The Swedish Academy, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. It has 18 members; the academy makes the annual decision on who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel. The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 by King Gustav III. Modelled after the Académie française, it has 18 members; the academy's motto is "Talent and Taste". The academy's primary purpose is to further the "purity and sublimity of the Swedish language". To that end the academy publishes two dictionaries; the first is a one-volume glossary called Svenska Akademiens ordlista. The second is a multi-volume dictionary, edited on principles similar to those of the Oxford English Dictionary, entitled Svenska Akademiens Ordbok; the SAOL has reached its 14th edition while the first volume of the SAOB was published in 1898 and, as of 2017, work has progressed to words beginning with the letter "V". The building now known as the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building was built for the bourgeoisie.
The bottom floor was used as a trading exchange, the upper floor was used for balls, New Year's Eve parties, etc. When the academy was founded, the ballroom was the biggest room in Stockholm that could be heated and thus used in the winter, so the King asked if he could borrow it; the academy has had its annual meeting there every year since, attended by members of the Swedish royal family. However, it was not until 1914 that the academy gained permanent use of the upper floor as their own, it is here that the academy meets and, amongst other business, announces the names of Nobel Prize laureates. This task arguably makes the academy one of the world's most influential literary bodies. Dag Hammarskjöld's former farm at Backåkra, close to Ystad in southern Sweden, was bought in 1957 as a summer residence by Hammarskjöld Secretary-General of the United Nations; the south wing of the farm is reserved as a summer retreat for the 18 members of the Swedish Academy, of which Hammarskjöld was a member.
Prior to 2018 it was not possible for members of the academy to resign. This happened twice to Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, excluded in 1794, re-elected in 1805 and excluded again in 1811. In 1989, Werner Aspenström, Kerstin Ekman and Lars Gyllensten chose to stop participating in the meetings of the academy, over its refusal to express support for Salman Rushdie when Ayatollah Khomeini condemned him to death for The Satanic Verses, in 2005, Knut Ahnlund made the same decision, as a protest against the choice of Elfride Jelinek as Nobel laureate for 2004. On 25 November 2017, Lotta Lotass said in an interview that she had not participated in the meetings of the academy for more than two years and did not consider herself a member any more. In April 2018, three members of the academy board resigned in response to a sexual-misconduct investigation involving author Jean-Claude Arnault, husband of board member Katarina Frostenson. Arnault was accused by at least 18 women of sexual harassment; the three members resigned in protest over the lack of what they felt appropriate action against Arnault.
Two former permanent secretaries, Sture Allén and Horace Engdahl, called the current leader, Sara Danius, a weak leader. On 10 April, Danius resigned from her position with the academy, bringing the number of empty seats to four. Frostenson voluntarily agreed to withdraw from participating in the academy, bringing the total of withdrawals to five; because two other seats were still vacant after the Rushdie affair, this left only 11 active members. The scandal was seen as damaging to the credibility of the Nobel prize in Literature and the authority of the academy. "With this scandal you cannot say that this group of people has any kind of solid judgment," noted Swedish journalist Björn Wiman. On 27 April 2018, the Swedish Economic Crime Authority opened a preliminary investigation regarding financial crime linked to an association run by Arnault and Frostenson, which had received funding from the academy. On 2 May 2018, the Swedish King amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign.
The new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. Following the new rules, the first members to formally be granted permission to leave the academy and vacate their chairs were Kerstin Ekman, Klas Östergren, Sara Stridsberg and Lotta Lotass. On 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that following the preceding internal struggles the Nobel laureate for literature selected in 2018 will be postponed until 2019, when two laureates will be selected. Since 1901, the Swedish Academy has annually decided who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel; the Swedish Academy annually awards nearly 50 different prizes and scholarships, most of them for domestic Swedish authors. Common to all is that they are awarded without application; the Dobloug Prize, the largest of these at $40,000, is a literature prize awarded for Swedish and Norwegian fiction. Swedish: Stora Priset the Big Prize, was instituted by King Gustav III.
The prize, which consists of a single gold medal, is the most prestigious award that can be awarded by the Swedish Academy. It has been awarded to, among others, Selma Lagerlöf, Herbert Tingsten, Astrid Lindgren, Evert Taube and Tove Jansson; the academy awards around 50 p
Södertörn University is a public university located in Flemingsberg, located in Huddinge Municipality, the larger area called Södertörn, in Stockholm County, Sweden. In 2013, it had about 13 000 full-time students; the campus area in Flemingsberg hosts the main campus of SH, several departments of the Karolinska Institutet, the School of Technology and health of the Royal Institute of Technology. The Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, is located there. Södertörn University was established as a university college in 1996 following a parliamentary decision in 1995; the expansion of higher education in the southern parts of Stockholm had been investigated for a long time. The background was that the transition to higher education was low in the southern parts of Stockholm, unemployment was high and segregation problems tended to be large. Stockholm University did not consider it appropriate to increase the number of students of Stockholm University and a university in Södertörn should be independent and not part of the University of Stockholm.
Karolinska Institutet had relocated their dental education to Flemingsberg. KTH and Stockholm University had facilities in Flemingsberg and Novum Research Park was under construction. At the university's inception in 1996, there were around 1,000 students. SH had facilities in Södertälje and Haninge; the pro-vice chancellor of Stockholm University was vice-chancellor of Södertörn University, but on 1 January 1997, Per Thullberg was appointed vice-chancellor and SH attained the right to award their own degrees. In 2002 the main building Moas båge was inaugurated in Flemingsberg; the building received the Concrete Products Outdoor Environment Prize in 2003. With the new facilities the teacher education program was moved from Södertälje to Flemingsberg. In spring 2006, the university's board operations decided to move from campus Haninge to campus Flemingsberg by autumn 2008 and phase out the Södertälje campus where teaching had been discontinued. Södertörn University applied to the government to become a university in 2002.
The application has not yet been processed. In 2004 Södertörn University applied together with Karolinska Institutet and KTH for approval to create a university network at Södertörn University based on the same model as the University of Oxford in the UK. In May 2006, a updated version of the university application was submitted to the government, including changes implemented since 2002. 1 July 2010, the Swedish Higher Education Authority granted Södertörn University the right to award doctoral degrees in the areas of Historical Studies and Cultural Theory, Environmental Studies and Politics and the Organisation of Society. At the end of 2013 Södertörn University was awarded the task of providing the basic training programme for the police, it will run as contract education and will cover five semesters of full-time studies, including a six-month traineeship at a police authority. The first 180 police cadets started their education at Södertörn University in January 2015. In 2013 Södertörn University had 12 578 students.
Södertörn University has four academic schools: Department of Historical and Contemporary Studies Department of Culture and Education Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Studies School of Social Sciences Subjects at the university: Södertörn University carries out research in the humanities, social sciences, environment and educational science. The primary purpose of the research centres is to bring academic added value by focusing on scientifically interesting fields that lie at the intersections of traditional disciplines; this way the university wishes to create a creative meeting place for staff and students. Centre for Baltic and East European Studies The Academy of Public Administration Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge ENTER forum for research on entrepreneurship The Institute of Contemporary History The Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition Maritime Archaeological Research Institute at Södertörn University The Södertörn University Library building was designed by Christer Malmström Arkitektkontor AB, has received one of Sweden's most prestigious prizes for architecture, the Kasper Salin-prize.
The 11 000 square metre building contains the library's collection, examination rooms, study areas and has 700 study spaces. The library was opened 2004. 1 January 1997 – 31 December 2002: Per Thullberg 2003–30 June 2010: Ingela Josefson 1 July 2010-30 June 2016: Moira von Wright 1 July 2016-: Gustav Amberg Ebba Witt-Brattström, Professor of Literature Sara Danius, Professor of Aesthetics Aris Fioretos, Professor of Aesthetics Kodjo Akolor Mohamed Said Kristian Gidlund Anna-Karin Hatt List of colleges and universities in Sweden
Peter Mikael Englund is a Swedish author and historian. Englund writes non-fiction books and essays about history, about the Swedish Empire, but about other historical events, he writes in a accessible style, providing narrative details omitted in typical books about history. His books have gained popularity and are translated into several languages, such as German and Czech, he was the permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy from 1 June 2009 to 31 May 2015, when he was succeeded by Sara Danius. In January 2019 Englund announced that he, fellow academy member Espmark, would return as active members of the Swedish academy, where they had been inactive since April 2018. Englund was born in Boden and studied a preparatory course for the caring professions for two years and humanistic subjects for another two years in secondary school, he was conscripted and served 15 months in the Swedish Army at the Norrbotten Regiment located in Boden. He was politically active in his youth and supported the FNL. Englund studied archaeology and theoretical philosophy at Uppsala University, completing a bachelor's degree in 1983, after which he began doctoral studies in History.
He was awarded his Ph. D. in 1989 for his dissertation Det hotade huset, an investigation of the worldview of the 17th-century Swedish nobility. During his period as a doctoral student, he had worked for some time for the Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Service, the year before receiving his doctorate he had published the bestselling Poltava, a detailed description of the Battle of Poltava, where the troops of Swedish king Charles XII were defeated by the Russian army of Tsar Peter I in 1709. Englund has received the August Prize and the Selma Lagerlöf Prize for Literature, he was elected a member of the Swedish Academy in 2002. On 1 June 2009 he succeeded Horace Engdahl as the permanent secretary of the Academy. In 2009, to distance himself from Engdahl, the previous Nobel secretary, Englund, "criticized the jury panel as being too "Eurocentric,'" and "told the Associated Press that it was easier for Europeans to relate to European literature.". In December 2014 he announced his retirement from the post of secretary of the Swedish Academy and was succeeded by Sara Danius May 31, 2015.
On 1 June 2015, Sara Danius succeeded Peter Englund as permanent secretary. On 6 April 2018, Englund announced. On the same day, Klas Östergren and Kjell Espmark declared that they would become inactive members of the Academy. I On 10 January 2019 Englund announced, through his blog, that he and fellow Academy member Kjell Espmark would be returning as active members of the Academy. Holowczyn: Battle of the Moscow Road Peter the Great Poltava Det hotade huset Förflutenhetens landskap, collection of essays Ofredsår, Sweden during Thirty Years' War with Erik Dahlberg at the centre of the book Brev från nollpunkten, collection of essays about modern history Den oövervinnerlige, on Sweden's period as a Great Power. Sequel to Ofredsår Erik Lönnroth: inträdestal i Svenska akademien Tystnadens historia och andra essäer Jag skall dundra Tystnadens historia, collection of essays Spegelscener: minnesfragment från fyra krig Silvermasken, a short biography of Queen Kristina of Sweden Stridens skönhet och sorg, a biography-based book about 19 people who lived during World War I Det stora svalget: en finlandssvensk i första världskriget 1914 Stridens skönhet och sorg: Första världskrigets inledande år i 68 korta kapitel 1915 Stridens skönhet och sorg: Första världskrigets andra år i 108 korta kapitel 1916 Stridens skönhet och sorg Biography Englund's website
Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, it was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize, the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain studied and read.
The prize has "become seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors... compar a poet from Indonesia translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon available only in French, another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...". As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin; the Academy has been alleged to be biased towards European, in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal"; the Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature.
No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years. The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.
A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money. The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation tha
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Ebba Witt-Brattström is a Swedish scholar in comparative literature. She is Professor of Literature and head of department at Södertörn University outside Stockholm, a well-known feminist. Witt-Brattström completed her Ph. D. with a dissertation on the Swedish author Moa Martinson at Stockholm University in 1988. She has since written a number of texts on St. Bridget of Sweden, Victoria Benedictsson and Edith Södergran, she translated the novel Egalia's Daughters by Gerd Brantenberg into Swedish. In 2010 she published a history of the feminist movement in Sweden,'Å alla kära systrar. Witt-Brattström was the Dag Hammarskjöld Visiting Professor at the Department for Northern European Studies at the Humboldt University of Berlin from 2008. From 2012 she is Professor of Nordic Literature at Helsinki University. In the 1970s she was a member of the feminist organisation Grupp 8, in 2005 she was one of the founders of the feminist political organisation and party Feministiskt Initiativ, although she distanced herself from the organisation and criticized what she saw as its strong left-wing tendencies.
Between 1989 and 2014 Ebba Witt-Brattström was married to Horace Engdahl, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy. They have three sons, she has an older son from an earlier marriage. Both her parents came to Sweden as refugees during the Second World War, her father was a German anti-Nazi from a affluent family, while her mother was an Estonian from a poor peasant's family. Her parents divorced early, she grew up with her mother
Nils Göran David Malmqvist is a Swedish linguist, literary historian and translator. Göran Malmqvist was born on 6 June 1924 in Sweden. Following introductory studies of Chinese under Sinologist Bernhard Karlgren at Stockholm University, Malmqvist studied in China in 1948 - 1950, he returned to Stockholm, taking a Licentiate of Arts degree in 1951. His international research career started shortly thereafter with a lectureship in Chinese at the University of London in 1953 - 1955, he was appointed Swedish cultural attaché in Peking and worked in China in 1956–1958. After his years in China he moved to Australia in 1958, where he worked for seven years at the Australian National University in Canberra. After some important essays on Chinese language history he was appointed Professor of Chinese at the university in 1961. During his professorship at the Australian National University, Malmqvist published academic articles on both old Chinese and modern Chinese; the articles concerned e.g. phonological issues and literary dialects during the Han dynasty, the syntax of bound forms in Sïchuanese and western Mandarin phonology.
In 1965, Malmqvist was called to Stockholm as Professor of Sinology Modern Chinese, at the newly established Section of Chinese in the Department of Oriental Languages at Stockholm University. Back in Stockholm, his career as a translator began, with a series of interpretations of Tang Dynasty lyrics in the anthology Det förtätade ögonblicket. Malmqvist has since translated 42 volumes of Chinese literature from different epochs. From that point on, Malmqvist was to appear as an all-round expert on China, he combines broad surveys of Chinese history, religion and geography with multifarious work as a translator. In this capacity he moves between different historical periods, different Chinese varieties, different literary genres. In 1971, Malmqvist published several textbooks including Nykinesisk grammatik and Nykinesisk fonetik, a number of translations, chiefly in the academic journal Orientaliska studier, the large section on Chinese literature 500–1779 in the joint Nordic Litteraturens världshistoria.
This was followed in 1973 with the section on The literature of China 1780–1890 and Chinese literature 1890–1965. The same year he published the translation of Lao. In 1974 Malmqvist published the popular volume Kinesiska är inte svårt. During the 1970s, he was working on the translation of the over thousand page picaresque novel Shui Hu zhuan; the Swedish title is Berättelser från träskmarkerna and the work appeared in four volumes between 1976 and 1979. The story, first written down in the 14th century, is oral in character and gives a rich picture of the end of the Song dynasty, during the first few decades of the 12th century. Malmqvist’s achievement includes a further, monumental translation of a similar kind, the five volumes of Färden till västern. Written down in the 16th century, the story of how in the 17th century the pilgrim Tripitaka brings the holy writings of Buddhism from India to China. During the 1970s and 1980s Malmqvist’s research turned chiefly to classical Chinese philology and semantics.
Göran Malmqvist was elected to the Swedish Academy on 11 April 1985 and admitted on 20 December 1985. Malmqvist succeeded the literary historian Henry Olsson to Chair number 5. From the time after his election to the Swedish Academy, the over five-hundred page biography on his teacher Bernhard Karlgren is of particular note: Bernhard Karlgren – ett forskarporträtt in 1995. Malmqvist here follows Karlgren's path through the pioneering era of Sinology from his early dialectological fieldwork in China in 1910–1912, which aimed at reconstructing the sound pattern of ancient Chinese. Following the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Chinese author Mo Yan in 2012 Malmqvist was criticized for a possible conflict of interest, as he had close personal and economic relations to Mo Yan. Malmqvist had translated several of Mo Yan's works into Swedish and published some through his own publishing house. Mo Yan had written a laudatory preface to one of Malmqvist's own books, been a close friend of Malmqvist's wife for 15 years.
The Nobel committee denied that this constituted a conflict of interest, said that it would have been absurd for Malmqvist to recuse. Det förtätade ögonblicket: T’ang-lyrik Problems and methods in Chinese linguistics Han phonology and textual criticism Gunnar Martins samling av kinesisk och japansk litteratur 111 nykinesiska satsmönster Nykinesisk grammatik Kinesiska är inte svårt Nykinesisk fonetik Nykinesiska satsmönster Vägar till Kina: Göran Malmqvist 60 år Henry Olsson: Inträdestal i Svenska akademien Bernhard Karlgren: Ett forskarporträtt Nio röster från Taiwan: Modern kinesisk poesi Haiku för ros och oros skull Strövtåg i svunna tider Guldfisken som älskar att sjunga Mozart Stol nr 5 - Göran Malmqvist, Official biography by Jan Arnald, Swedish Academy: Stockholm, 2005. Göran Malmqvist, A selective guide to Chinese literature, 1900-1949. 4 vol. Leiden, 1988-1990. Göran Malmqvist, Modern Chinese literature and its social context, Nobel Symposium, 32. Stockholm, 1977. Göran Malmqvist and Methods in Chinese Linguistics, The Australian National University: Canberra, 1962. is a compact introduction to Chinese linguistics.
Göran Malmqvist, Bernhard Karlgren: E