Marysville is a city in and the county seat of Union County, United States 27 mi NW of Columbus. The population was 22,094 at the 2010 census; this marks a 38.59% increase from 2000. Marysville's longtime slogan is "Where the Grass is Greener". In December 2008, Marysville was designated as a "Preserve America Community" by the First Lady Laura Bush. Marysville was part of Northwest Territory, became part of the Virginia Military District within that territory, became part of the state of Ohio. One of the original surveyors of the area was James Galloway, Jr. who first visited in 1805. Marysville was founded in 1819 by Samuel W. Cuthbertson, who named the town after his daughter Mary, along the small waterway of Mill Creek. After the organization of the county by the Ohio Legislature, Marysville was designated as the seat of Union County; the first recorded meeting of the commissioners was in 1820. Between 1835 and 1840, a courthouse was constructed. A new dedicated courthouse would be built in Marysville on January 27, 1883, presently in use.
In 1849, a county infirmary was authorized. The first county jail was a log structure that sat on the south side of East Center street, in the rear of the courthouse. A new jail was authorized by the commissioners and built in the 1870s. In 1878 the county purchased a 10-ton safe for the treasury, moved into courthouse; the first county fair was held in 1847 in the public square. In 1852, the Agriculture Society moved the fair on the north side of town. Marysville was laid out in 1820; the first permanent settlement was made by Abraham Amrine, of Swiss descent, in 1817, two miles north of the city. Today the main road leading to the high school is named Amrine-Mill Rd. In 1824, the first post office was established. At this time, there were only four families in the village. In 1828, Marysville's first school was established in the east side of town using a log cabin as its building structure. By 1839, there were three schools operating in the town. In 1843, the first high school was opened by Caroline Humphrey, by 1850 there was a Board of Education making annual reports to the voters.
In 1837, the Ohio Gazetteer published that Marysville was a small post town consisting of a court house, a jail, forty-five dwelling houses, one tavern, three stores, one practicing physician, two attorneys and about 250 inhabitants. By 1846, Marysville had 360 inhabitants, three small dry goods stores, two churches, a private school, a newspaper office. Early Marysville businesses during this period included McClouds Drug Store on the south side of the square, the Cheap Cash Store, the American Hotel, the W. W. Woods store, Hare and Hughes, a hat business located on the southwest corner of the square. Several locals ran personal unnamed businesses; the village was incorporated with Otway Curry elected as the first mayor. Ladders were first purchased for a fire department in 1845, by 1865 the village had purchased the first fire engine; the commissioners petitioned for a fire house, but it would not be built until 1906, being a two level brick building. A census in 1859 showed. By 1865, Marysville had six dry goods stores, one hardware store, nine or ten groceries, a mill, a woolen factory, most of the trades and professions.
It was growing by this point. In 1877, the town council decided to build a city hall on the southeast corner of South, it would be completed in 1878, house the council rooms, public library, fire department rooms, city prison. An opera house would be constructed as well. In 1877, a fine building was erected on the eastside of town for education, it had ten rooms for educational purposes, other rooms for various purposes, an exhibition hall on the upper floor. The Agassiz Scientific and Historical Society of Marysville was organized in 1879, placed in the East school building, their museum was placed in the same building. By 1888, Marysville had earned itself the title of “the Shaded City” because of its tree-lined streets, by 1890, its population increased to 2,832 residents. Marysville's industrial roots can be traced back to many early companies. Among those were the Marysville Pearlash Factory, an ashery founded in 1848, which by 1874 was the largest in the United States; the first steam-grist mill was erected in 1856 by Casil.
In 1867, Miller & Snodgrass constructed a flour mill. In 1874, Marysville Butter Tub and Spoke Company was incorporated with $50,000. A wool company, Woodbury & Welsh, constructed a factory out of brick in the northeast part of town in 1864, a brewery was built in 1866 on the east side. In 1868, O. M. Scotts and Company was organized. In 1871, the Marysville Cheese Manufacturing Company was built on the east side. Many carriage manufacturing companies operated in Marysville, including Bauer, Schepper & Devine in 1882, City Carriage Works in 1871, L. E. Helium in 1874. In 1875 Rice, Fleck & Co. opened a lumberyard. The Marysville Gas Light Company was incorporated in 1878 following a decade of the city using gasoline for lighting; the Bank of Marysville was opened in 1854, the Farmer's Bank of Union County in 1868 located on the southeast corner of the square, the People's Bank in 1874. In 1827 the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized. In 1856 the church dedicated a new building on East Center street.
The first 4 July celebrations were held in 1828. In 1840, Otway Curry, a poet of national fame and resident of Marysville, wrote the "Log Cabin Song." It would inspire the Log Cabin Campaign of William Henry Harrison, who would go on to win the Presidential election that year
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
Overhead camshaft abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves and pushrods. Compared with OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system that drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance and greater design flexibility; the fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the engine's ability to exchange induction and exhaust gases. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length.
The OHC design allows for higher engine speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output. Disadvantages of the OHC design include the complexity of the camshaft drive, the need to re-time the drive system each time the cylinder head is removed, the accessibility of tappet adjustment if necessary. In earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design. In an inline engine, this means there is one camshaft in the head, whilst in an engine with more than one cylinder head, such as a V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine – there are two camshafts, one per cylinder bank. In the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves traditionally via a bucket tappet. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads. Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure.
SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the Hillman Imp, a small, early-1960s two-door saloon car with a rear-mounted aluminium-alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block; this did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs. In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder; the Toyota system used hydraulic tappets. The Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve-clearance adjustment; the multivalve Sprint version of the Triumph Slant-4 engine used a system where the camshaft was placed directly over the inlet valves, with the same cams that opened the intake valves directly opening the exhaust valves via rocker arms.
Honda used a similar valvetrain system in their motorcycles, using the term "Unicam" for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the inlet valve, indirectly, through a short rocker arm, on the exhaust valve; this allows a light valvetrain to operate valves in a flat combustion chamber. The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes and has been used on the Honda VFR1200 since 2010. A dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves; this design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with an SOHC engine, since the rocker arms are reduced in size or eliminated. A DOHC design exhaust valves than in SOHC engines; this can give a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug, which in turn improves combustion efficiency.
Engines having more than one bank of cylinders with two camshafts in total remain SOHC and "twin cam" unless each cylinder bank has two camshafts. Although the term "twin cam" is used to refer to DOHC engines, it is imprecise, as it includes designs with two block-mounted camshafts. Examples include the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam engine, Riley car engines from 1926 to the mid 1950s, Triumph motorcycle parallel-twins from the 1930s to the 1980s, Indian Chief and Scout V-twins from 1920 to the 1950s; the terms "multivalve" and "DOHC" do not refer to the same thing: not all multivalve engines are DOHC and not all DOHC engines are multivalve. Examples of DOHC engines with two valves per cylinder include the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, the Jaguar XK6 engine and the Lotus Ford Twin Cam engine. Most recent DOHC engines are multivalve, with between five valves per cylinder. More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production engine. However, MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead camshaft configuration, with the intake ports descending through the cylind
Radiator (engine cooling)
Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines in automobiles but in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine. Internal combustion engines are cooled by circulating a liquid called engine coolant through the engine block, where it is heated through a radiator where it loses heat to the atmosphere, returned to the engine. Engine coolant is water-based, but may be oil, it is common to employ a water pump to force the engine coolant to circulate, for an axial fan to force air through the radiator. In automobiles and motorcycles with a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine, a radiator is connected to channels running through the engine and cylinder head, through which a liquid is pumped; this liquid may be water, but is more a mixture of water and antifreeze in proportions appropriate to the climate. Antifreeze itself is ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. A typical automotive cooling system comprises: a series of channels cast into the engine block and cylinder head, surrounding the combustion chambers with circulating liquid to carry away heat.
The radiator transfers the heat from the fluid inside to the air outside, thereby cooling the fluid, which in turn cools the engine. Radiators are often used to cool automatic transmission fluids, air conditioner refrigerant, intake air, sometimes to cool motor oil or power steering fluid. Radiators are mounted in a position where they receive airflow from the forward movement of the vehicle, such as behind a front grill. Where engines are mid- or rear-mounted, it is common to mount the radiator behind a front grill to achieve sufficient airflow though this requires long coolant pipes. Alternatively, the radiator may draw air from the flow over the top of the vehicle or from a side-mounted grill. For long vehicles, such as buses, side airflow is most common for engine and transmission cooling and top airflow most common for air conditioner cooling. Automobile radiators are constructed of a pair of header tanks, linked by a core with many narrow passageways, giving a high surface area relative to volume.
This core is made of stacked layers of metal sheet, pressed to form channels and soldered or brazed together. For many years radiators were made from copper cores soldered to brass headers. Modern radiators have aluminum cores, save money and weight by using plastic headers; this construction is more prone to failure and less repaired than traditional materials. An earlier construction method was the honeycomb radiator. Round tubes were swaged into hexagons at their ends stacked together and soldered; as they only touched at their ends, this formed what became in effect a solid water tank with many air tubes through it. Some vintage cars use radiator cores made from coiled tube, a less efficient but simpler construction. Radiators first used downward vertical flow, driven by a thermosyphon effect. Coolant is heated in the engine, becomes less dense, so rises; as the radiator cools the fluid, the coolant falls. This effect is sufficient for low-power stationary engines, but inadequate for all but the earliest automobiles.
All automobiles for many years have used centrifugal pumps to circulate the engine coolant because natural circulation has low flow rates. A system of valves or baffles, or both, is incorporated to operate a small radiator inside the vehicle; this small radiator, the associated blower fan, is called the heater core, serves to warm the cabin interior. Like the radiator, the heater core acts by removing heat from the engine. For this reason, automotive technicians advise operators to turn on the heater and set it to high if the engine is overheating, to assist the main radiator; the engine temperature on modern cars is controlled by a wax-pellet type of thermostat, a valve which opens once the engine has reached its optimum operating temperature. When the engine is cold, the thermostat is closed except for a small bypass flow so that the thermostat experiences changes to the coolant temperature as the engine warms up. Engine coolant is directed by the thermostat to the inlet of the circulating pump and is returned directly to the engine, bypassing the radiator.
Directing water to circulate only through the engine allows the engine to reach optimum operating temperature as as possible whilst avoiding localised "hot spots." Once the coolant reaches the thermostat's activation temperature, it opens, allowing water to flow through the radiator to prevent the temperature rising higher. Once at optimum temperature, the thermostat controls the flow of engine coolant to the radiator so that the engine continues to operate at optimum temperature. Under peak load conditions, such as driving up a steep hill whilst laden on a hot day, the thermostat will be approaching open because the engine will be producing near to maximum power while the velocity of air flow across the radiator is low. Conversely, when cruising fast downhill on a motorway on a cold night on a light throttle, the thermostat will be nearly clos
Honda Gold Wing
The Honda Gold Wing is a series of touring motorcycles manufactured by Honda. Gold Wings feature shaft drive, a flat engine. Introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1974, the Gold Wing went on to become a popular model in North America, Western Europe and Australia, as well as Japan. Total sales are more than 640,000, most of them in the U. S. market. Gold Wings were manufactured in Marysville, Ohio from 1980 until 2010, when motorcycle production there was halted. No Gold Wings were produced for the 2011 model year; the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan includes a Honda Gold Wing GL1000 manufactured in 1974 as one of their 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Through 2012, Honda GL models have appeared eighteen times in the Cycle World list of Ten Best bikes. Over the course of its production history, the Gold Wing had many design changes. Beginning in 1975 with a 999 cc flat-four engine, by 2001 this had grown to a 1,832 cc flat-six; the 2012 model had anti-lock braking, cruise control, electrically-assisted reverse gear, an optional airbag, a fairing with heating and an adjustable windscreen, panniers and a trunk, a pillion backrest, a six-speaker radio/audio system with MP3/iPod connectivity.
In 1972, following the success of the ground-breaking CB750 superbike, the company assembled an R&D design team to explore concepts for a new flagship motorcycle. The project leader was Shoichiro Irimajiri, who in the 1960s had designed Honda’s multi-cylinder MotoGP engines and their Formula One V12 engine; the 1974 Gold Wing with its flat-four shaft-drive powertrain used technologies both from earlier motorcycle and automotive designs. Although preceded by the 1971 water-cooled Suzuki GT750 two-stroke triple, the Gold Wing was the first Japanese production motorcycle with a water-cooled four-stroke engine; the first four-cylinder boxer engine was produced in 1900. During its development, the CB750 was known within Honda as their "King of Motorcycles". Honda first envisaged the Gold Wing as a large sport motorcycle, but on learning that customers were "piling miles on touring", Honda reconsidered the bike’s design objectives, realising that the primary market for the Gold Wing was the long-distance motorcyclist.
In North America a motorcycle suitable to that task would need comfort for the long haul, wind protection, a smooth ride, a comfortable seat, luggage storage, power in abundance. In American in the early 1970s, long-distance motorcyclists had only a few manufacturers to choose from: Harley-Davidson, Moto Guzzi and BMW; the H-D Electra Glide was a comfortable, high-maintenance and high-vibration motorcycle with a loyal cult following. It faced strong competition from Moto Guzzi's 850cc Eldorado. BMW motorcycles were more reliable, if expensive. Other large Japanese motorcycles, such as the Honda CB750 and the Kawasaki Z1 were cheaper but were not ideal tourers with their small fuel tanks and rear drive-chains needing regular maintenance; the Gold Wing was aimed at a newly-emerging market segment namely, a new kind of American long distance rider not to buy a Harley-Davidson or BMW but who would open their wallets for an affordable machine offering comfort, low-maintenance and a smooth, quiet engine.
The Gold Wing's secondary target market was Europe, where riders prioritised handling and performance over luxury.. In 1972, the project team broke from Honda practice to produce an experimental prototype motorcycle, code-named "M1". Instead of the usual transverse engine layout with a chain final drive, the M1 had a longitudinal engine suitable for shaft drive; the M1 had a 1470cc liquid-cooled flat-six engine. Instead of seeking high performance the M1 engine was designed to have a broad torque output and to produce 80 horsepower at 6700 rpm, with a top speed of 220 kilometres per hour; the brainstorming team's M1 project was never intended as a production prototype. Nonetheless, the M1 should be seen as the primordial Gold Wing because so many of its distinctive features appeared on the GL1000; the flat-six gave the M1 a low center of gravity, enhancing stability, but the extreme length of the engine/gearbox unit resulted in a cramped riding position. Instead, the project team chose to build a bike with a compact one liter flat-four engine.
This bike was code-named "Project 371", Toshio Nozue took over from Irimajiri as project leader. The Project 371 team settled on a layout that became the characteristic Gold Wing: a liquid-cooled flat-four SOHC engine, with a gear-driven generator that contra-rotated to counteract the engine's torque reaction. Cylinder blocks and crankcase were integral, with the transmission situated beneath the crankcase to keep the unit construction engine as short as possible. Final drive was by shaft. Before going on sale in the US and in Europe in 1975, the Gold Wing was revealed to dealers in September 1974 at American Honda's annual dealer meeting in Las Vegas, shown to the public the following month at the IFMA in Cologne. Small fairings had been mounted on two of the show models at the US dealer show in Las Vegas; these Honda-designed fairings were to be manufactured in the US by the Vetter Fairing Company and sold as Hondaline accessories. The Gold Wing was born into the world naked, lacking sa
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov
In physics, power is the rate of doing work or of transferring heat, i.e. the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. Having no direction, it is a scalar quantity. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the joule per second, known as the watt in honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the condenser steam engine. Another common and traditional measure is horsepower. Being the rate of work, the equation for power can be written: power = work time As a physical concept, power requires both a change in the physical system and a specified time in which the change occurs; this is distinct from the concept of work, only measured in terms of a net change in the state of the physical system. The same amount of work is done when carrying a load up a flight of stairs whether the person carrying it walks or runs, but more power is needed for running because the work is done in a shorter amount of time; the output power of an electric motor is the product of the torque that the motor generates and the angular velocity of its output shaft.
The power involved in moving a vehicle is the product of the traction force of the wheels and the velocity of the vehicle. The rate at which a light bulb converts electrical energy into light and heat is measured in watts—the higher the wattage, the more power, or equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit time; the dimension of power is energy divided by time. The SI unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. Other units of power include ergs per second, metric horsepower, foot-pounds per minute. One horsepower is equivalent to 33,000 foot-pounds per minute, or the power required to lift 550 pounds by one foot in one second, is equivalent to about 746 watts. Other units include a logarithmic measure relative to a reference of 1 milliwatt. Power, as a function of time, is the rate at which work is done, so can be expressed by this equation: P = d W d t where P is power, W is work, t is time; because work is a force F applied over a distance x, W = F ⋅ x for a constant force, power can be rewritten as: P = d W d t = d d t = F ⋅ d x d t = F ⋅ v In fact, this is valid for any force, as a consequence of applying the fundamental theorem of calculus.
As a simple example, burning one kilogram of coal releases much more energy than does detonating a kilogram of TNT, but because the TNT reaction releases energy much more it delivers far more power than the coal. If ΔW is the amount of work performed during a period of time of duration Δt, the average power Pavg over that period is given by the formula P a v g = Δ W Δ t, it is the average amount of energy converted per unit of time. The average power is simply called "power" when the context makes it clear; the instantaneous power is the limiting value of the average power as the time interval Δt approaches zero. P = lim Δ t → 0 P a v g = lim Δ t → 0 Δ W Δ t = d W d t. In the case of constant power P, the amount of work performed during a period of duration t is given by: W = P t. In the context of energy conversion, it is more customary to use the symbol E rather than W. Power in mechanical systems is the combination of forces and movement. In particular, power is the product of a force on an object and the object's velocity, or the product of a torque on a shaft and the shaft's angular velocity.
Mechanical power is described as the time derivative of work. In mechanics, the work done by a force F on an object that travels along a curve C is given by the line integral: W C = ∫ C F ⋅ v d t = ∫ C F ⋅ d x, where x defines the path C and v is the velocity along this path. If the force F is derivable from a potential applying the gradi