Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection. Common nectar-consuming pollinators include mosquitoes, wasps, bees and moths, hummingbirds and bats. Nectar plays an important role in the foraging economics and overall evolution of nectar-eating species. Nectar is the sugar source for honey, it is useful in agriculture and horticulture because the adult stages of some predatory insects feed on nectar. For example, the social wasp species Apoica flavissima relies on nectar as a primary food source. In turn, these wasps hunt agricultural pest insects as food for their young. For example, thread-waisted wasps are known for hunting caterpillars. Caterpillars however, do become butterflies and moths, which are important pollinators. Nectar secretion increases as the flower is visited by pollinators.
After pollination, the nectar is reabsorbed into the plant. Nectar is derived from the fabled drink of Greek gods; the word is derived as a compound of nek, meaning death, tar, meaning the ability to overcome. The common use of nectar refers to the "sweet liquid in flowers", first recorded in AD 1600. A nectary is floral tissue found in different locations in the flower; the different types of floral nectaries include sepal nectaries, petal nectaries, staminal nectaries found on the stamen, gynoecial nectaries found on the ovary tissue. The nectaries may vary in color and symmetry. Nectaries can be categorized as structural or non-structural. Structural nectaries refer to specific areas of tissue that exude nectar, such as the types of floral nectaries listed. Non-structural nectaries secrete nectar infrequently from non-differentiated tissues; the different types of floral nectaries coevolved depending on the pollinator that feeds on the plant's nectar. Nectar is secreted from epidermal cells of the nectaries by means of modified stomata.
The nectar comes from phloem with additional sugars that are secreted from the cells through vesicles packaged by the endoplasmic reticulum. Flowers that have longer nectaries sometimes have a vascular strand in the nectary to assist in transport over a longer distance.. Floral nectaries are used by plants to attract pollinators such as insects and other vertebrates; the pollinators feed on the nectar and depending on the location of the nectary the pollinator assists in fertilization and outcrossing of the plant as they brush against the reproductive organs, the stamen and pistil, of the plant and pick up or deposit pollen. Nectar from floral nectaries is sometimes used as a reward to insects, such as ants, that protect the plant from predators. Many floral families have evolved a nectar spur; these spurs are projections of various lengths formed from different tissues, such as the petals or sepals. They allow for pollinators to land on the elongated tissue and more reach the nectaries and obtain the nectar reward.
Different characteristics of the spur, such as its length or position in the flower, may determine the type of pollinator that visits the flower. Defense from herbivory is one of the roles of extrafloral nectaries. Floral nectaries can be involved in defense. In addition to the sugars found in nectar, certain proteins may be found in nectar secreted by floral nectaries. In tobacco plants, these proteins have antimicrobial and antifungal properties and can be secreted to defend the gynoecium from certain pathogens. Floral nectaries have evolved and diverged into the different types of nectaries due to the various pollinators that visit the flowers. In Melastomataceae, different types of floral nectaries have been lost many times. Flowers that ancestrally produced nectar and had nectaries may have lost their ability to produce nectar due to a lack of nectar consumption by pollinators, such as certain species of bees. Instead they focused on energy allocation to pollen production. Species of angiosperms that have nectaries use the nectar to attract pollinators that consume the nectar, such as birds and butterflies.
In Bromeliaceae, septal nectaries are common in species that are bird pollinated. In species that are wind pollinated, nectaries are absent because there is no pollinator to provide a reward for. In flowers that are pollinated by long-tongued organism such as certain flies, moths and birds, nectaries in the ovaries are common because they are able to reach the nectar reward when pollinating. Sepal and petal nectaries are more common in species that are pollinated by short-tongued insects that cannot reach so far into the flower. Extrafloral nectaries are nectar-secreting plant glands that develop outside of flowers and are not involved in pollination, they are diverse in form, location and mechanism. They have been described in all above-ground plant parts—including leaves, stipules, cotyledons and stems, among others, they range from single-celled trichomes to complex cup-like structures that may or may not be vascularized. In contrast to floral nectaries, nectar produced outside the flower have a defensive function.
The nectar attracts predatory insects whic
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year that are always green. This is true if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates, contrasts with deciduous plants, which lose their foliage during the winter or dry season. There are many different kinds of both trees and shrubs. Evergreens include: most species of conifers, but not all live oak, "ancient" gymnosperms such as cycads most angiosperms from frost-free climates, such as eucalypts and rainforest trees clubmosses and relativesThe Latin binomial term sempervirens, meaning "always green", refers to the evergreen nature of the plant, for instance Cupressus sempervirens Lonicera sempervirens Sequoia sempervirens Leaf persistence in evergreen plants varies from a few months to several decades. Deciduous trees shed their leaves as an adaptation to a cold or dry/wet season. Evergreen trees do lose leaves, but each tree loses its leaves and not all at once. Most tropical rainforest plants are considered to be evergreens, replacing their leaves throughout the year as the leaves age and fall, whereas species growing in seasonally arid climates may be either evergreen or deciduous.
Most warm temperate climate plants are evergreen. In cool temperate climates, fewer plants are evergreen, with a predominance of conifers, as few evergreen broadleaf plants can tolerate severe cold below about −26 °C. In areas where there is a reason for being deciduous, e.g. a cold season or dry season, being evergreen is an adaptation to low nutrient levels. Deciduous trees lose nutrients. In warmer areas, species such as some pines and cypresses grow on disturbed ground. In Rhododendron, a genus with many broadleaf evergreens, several species grow in mature forests but are found on acidic soil where the nutrients are less available to plants. In taiga or boreal forests, it is too cold for the organic matter in the soil to decay so the nutrients in the soil are less available to plants, thus favouring evergreens. In temperate climates, evergreens can reinforce their own survival; these conditions favour the growth of more evergreens and make it more difficult for deciduous plants to persist.
In addition, the shelter provided by existing evergreen plants can make it easier for younger evergreen plants to survive cold and/or drought. Semi-deciduous Helen Ingersoll. "Evergreens". Encyclopedia Americana
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
An aroma compound known as an odorant, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. A chemical compound has a smell or odor when it is sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose. Molecules meeting this specification have molecular weights of less than 300. Flavors affect both the sense of smell, whereas fragrances affect only smell. Flavors tend to be occurring, fragrances tend to be synthetic. Aroma compounds can be found in food, spices, floral scent, fragrance oils, essential oils. For example, many form biochemically during the ripening of other crops. In wines, most form as byproducts of fermentation. Many of the aroma compounds play a significant role in the production of flavorants, which are used in the food service industry to flavor and increase the appeal of their products. An odorizer may add a detectable odor to a dangerous odorless substance, like propane, natural gas, or hydrogen, as a safety measure. Note: Carvone, depending on its chirality, offers two different smells.
Furaneol 1-Hexanol cis-3-Hexen-1-ol Menthol High concentrations of aldehydes tend to be pungent and overwhelming, but low concentrations can evoke a wide range of aromas. Acetaldehyde Hexanal cis-3-Hexenal Furfural Hexyl cinnamaldehyde Isovaleraldehyde – nutty, cocoa-like Anisic aldehyde – floral, hawthorn, it is a crucial component of chocolate, strawberry, raspberry and others. Cuminaldehyde – Spicy, cumin-like, green Fructone Hexyl acetate Ethyl methylphenylglycidate Cyclopentadecanone Dihydrojasmone Oct-1-en-3-one 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline 6-Acetyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine gamma-Decalactone intense peach flavor gamma-Nonalactone coconut odor, popular in suntan lotions delta-Octalactone creamy note Jasmine lactone powerful fatty-fruity peach and apricot Massoia lactone powerful creamy coconut Wine lactone sweet coconut odor Sotolon Thioacetone A studied organosulfur, its smell is so potent it can be detected several hundred meters downwind mere seconds after a container is opened. Allyl thiol methanethiol, the "mouse thiol", found in mouse urine and functions as a semiochemical for female mice Ethanethiol called ethyl mercaptan 2-Methyl-2-propanethiol called tert-butyl mercaptan, is added as a blend of other components to natural gas used as fuel gas.
Butane-1-thiol called butyl mercaptan, is a chemical intermediate. Grapefruit mercaptan Methanethiol called methyl mercaptan Furan-2-ylmethanethiol called furfuryl mercaptan Benzyl mercaptan Methylphosphine and dimethylphosphine Phosphine Diacetyl Acetoin Nerolin Tetrahydrothiophene 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole Substituted pyrazines Animals that are capable of smell detect aroma compounds with their olfactory receptors. Olfactory receptors are cell-membrane receptors on the surface of sensory neurons in the olfactory system that detect airborne aroma compounds. Aroma compounds can be identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, which involves a human operator sniffing the GC effluent. In mammals, olfactory receptors are expressed on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. In 2005–06, fragrance mix was the third-most-prevalent allergen in patch tests.'Fragrance' was voted Allergen of the Year in 2007 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. A recent academic study in the United States has shown that "34.7 % of the population reported health problems, such as migraine headaches and respiratory difficulties, when exposed to fragranced products".
The composition of fragrances is not disclosed in the label of products, hiding the actual chemicals of the formula, which raises concerns among some consumers. Fragrances are regulated in the United States by the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 that "grandfathered" existing chemicals without further review or testing and put the burden of proof that a new substance is not safe on the EPA; the EPA, does not conduct independent safety testing but relies on data provided by the manufacturer. In 2010 the International Fragrance Association published a list of 3,059 chemicals used in 2011 based on a voluntary survey of its members, it was estimated to represent about 90% of the world's production volume of fragrances. Flavour and Fragrance Journal Fragrances of the World Foodpairing Odor Odor detection threshold Olfaction Olfactory system Olfactory receptor Odorizer, a device for adding an odorant to gas flowing through a pipe Pheromone Aroma of wine Eau de toilette
A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Lonicera japonica, known as Japanese honeysuckle and golden-and-silver honeysuckle, is a species of honeysuckle native to eastern Asia including China and Korea. It is a twining vine able to climb up to 10 m high or more in trees, with opposite, simple oval leaves 3–8 cm long and 2–3 cm broad; the flowers are double-tongued, opening white and fading to yellow, sweetly vanilla scented. The fruit is a black spherical berry 3–4 mm diameter containing a few seeds, it is an invasive species in a number of countries. This species is sold by American nurseries as the cultivar'Hall's Prolific', in the UK as the cultivar'Halliana'; the cultivar is known as Hall's Japanese honeysuckle. It has pleasant, strong-smelling flowers, it can be cultivated by cuttings, or layering. In addition, it will spread itself via shoots; the variety L. japonica var. repens has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Japanese honeysuckle flowers are edible to humans and appreciated for their sweet-tasting nectar.
The flowers can be a significant source of food for deer, rabbits and other wildlife. In traditional Chinese medicine, Lonicera japonica is called rěn dōng téng or jīn yín huā. Alternative Chinese names include shuang hua. In Korean, it is called geumeunhwa; the dried leaves and flowers are employed in traditional Chinese medicine, being used to treat fever, cough and sore throat. Japanese honeysuckle has become naturalized in Argentina, Brazil, New Zealand, much of the US, including Hawaii, as well as a number of Pacific and Caribbean islands, it is classified as a noxious weed in Texas and Virginia, is banned in New Hampshire. It is listed on the New Zealand National Pest Plant Accord as an unwanted organism, it grows rapidly in parts of America such as southwestern Ohio and is impossible to control in woodland edge zones due to its rapid spread via tiny fruit seeds. Japanese honeysuckle was first found in the US in the late 1800s in Ohio, it aggressively grows over native shrubs and trees, choking them, can form mat-like monocultures that prevent the establishment of native species.
The succession cycle of a forest is not all that different than a human life span - 70 to 100 years. Accordingly, it is the aggressive displacement that poses a long term threat to future generations of native forests, it is very difficult to manage in semi-wild areas such as in large rural yards. It can be controlled to some degree via labor-intensive methods such as cutting or burning the plant to root level and repeating at two-week intervals until nutrient reserves in the roots are depleted, it can be controlled through annual applications of glyphosate, or through grubbing if high labor and soil destruction are not of concern. Cutting the honeysuckle to within 5–10 cm of the ground and applying glyphosate has proven to be more effective, provided that the mixture is rather concentrated and is applied after making the cut. In urban environments of Southwest Ohio where deer population is high, some level of longer-term management has been observed by cutting the honeysuckle to within 18-24" of the ground.
Grazing deer slow down regrowth. Once the canopy from a stand of honeysuckle or that of an individual plant exceeds the grazing height of deer, this control method is ineffective; as as the late 1990s, Japanese honeysuckle was not considered to be part of a deer's diet, but by 2010 urban deer in southwest Ohio could be observed grazing on it with enthusiasm freshly cut honeysuckle stocks. Lonicera japonica contains methyl caffeate, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, methyl 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinate, protocatechuic acid, methyl chlorogenic acid, luteolin; the two biflavonoids, 3′-O-methyl loniflavone and loniflavone, along with luteolin and chrysin, can be isolated from the leaves. Other phenolic compounds present in the plant are hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid; the two secoiridoid glycosides, loniceracetalides A and B, can be isolated, together with 10 known iridoid glycosides, from the flower buds. The plant contains the saponins loniceroside A and B and the antiinflammatory loniceroside C.
Plants For A Future: Lonicera japonica Species Profile- Japanese Honeysuckle, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Japanese Honeysuckle
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms