Honeywell International Inc. is an American publicly-traded, conglomerate company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, United States comprised of 4 business units—Aerospace, Building Technologies, Performance Materials & Technologies, Safety & Productivity Solutions —which produce aerospace systems, industrial products, engineering services. Honeywell is a Fortune 100 company, was ranked 77th in 2018; the company has a global workforce of 110,000, of whom 44,000 are employed in the United States. The current chairman and chief executive officer is Darius Adamczyk; the company's current name, Honeywell International Inc. is the product of a merger in which Honeywell Inc. was acquired by the much larger AlliedSignal in 1999. The company headquarters were consolidated with AlliedSignal's headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey. Honeywell was a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average index from 1999 to 2008; the Butz Thermo-Electric Regulator Company was founded in 1885 when the Swiss-born Albert Butz invented the damper-flapper, a thermostat for coal furnaces, to automatically regulate heating systems.
The following year he founded the Butz Thermo-Electric Regulator Company. In 1888, after a falling out with his investors, Butz left the company and transferred the patents to the legal firm Paul and Merwin, who renamed the company the Consolidated Temperature Controlling Company; as the years passed, CTCC struggled with growing debts, the company underwent several name changes in an attempt to keep the business afloat. After it was renamed the Electric Heat Regulator Company in 1893, W. R. Sweatt, a stockholder in the company, was sold "an extensive list of patents" and named secretary-treasurer.:22 On February 23, 1898, he bought out the remaining shares of the company from the other stockholders. In 1906, Mark Honeywell founded the Honeywell Heating Specialty Company in Wabash, Indiana, to manufacture and market his invention, the mercury seal generator; as Honeywell's company grew it began to clash with the now renamed Minneapolis Heat Regulator Company. This led to the merging of both companies into the publicly held Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company in 1927.
Honeywell was named the company's first president, alongside W. R. Sweatt as its first chairman; the combined assets were valued at over $3.5 million, with less than $1 million in liabilities just months before Black Monday.:49 In 1931, Minneapolis-Honeywell began a period of expansion and acquisition when they purchased Time-O-Stat Controls Company, giving the company access to a greater number of patents to be used in their controls systems. W. R. Sweatt and his son Harold provided 75 years of uninterrupted leadership for the company. W. R. Sweatt survived rough spots and turned an innovative idea – thermostatic heating control – into a thriving business. Harold, who took over in 1934, led Honeywell through a period of growth and global expansion that set the stage for Honeywell to become a global technology leader; the merger into the Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company proved to be a saving grace for the corporation. 1934 marked Minneapolis-Honeywell's first foray into the international market, when they acquired the Brown Instrument Company, inherited their relationship with the Yamatake Company of Tokyo, a Japan-based distributor.:51 Later that same year, Minneapolis-Honeywell would start distributorships across Canada, as well as one in the Netherlands, their first European office.
This expansion into international markets continued in 1936, with their first distributorship in London, as well as their first foreign assembly facility being established in Canada. By 1937, ten years after the merger, Minneapolis-Honeywell had over 3,000 employees, with $16 million in annual revenue. With the outbreak of war, Minneapolis-Honeywell was approached by the US military for engineering and manufacturing projects. In 1941, Minneapolis-Honeywell developed a superior tank periscope and camera stabilizers, as well as the C-1 autopilot; the C-1 revolutionized precision bombing in the war effort, was used on the two B-29 bombers that dropped atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. The success of these projects led Minneapolis-Honeywell to open an Aero division in Chicago on October 5, 1942.:73 This division was responsible for the development of the formation stick to control autopilots, more accurate gas gauges for planes, the turbo supercharger.:79 In 1950, Minneapolis-Honeywell's Aero division was contracted for the controls on the first US nuclear submarine, USS Nautilus.:88 The following year, the company acquired Intervox Company for their sonar and telemetry technologies.
Honeywell helped develop and manufacture the RUR-5 ASROC for the US Navy. In 1953, in cooperation with the USAF Wright-Air Development Center, Honeywell developed an automated control unit that could control an aircraft through various stages of a flight, from taxiing, to takeoff, to the point where the aircraft neared its destination and the pilot took over for landing. Called the Automatic Master Sequence Selector, the onboard control operated to a player piano to relay instructions to the aircraft's autopilot at certain way points during the flight reducing the pilot's workload. Technologically, this effort had parallels to contemporary efforts in missile guidance and numerical control. Honeywell developed the Wagtail missile with the USAF. From the 1950s until the mid-1970s, Honeywell was the United States' importe
Starting in the 1880s, the German Kaiserliche Marine began building a series of cruisers. The first designs—protected and unprotected—were ordered to replace aging sail and steam-powered frigates and corvettes that were of minimal combat value. After several iterations of each type, these cruisers were developed into armored and light cruisers over the following decade. All of these ships were built to fill a variety of roles, including scouts for the main battle fleet and colonial cruisers for Germany's overseas empire; the armored cruisers in turn led to SMS Von der Tann. The protected and unprotected cruisers had been withdrawn from active service by the 1910s, though some continued on in secondary roles. Most of the armored and light cruisers saw action in World War I, in all of the major theaters of the conflict, their service ranged from commerce raiding patrols on the open ocean to the fleet engagements in the North Sea such as the Battle of Jutland. Many of the ships were sunk in the course of the war, the majority of the remaining vessels were either seized as war prizes by the victorious Allies, scuttled by their crews in Scapa Flow in 1919, or broken up for scrap.
The Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to surrender most of its remaining vessels. Only six old pre-dreadnought battleships and six old light cruisers could be kept on active duty; these ships could be replaced when they reached twenty years of age, the cruisers were limited to a displacement of 6,000 metric tons. In the 1920s, Germany began a modest program to rebuild its fleet, now renamed the Reichsmarine, it began with the new light cruiser, Emden, in 1921, followed by five more light cruisers and three new heavy cruisers, the Deutschland class. A further five heavy cruisers—the Admiral Hipper class—were ordered in the mid-1930s, though only the first three were completed. At the same time, the German navy was renamed the Kriegsmarine. Plan Z, a more ambitious reconstruction program that called for twelve P-class cruisers, was approved in early 1939 but was cancelled before the end of the year following the outbreak of World War II. Of the six heavy cruisers and six light cruisers that were finished, only two survived the war.
One, Prinz Eugen, was sunk following nuclear weapons tests during Operation Crossroads in 1946. Starting in the mid-1880s, the German Navy began to modernize its cruising force, which at that time relied on a mixed collection of sail and steam frigates and corvettes. General Leo von Caprivi the Chief of the Kaiserliche Marine, ordered several new warships, including two Irene-class cruisers laid down in 1886, the first protected cruisers to be built in Germany. Design work on their successor, Kaiserin Augusta, began the following year, though she was not laid down until 1890. Five more ships of the Victoria Louise class followed in the mid-1890s; these ships, the last protected cruisers built in Germany, provided the basis for the armored cruisers that were built starting at the end of the decade. All of these ships were intended to serve both as fleet scouts and overseas cruisers, since Germany's limited naval budget prevented development of ships optimized for each task. Most of the German protected cruisers served on overseas stations throughout their careers in the East Asia Squadron in the 1890s and 1900s.
Prinzess Wilhelm participated in the seizure of the Kiautschou Bay concession in November 1897, used as the primary base for the East Asia Squadron. Kaiserin Augusta and Hansa assisted in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, Vineta saw action during the Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03, where she bombarded several Venezuelan fortresses. Irene, Prinzess Wilhelm, Kaiserin Augusta were relegated to secondary duties in the 1910s, while the Victoria Louise class was used to train naval cadets in the 1900s. All eight ships were broken up for scrap in the early 1920s. At the same time that Caprivi began ordering new protected cruisers, he authorized the construction of smaller unprotected cruisers for use in Germany's overseas colonies; the first of these, the Schwalbe class, were laid down in 1886 and 1887. A further six vessels of the Bussard class, which were improved versions that were larger and faster than their predecessors, followed over the next five years. A final, much larger vessel, was laid down in 1892.
She represented another attempt to merge the colonial cruiser and fleet scout, unsuccessful. As a result, the German naval designers began work on the Gazelle class, which provided the basis for all future German light cruisers. All nine cruisers served extensively in Germany's colonies in Africa and Asia, they participated in the suppression of numerous rebellions, including the Abushiri Revolt in German East Africa in 1889–1890, the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900–1901, the Sokehs Rebellion in the Caroline Islands in 1911. Most of the ships had been recalled to Germany and decommissioned by the early 1910s, having been replaced by the newer light cruisers. Bussard and Falke were scrapped in 1912. Of the remaining seven ships, only Cormoran and Geier remained abroad at the start of World War I in August 1914. Cormoran was stationed in Tsingtao, but her engines were worn out, so she was scuttled to prevent her capture. Geier operated against British shipping in the Pacific before running low on coal.
Humphrey III de Bohun of Trowbridge Castle in Wiltshire and of Caldicot Castle in south-east Wales, 5th feudal baron of Trowbridge, was an Anglo-Norman nobleman and general who served King Henry II as Lord High Constable of England. He was the son and heir of Humphrey II de Bohun of Trowbridge Castle and of Caldicot Castle, 4th feudal baron of Trowbridge, by his wife Margaret of Hereford, a daughter of Miles FitzWalter of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, Lord of Brecknock, Sheriff of Gloucester and Constable of England, by his wife Sibyl de Neufmarché. By 29 September 1165 he had succeeded to his father's estates, when he owed three hundred marks as feudal relief for the barony. From 1166 onwards he held his mother's inheritance, both her Bohun lands in Wiltshire and her inheritance from her father and brothers; as Constable, Humphrey sided with King Henry II during the Revolt of 1173–1174. In August 1173 he was with the royal army at Breteuil in France; that same year he and Richard de Lucy led the sack of Berwick-upon-Tweed and invaded Lothian to attack William the Lion, King of Scotland, who had sided with the rebels.
He returned to England and played a major role in the defeat and capture of Robert Blanchemains, Earl of Leicester, at Fornham. By the end of 1174 he was in Normandy, where he witnessed the Treaty of Falaise between Henry and William of Scotland. At sometime between February 1171 and Easter 1175 he married Margaret of Huntingdon, widow of Conan IV, Duke of Brittany and a daughter of Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, son of King David I of Scotland and Queen Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon, it has been suggested that Humphrey's wife was the Margaret who married Pedro Manrique de Lara, a Spanish nobleman, but there are discrepancies in the theory. Through his marriage he became a brother-in-law of William of Scotland. By Margaret he had issue including: Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford, created Earl of Hereford by King John in April 1199. Matilda de Bohun. According to Robert of Torigni, in late 1181 Humphrey joined Henry the Young King in leading an army against Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, in support of King Philip II of France, during which campaign he died.
He was buried at Llanthony Secunda Priory in Gloucestershire, founded in 1136 by his maternal grandfather Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford as a secondary house for the monks of Llanthony Priory in the Vale of Ewyas, in what is now Monmouthshire, Wales. Graeme White, "Bohun, Humphrey de," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 20 December 2009