Hong Kong International Airport is Hong Kong's main airport, built on reclaimed land on the island of Chek Lap Kok. The airport is referred to as Chek Lap Kok International Airport or Chek Lap Kok Airport, to distinguish it from its predecessor, the former Kai Tak Airport. Having been in commercial operation since 1998, Chek Lap Kok Airport is an important regional trans-shipment centre, passenger hub and gateway for destinations in China and the rest of Asia; the airport is one of the world's busiest passenger airports. It is home to one of the world's largest passenger terminal buildings; the airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong 24 hours a day and is the primary hub for Cathay Pacific, Cathay Dragon, Hong Kong Airlines, HK Express and Air Hong Kong. The airport is one of the hubs of Oneworld alliance, one of the Asia-Pacific cargo hubs for UPS Airlines, it is a focus city including China Airlines and China Eastern Airlines. Singapore Airlines, Ethiopian Airlines and Air India all utilise Hong Kong as a stopover point for their flights.
HKIA is an important contributor to Hong Kong's economy, with 65,000 employees. More than 100 airlines operate flights from the airport to over 180 cities across the globe. In 2015, HKIA handled 68.5 million passengers, making it the 8th busiest airport worldwide by passenger traffic. Since 2010, it has surpassed Memphis International Airport to become the world's busiest airport by cargo traffic; the airport is managed and operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong, established on 1 December 1995. To facilitate the increased traffic due to the third runway, Terminal 2 is under maintenance of adding a departures and arrivals section with immigration and will not be reopening until at least 2024. Chek Lap Kok Airport was designed as a replacement for the former Hong Kong International Airport built in 1925. Located in the densely built-up Kowloon City District with a single runway extending into Kowloon Bay, Kai Tak had only limited room for expansion to cope with increasing air traffic. By the 1990s, Kai Tak had become one of the world's busiest airports – it far exceeded its annual passenger and cargo design capacities, one out of every three flights experienced delays due to lack of space for aircraft, a second runway.
In addition, noise mitigation measures restricted nighttime flights, as severe noise pollution adversely affected an estimated total of at least 340,000 people. A 1974 planning study by the Civil Aviation and Public Works departments identified the small island of Chek Lap Kok, off Lantau Island, as a possible airport replacement site. Away from the congested city centre, flight paths would be routed over the South China Sea rather than populous urban areas, enabling efficient round-the-clock operation of multiple runways; the Chek Lap Kok airport master plan and civil engineering studies were completed towards the end of 1982 and 1983 respectively. In February 1983, the government shelved the project for financial and economic reasons. In 1988, the Port & Airport Development Strategy Study was undertaken by consultants, headed by Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited, reporting in December 1989; this study looked at forecasts for both airport and port traffic to the year 2011 and came up with three recommended strategies for overall strategic development in Hong Kong.
One of the three assumed maintaining the existing airport at Kai Tak. The consultants produced detailed analyses for each scenario, enabling Government to consider these appraisals for each of the three "Recommended Strategies". In October 1989 the Governor of Hong Kong announced to the Legislative Council that a decision had been made on the long-term port and airport development strategy for the territory; the strategy to be adopted was that which included a replacement airport at Chek Lap Kok and incorporating new container terminals 8 and 9 at Stonecutters Island and east of the island of Tsing Yi respectively. In the PADS study, the consultants advised that the earliest the airport could be opened was January 1998. However, in reaching the government's decision, this date was modified to January 1997, six months prior to the handover of the territory to China. Construction of the new airport began in 1991; as construction progressed, an agreement was reached with China that as much as possible of the airport would be completed before the handover to China in July 1997.
In the event, British Prime Minister John Major opened the Tsing Ma Bridge, the main access to Lantau Island and the airport and its supporting community in May 1997, prior to the transfer of sovereignty to China. The airport itself was opened in July 1998; the construction period was rushed. Another cause for this rush was due to the uncertain future of the airport construction after the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. Shortly after the then-British colonial government of Hong Kong announced plans to construct the new airport, the Chinese government in Beijing began voicing objections to various aspects of the massive project, which prompted financial institutions to delay extending project finance. Without access to this financing, many of the companies who had secured contracts to build various portions of the project ha
Upminster Bridge is a London Underground station in the Upminster Bridge neighbourhood of Upminster in the London Borough of Havering, east London. It is on the District line between Hornchurch to Upminster to the east, it is 1.2 kilometres along the line from the eastern terminus at Upminster and 33 kilometres to Earl's Court in central London where the line divides into numerous branches. The station was opened on 17 December 1934 by the London and Scottish Railway on the local electrified tracks between Upminster and Barking that were constructed in 1932; the main station building, on Upminster Road, is of a distinctive polygonal design. It has low usage for a suburban station, with 1.15 million passenger entries/exits in 2017. The London and Southend Railway from London Fenchurch Street and Barking was constructed through the Upminster Bridge area in 1885, with stations at Hornchurch and Upminster; the Whitechapel and Bow Railway opened in 1902 and allowed through-services of the District Railway to operate to Upminster.
The Metropolitan District converted to electric trains in 1905 and services were cut back to East Ham. Delayed by World War I, electrified tracks were extended by the London and Scottish Railway to Upminster and through-services resumed in 1932; the District Railway was incorporated into London Transport in 1933 and became known as the District line. The new tracks built by the London and Scottish Railway allowed additional intermediate stations to be constructed on the local lines between 1932 and 1935. Increased local demand was caused by the expansion of the built-up area of suburban London during the interwar period; the station at Upminster Bridge opened with platforms on the local electric lines on 17 December 1934. The station was operated by the London and Scottish Railway but was only served by District line trains. After nationalisation of the railways in 1948 management of the station passed to British Railways and in 1969 ownership transferred to the London Underground; the station consists of a central island platform between the tracks that are elevated on a railway embankment.
There are four tracks through the site. The full length of the platform is covered by a single canopy with a central waiting room; the Art Deco red brick ticket office is located below platform level, to which it is connected by a subway and stairway. Although similar to the other single-storey station buildings on this part of the route, it is notable for its high atrium roof and polygonal shape; the floor is tiled with a reversed swastika pattern, a popular decorative design at the time the station was constructed. The station was listed locally as a building of local heritage interest by Havering London Borough Council; as part of the public–private partnership arrangement for maintenance of the London Underground, the station was refurbished by Metronet during 2005 and 2006. Works included provision of tactile strips and colour contrasted handrails for the visually impaired, installation of closed-circuit television cameras, passenger help points, new electronic departure information displays on the platforms, a new public address system and improved lighting.
The station does not have step-free access from the platforms to the street. The station is named after a nearby crossing of the River Ingrebourne; the river was the boundary between the ancient parishes of Hornchurch and Upminster and the station is located on the western Hornchurch side. The station is situated on Upminster Road in the London Borough of Havering and is flanked by a parade of shops, it is situated in a residential area and is near to Havering Sixth Form College and Hornchurch Stadium. London bus routes 248, 370 and Ensignbus route 26 serve the site of the station, providing connections to Hornchurch, Lakeside and Upminster; the London Loop key walking route passes outside the station, it forms the end point of section 22 from Harold Wood and the starting point of section 23 to Rainham. The station is located on the eastern extremity of the District line and is the penultimate station before the terminus at Upminster. Upminster station is 1.24 kilometres to the east of the station and Hornchurch is 1.26 kilometres to the west.
The station is in London fare zone 6. The typical off-peak service from the station is 12 District line trains per hour to Upminster and 12 to Earl's Court, of which six continue to Ealing Broadway and six continue to Richmond. At peak periods the number of trains per hour increases to 15 and some trains continue from Earl's Court to Wimbledon. Services towards central London operate from 05:00 to 23:30 and services to Upminster operate from 06:00 to 01:30; the journey time to Upminster is two minutes. Since 2006, the station has been one of the first on the network to operate without a staffed ticket office. Total number of passenger entries and exits at the station during the year is as follows: During 2011 there were 990,000 passenger entries and exits at the station, continuing a trend of growth over the preceding eight years, but lower than neighbouring stations on the route. Upminster Bridge station images in the collection of London Transport Museum
Loxodonta Africana is the debut album led by saxophonist Ricky Ford, recorded in 1977 and released on the New World label. The AllMusic review by Scott Yanow stated "Tenor saxophonist Ricky Ford's first record as a leader preceded the beginning of his rated string of Muse albums by a year. 23 at the time, Ford had a recognizable sound, influenced by Dexter Gordon. For this ambitious effort, Ford performs five of his original". Reviewing the reissued album in JazzTimes Willard Jenkins wrote "While there is ample evidence that Ricky Ford’s palette has broadened, his sound has ripened notably over these twenty years, he has yet to craft a recording that tops this one". All compositions by Ricky Ford except where noted "Loxodonta Africana" – 4:42 "Ucil" – 5:13 "Blues Peru" – 5:00 "Dexter" – 5:43 "My Romance" – 8:30 "One Up, One Down" – 4:24 "Aerolinos" – 6:54 Ricky Ford - tenor saxophone Oliver Breener, Charles Sullivan – trumpet Janice Robinson – trombone Jonathan Dorn – tuba James Spaulding - alto saxophone Bob Neloms – piano Richard Davis – bass Dannie Richmond – drums