberwinterthur area into a road, starting from the villages center on the church hill at the beginning of the 1st century AD, a street village stretched at a length of about 500 metres having several insulae. The open settlement had its time in the 1st and 2nd centuries. During the Alamanii invasion, the vicus was replaced respectively fortified by a castrum on the present St. Arbogast church hill, the date of the construction of the fortification around 294 AD is documented by its inscription stone. At the same place the building of the St. Arbogast church was erected in the 6th/7th century.
To the south east, a residential and commercial district were situated at Unterer Bühl, there were found organic materials in a very good condition, besides basket fragments, scrap leather and wooden objects, a threshold beam and other parts of the house structures. About a wooden spring capture and wooden fresh water pipes were conducted in different houses, elaborately constructed and parcarefully covered wooden channels were used for sanitation. Comparable with the area, two rows of houses stretched towards the north-east. Individual staves of six vats, embedded in the floor of the date back in the 1st century. The numerous single finds, mostly from the 1st century, include wooden writing tablets with inscriptions, pottery fragments and a pair of shoe bars. After the first excavations in 1841 and 1853, soundings at the location of the castrum at the St. Arbogast church, on occasion of the rebuilding of the parish house Oberwinterthur, a rescue excavation was carried out from 1949 to 1951.
In 1957/59 followed excavations and research and in 1960 further excavations, in the area of the Vicus settlement remains of the European Neolithic, the early and late Bronze Age and grave remains of the Middle Bronze Age and the early Iron Age were uncovered. Rescue excavations were executed in late summer 2015, discovering the foundation holes of seven pit-houses from the 6th century in Hegmatten, individual finds include glass beads and knife blades, but various Roman coins, two Roman finger rings and parts of several Roman fibulae. The excavations of 2015 were continued in spring 2016, the inscription stone is exhibited in the old city of Winterthur at the Rathaus Winterthur. The area of the remains of the Vicus Vitudurm ist listed in the Swiss inventory of property of national and regional significance as Class A object of national importance. Hence, the area is provided as a site under federal protection, within the meaning of the Swiss Federal Act on the nature
Ufenau is an island located, with the neighbouring island of Lützelau, in Lake Zürich in Switzerland between Freienbach and Rapperswil. Highlights on Ufenau include St. Peter & Paul church, St. Martins chapel, Ufenau lies in Höfe district in the Canton of Schwyz. The island measures 112,645 m2 in all,470 m from east to west and 220 m from north to south, the highest point of the island is 423 m above sea level or 17 m above lake level on 406 m. Swimming and other activities are forbidden, as it is a protected area. On occasion of the formation of the Alps, the fossilized material of the body of water between the Ricken and Etzel chains unfolded. There arose the typical rock bands that form the Lindenhof hill in Rapperswil, or the islands of Ufnau, Lützelau, during the last Ice Age the island was under a thick layer of ice. Ufnau consists of two parallel ridges, the hard layers of conglomerate rock in the south and the northern sandstone ridge survived the sanding by the glacier. The first steamship stopped at the shore in 1857.
Tourist boat trips, run by the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft, sail between Zürich-Bürkliplatz and Rapperswil, but probably not be provided from 29 August 2016 to May 2018. In 1st and 2nd century, the remains of a Roman temple are dated, in 5th or 6th century, a first Christian church was built on this probably pre-Roman sacred area. Ufenau is first mentioned in 741 as «Hupinauia», and in 744 as «Ubinauvia» – island of Huppan or Huphan, probably between 900 and 920, the early Christian church was destroyed by the Huns. On 23 January 965, the island was given by Emperor Otto I to Einsiedeln Abbey, reginlinda died in 958 and is buried in Einsiedeln. In 973 Saint Adalrich died on Ufenau, in 1798 the Helvetic Republic secularized the Einsiedeln Abbeys property, and Ufenau was given to the non-durable Canton of Linth. In 1805 Ufenau was given by the merchant Family Curti from Rapperswil to the Einsiedeln Abbey,5800 Vitis vinifera Blauburgunder were planted in 1986. The Einsiedeln Abbey owns 1 hectare of the Ufenau vineyards which are cultivated by its winery, on 7 December 2003 the Ufenau association was founded, one year «Freunde der Insel Ufnau».
Friends of Ufenau island is a club to finance some projects for maintenance of the buildings located on the island. It supports a long-time idea called «Insel der Stille», inlcluding a path way for disabled people around the island, the present St. Peter & Paul church was built in 1141/42 and renewed in 1958/59. For hundred of years, it was the church for the people living in the surrounding villages of Lake Zürichs upper shores
Marcus Aurelius was Emperor of Rome from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus death in 169, Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. He was a practitioner of Stoicism, and his untitled writing, during his reign, the Roman Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East, Aurelius general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately, the major sources for the life and rule of Marcus Aurelius are patchy and frequently unreliable. For Marcus life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Lucius Verus are largely reliable, a body of correspondence between Marcus tutor Fronto and various Antonine officials survives in a series of patchy manuscripts, covering the period from c.138 to 166. Marcus own Meditations offer a window on his life, but are largely undateable. The main narrative source for the period is Cassius Dio, a Greek senator from Bithynian Nicaea who wrote a history of Rome from its founding to 229 in eighty books.
Dio is vital for the history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices. Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources, Marcus family originated in Ucubi, a small town southeast of Córdoba in Iberian Baetica. Verus elder son—Marcus Aurelius father—Marcus Annius Verus married Domitia Lucilla, Lucilla was the daughter of the patrician P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso and the elder Domitia Lucilla. The elder Domitia Lucilla had inherited a fortune from her maternal grandfather and her paternal grandfather by adoption. Lucilla and Verus had two children, a son, born on 26 April 121 AD, and a daughter, Annia Cornificia Faustina, Verus probably died in 124 AD, during his praetorship, when Marcus was only three years old. Though he can hardly have known him, Marcus Aurelius wrote in his Meditations that he had learned modesty and manliness from his memories of his father, following prevailing aristocratic customs, probably did not spend much time with her son. Marcus was in the care of nurses, even so, Marcus credits his mother with teaching him religious piety, simplicity in diet and how to avoid the ways of the rich.
In his letters, Marcus makes frequent and affectionate reference to her, he was grateful that, although she was fated to die young, yet she spent her last years with me. After his fathers death, Aurelius was raised by his paternal grandfather Marcus Annius Verus who, technically this was not an adoption, since an adoption would be the legal creation of a new and different patria potestas. Another man, Lucius Catilius Severus, participated in his upbringing, Severus is described as Marcus maternal great-grandfather, he is probably the stepfather of the elder Lucilla. Marcus was raised in his parents home on the Caelian Hill and it was an upscale region, with few public buildings but many aristocratic villas