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Hoover Institution

The Hoover Institution on War and Peace is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California. It began as a library founded in 1919 by Stanford alumnus Herbert Hoover, before he became President of the United States; the library, known as the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, houses multiple archives related to Hoover, World War I, World War II, other world history. According to the 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, Hoover is No. 18 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". The Hoover Institution has its own board of overseers, it is located on the campus. Its mission statement outlines its basic tenets: representative government, private enterprise, personal freedom, the safeguards of the American system; the institution is described as conservative, although directors and others associated with it assert that the institution is nonpartisan, as its primary goal is to "promote economic opportunity and prosperity, while securing and safeguarding peace for America and all mankind."The institution has been a place of scholarship for individuals who held high-profile positions in government, such as George Shultz, Condoleezza Rice, Michael Boskin, Edward Lazear, John B.

Taylor, Edwin Meese, Amy Zegart—all Hoover Institution fellows. In 2007, retired U. S. Army General John P. Abizaid, former commander of the U. S. Central Command, was named the Institution's first annual Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow. Former Secretary of Defense General James Mattis served as a research fellow at Hoover before being appointed by the Trump administration; the institution is housed in four buildings on the Stanford campus. The most prominent facility is the landmark Hoover Tower, a popular visitor attraction; the tower features an observation deck on the top level that provides visitors with a panoramic view of the Stanford campus and surrounding area. Additionally, the institution has a branch office in the Johnson Center in Washington, DC; the Institution was set up by Hoover, a wealthy engineer, one of Stanford's first graduates. In 1928 he was elected President of the United States, he had been in charge of major relief efforts in Europe in 1914-1917 in Belgium and again after the world war in central and eastern Europe Russia.

Hoover's plan was to collect and permanently preserve the documents of major events for open research. Hoover's search team obtained unpublished material, they included the papers of activists on the far left and far right, including the files of the Okhrana. In 1960, W. Glenn Campbell became director, he specialized in fund raising, setting up research operations and building collections regarding China and the Soviet Union. Relations improved with the host university. In 1919, Hoover donated $50,000 to Stanford University to support the collection of primary materials related to World War I, a project that became known as the Hoover War Collection. Supported by gifts from private donors, the Hoover War Collection flourished in its early years. In 1922, the Collection became known as the Hoover War Library; the Hoover War Library was housed in the Stanford Library, separate from the general stacks. By 1926, the Hoover War Library was known as the largest library in the world devoted to the Great War.

By 1929, it was becoming too large to house in the Stanford Library. In 1938, the War Library revealed building plans for Hoover Tower, to be its permanent home independent of the Stanford Library system; the 285-foot tall tower was completed in Stanford University's fiftieth anniversary. Since the tower has been a key landmark for campus. On its 14th floor, the tower has an observation deck which holds a carillon of 48 bells that were donated to former president Hoover in 1940. By 1946, the agenda of the Hoover War Library had expanded to include research activities. At this time, Herbert Hoover was living in New York City but remained integrally involved in the Hoover Institution and Library as a benefactor and consultant. In 1956 former President Hoover, under the auspices of the Institution and Library, launched a major fundraising campaign that allowed the Institution to realize its current form as a think tank and archive. In 1957, the Hoover Institution and Library was renamed the Hoover Institution on War and Peace—the name it holds today.

In 1960, W. Glenn Campbell was appointed director and substantial budget increases soon led to corresponding increases in acquisitions and related research projects. In particular, the Chinese and Russian collections grew considerably. Despite student unrest in the 1960s, the institution continued to thrive and develop closer relations with Stanford. In 1975 Ronald Reagan, Governor of California at that time, was designated as Hoovers first honorary fellow, he donated his governor papers to the Hoover library. During that time the Hoover Institution held a general budget of $3.5 million a year. In 1976, one third of Stanford University's book holdings were housed at the Hoover library. At that time, it was the largest private archive collection in the United States; until 1979, Hoover's annual budget was about $5.7 million, of which about forty percent was used to fund research. For his presidential campaign in 1980, Reagan engaged at least thirteen Hoover scholars to support the campaign in multiple capacities.

After Reagan won the election campaign, more than thirty current or forme


Gommatsāra is one of the most important Jain texts authored by Acharya Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. Gommatsāra is based on the major Jain text, Dhavala written by the Acharya Bhutabali and Acharya Pushpadant, it is called, a collection of five topics: That, bound, i.e. the Soul. The first of these, namely, i. e.. The other four form the subject-matter of Karma Kanda. Verse 594 of the Gommatasara Jiva Kanda list down the 23 kinds of molecules which are formed by the different combination of atoms. Jaini, Jagmandar-lāl, Gommatsara Jiva-kanda, archived from the original on 2006 Ghoshal, Sarat Chandra, Dravya Samgraha of Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravartti, ISBN 9788120806344 Sangave, Vilas Adinath, Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society and Culture, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2

Four Asian Tigers

The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates between the early 1960s and 1990s. By the early 21st century, all four had developed into high-income economies, specializing in areas of competitive advantage. Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centres, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing electronic components and devices, their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries the Tiger Cub Economies of southeast Asia. A controversial World Bank report credited neoliberal policies with the responsibility for the boom, including maintenance of export-oriented policies, low taxes, minimal welfare states. However, others argued that industrial policy and state intervention had a much greater influence than the World Bank report suggested.

Prior to the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the growth of the Four Asian Tiger economies has been attributed to export oriented policies and strong development policies. Unique to these economies were the sustained rapid growth and high levels of equal income distribution. A World Bank report suggests two development policies among others as sources for the Asian miracle: factor accumulation and macroeconomic management; the Hong Kong economy was the first out of the four to undergo industrialization with the development of a textile industry in the 1950s. By the 1960s, manufacturing in the British colony had expanded and diversified to include clothing and plastics for export orientation. Following Singapore's independence from Malaysia, the Economic Development Board formulated and implemented national economic strategies to promote the country's manufacturing sector. Industrial estates were set up and foreign investment was attracted to the country with tax incentives. Meanwhile and South Korea began to industrialize in the mid-1960s with heavy government involvement including initiatives and policies.

Both countries pursued export-oriented industrialization as in Hong Singapore. The four countries were inspired by Japan's evident success, they collectively pursued the same goal by investing in the same categories: infrastructure and education, they benefited from foreign trade advantages that sets them apart from other countries, most economic support from the United States. By the end of the 1960s, levels in physical and human capital in the four economies far exceeded other countries at similar levels of development; this subsequently led to a rapid growth in per capita income levels. While high investments were essential to their economic growth, the role of human capital was important. Education in particular is cited as playing a major role in the Asian economic miracle; the levels of education enrollment in the Four Asian Tigers were higher than predicted given their level of income. By 1965, all four nations had achieved universal primary education. South Korea in particular had achieved a secondary education enrollment rate of 88% by 1987.

There was a notable decrease in the gap between male and female enrollments during the Asian miracle. Overall these advances in education allowed for high levels of cognitive skills; the creation of stable macroeconomic environments was the foundation upon which the Asian miracle was built. Each of the Four Asian Tiger states managed, to various degrees of success, three variables in: budget deficits, external debt and exchange rates; each Tiger nation's budget deficits were kept within the limits of their financial limits, as to not destabilize the macro-economy. South Korea in particular had deficits lower than the OECD average in the 1980s. External debt was non-existent for Hong Kong and Taiwan, as they did not borrow from abroad. Although South Korea was the exception to this - its debt to GNP ratio was quite high during the period 1980-1985, it was sustained by the country’s high level of exports. Exchange rates in the Four Asian Tiger nations had been changed from long-term fixed rate regimes to fixed-but-adjustable rate regimes with the occasional steep devaluation of managed floating rate regimes.

This active exchange rate management allowed the Four Tiger economies to avoid exchange rate appreciation and maintain a stable real exchange rate. Export policies have been the de facto reason for the rise of these Four Asian Tiger economies; the approach taken has been different among the four nations. Hong Kong, Singapore introduced trade regimes that were neoliberal in nature and encouraged free trade, while South Korea and Taiwan adopted mixed regimes that accommodated their own export industries. In Hong Kong and Singapore, due to small domestic markets, domestic prices were linked to international prices. South Korea and Taiwan introduced export incentives for the traded-goods sector; the governments of Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan worked to promote specific exporting industries, which were termed as an export push strategy. All these policies helped these four nations to achieve a growth averaging 7.5% each year for three decades and as such they achieved developed country status.

Dani Rodrik, economist at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, has in a number of studies argued that state inter


Nagtipunan the Municipality of Nagtipunan, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Quirino, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 23,484 people; as the largest municipality in the province, it occupies a land area of 1,607.40 square kilometers, nearly half of the province itself. The municipality is known for its natural environment, is dubbed as the tourism capital of the province of Quirino. Nagtipunan is politically subdivided into 16 barangays; the Municipality of Nagtipunan was a part of Maddela. It was created on February 25, 1983, by virtue of Batas Pambansa No. 345 and approved in a plebiscite held on September 24, 1983. The town’s name was derived from the native word meaning “convergence point,” in reference to several major tributaries of the Cagayan River in Aurora, Nueva Vizcaya and Qurino meeting at points within this area. Natural attractions include: The Cagayan River, one of the cleanest bodies of water in the Philippines, which flows from Barangay San Pugo down to Barangay Ponggo where Tatimbang, Aguk and Puctad are found.

The 50 metres high Mactol Falls, in Barangay San Pugo, is the Cagayan River headwater. It is located 22 kilometres from Pongo and has a 22 metres deep basin surrounded by rock formations and a forest, it used for picnicking. Victoria Falls, in Barangay Sangbay, is believed to be a source of the Cagayan River which bisects the valley and ends at the Aparri Delta. Found in Nagtipunan is the “Bimmapor,” a rock formation similar to a sunken ship, of which only the upper decks are protruding from the ground; the Pusuac cave and watershed in Barangay Ponggo. Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System

Sheik Karimol Makhdum Mosque

The Sheik Karimol Makhdum Mosque is located in Barangay Tubig Indangan, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines. It is the oldest mosque in the Philippines and was built by an Arab trader, Sheikh Makhdum Karim in 1380, it was first thought that the pillars of the old mosque found within the current mosque are the pillars of the original built in 1380. However, studies from the National Museum of the Philippines have confirmed that the pillars found within the present mosque dates back to the 17th century, making them remnants of a reconstruction of the mosque during the 17th century, not the 14th century; the four pillars are regarded as sacred and have high status in Philippine culture as they are at least 400 years old and are the oldest known Islamic artifacts in the entire Philippines. The mosque has been declared as a National Historical Landmark by the National Historical Commission and a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum. Makhdum Karim Islam in the Philippines Sulu, North Borneo Sultan Hails Senate Bill Declaring RP’s Oldest Mosque As National Shrine, Zamboanga Journal on November 28, 2006 Oldest Mosque in the Philippines

Courtney Hadwin

Courtney Ann Hadwin is an English singer-songwriter. She became known for competing on the ITV's The Voice Kids UK 2017 and the thirteenth season of the NBC competition show America's Got Talent. Hadwin was born to Ann-Marie and Paul Hadwin on 6 July 2004, she lives in Hesleden, County Durham, with her parents, younger sister Melissa, younger brother Paul. She attended Hesleden Primary School and until autumn 2018 studied at The Academy at Shotton Hall in Peterlee, she has trained at Shotton Hall Theatre School, Peanuts Master Classes, Kate Sirs School of Music and Julie Miles' Vocal Ovation. Hadwin was a 2018 finalist on TV's America's Got Talent, she appeared on the first series of The Voice Kids in the UK, on America's Got Talent: The Champions. In April 2015, Hadwin auditioned for her first-ever singing competition at TeenStar in Newcastle, with her version of Bob Dylan's "Make You Feel My Love", reached the competition's grand final, she gained notice when she was filmed performing Great Big World and Christina Aguilera's soaring duet "Say Something" in September 2015.

In April 2016, she won Hartlepool's Performer of the Year Award, was a finalist in the Beyond The Lights award ceremony. She was the opening act for Sister Sledge at a South Tyneside Festival concert in July 2017, where she sang for more than 18,000 people. In January 2018, she sang in Southampton at an event for U-Support, raising funds for children with life-limiting illnesses and disabilities. Hadwin blind-auditioned for The Voice Kids UK, where she performed Tina Turner's "Nutbush City Limits", she was picked by Judge Danny Jones. During the battle round, she performed "Dancing in the Street" against Eboni Green and Hollie Firmin. For her semi-final performance, she sang James Brown's "I Got You". For her final performance on 16 July 2017, she sang the torch song "And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going" from the Broadway musical Dreamgirls, before being eliminated as a finalist. In her audition for the thirteenth season of America's Got Talent, Hadwin sang Otis Redding's "Hard to Handle"; the performance inspired judge Howie Mandel to give her a Golden Buzzer, sending her straight to the live shows.

Mandel compared Hadwin's singing to Janis Joplin. The audition video received more than 50 million views on AGT's YouTube channel in its first five months. Hadwin returned for AGT's quarter-finals on 14 August 2018, singing "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" by James Brown. For her semi-final performance on 11 September, she sang "Born to Be Wild" by Steppenwolf returned for the final show on 18 September to perform Tina Turner's "River Deep – Mountain High". On the results show on 19 September, she sang "Piece of My Heart" with rock band The Struts. Although she failed to win AGT's grand prize, she went on to Las Vegas to do five live shows with winner Shin Lim at the Paris Hotel and Casino from 2–4 November 2018. In December 2018, Hadwin signed a record deal with Syco Arista Records, her first album was expected in 2019. She has been described as "an exceptional talent with a voice and spirit well beyond her years." When an interviewer asked her about her artistic influences, she said, "From Little Richard, James Brown to Janis Joplin, Mick Jagger....

It's a long list!"Hadwin appeared as a contestant on NBC's America's Got Talent: The Champions, where she performed her first original song, "Pretty Little Thing". She has been named as one of the 50 top contestants in all the AGT shows across 194 countries. Courtney Hadwin on IMDb Courtney Hadwin on Twitter Courtney Hadwin on Instagram Courtney Hadwin on Facebook Courtney Hadwin on YouTube Courtney Hadwin VEVO on YouTube