Ferdinand Porsche was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle, in addition, Porsche designed the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen, which was the first racing car with a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Porsche was an important contributor to the German war effort during World War II. He was involved in the production of advanced tanks such as the VK4501, Tiger I, Tiger II, Porsche was a member of the German Nazi party and allegedly the SS. He was a recipient of the German National Prize for Art and Science, the SS-Ehrenring and he was called the Great German Engineer by Nazi propaganda. In 1996 Porsche was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, Ferdinand Porsche was born to German-speaking parents in Maffersdorf, northern Bohemia, part of the Austrian Empire at that time, and today part of the Czech Republic. Ferdinand was his parents third child and his father, Anton Porsche, was a master panel-beater.
He showed an aptitude for mechanical work at a very early age. He attended classes at the Imperial Technical School in Reichenberg at night while helping his father in his shop by day. Thanks to a referral, Porsche landed a job with the Béla Egger Electrical company in Vienna when he turned 18, in Vienna he would sneak into the local university whenever he could after work. Other than attending classes there, Porsche never received any higher engineering education, during his five years with Béla Egger, Porsche first developed the electric hub motor. After the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, in 1934 Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels made Porsche a naturalized German citizen. In 1898, Porsche joined the Vienna-based factory Jakob Lohner & Company, which produced coaches for Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria as well as for the monarchs of the UK, and Romania. Jakob Lohner had begun construction of automobiles in 1896 under Ludwig Lohner in the suburb of Floridsdorf.
Their first design was the Egger-Lohner vehicle, first unveiled in Vienna, Austria, on 26 June 1898, Porsche had engraved the code P1 onto all the key components. The Egger-Lohner was a car driven by two electric motors within the front wheel hubs, powered by batteries. This drive train construction was expanded to four-wheel drive, by mounting two more electric motors to the rear wheels, and a four-motor example was ordered by Englishman E. W. Hart in 1900. In December that year, the car was displayed at the Paris World Exhibition under the name Toujours-Contente, even though this one-off vehicle had been commissioned for the purposes of racing and record-breaking, its 1,800 kg of lead–acid batteries was a severe shortcoming
Karl Friedrich Benz was a German engine designer and automobile engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical motorcar and he received a patent for the Motorcar on 29 January 1886. According to German law, the acquired the name Benz by legal marriage of his parents Benz. When he was two old, his father died of pneumonia, and his name was changed to Karl Friedrich Benz in remembrance of his father. Despite living in poverty, his mother strove to give him a good education. Benz attended the local Grammar School in Karlsruhe and was a prodigious student, in 1853, at the age of nine he started at the scientifically oriented Lyceum. Next he studied at the Poly-Technical University under the instruction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher, Benz had originally focused his studies on locksmithing, but he eventually followed his fathers steps toward locomotive engineering. On 30 September 1860, at age 15, he passed the exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe.
Benz graduated 9 July 1864 aged 19, during these years, while riding his bicycle, he started to envision concepts for a vehicle that would eventually become the horseless carriage. Following his formal education, Benz had seven years of training in several companies. The training started in Karlsruhe with two years of varied jobs in an engineering company. He moved to Mannheim to work as a draftsman and designer in a scales factory, in 1868 he went to Pforzheim to work for a bridge building company Gebrüder Benckiser Eisenwerke und Maschinenfabrik. Finally, he went to Vienna for a period to work at an iron construction company. In 1871, at the age of twenty-seven, Karl Benz joined August Ritter in launching the Iron Foundry and Mechanical Workshop in Mannheim, the enterprises first year went very badly. Ritter turned out to be unreliable, and the tools were impounded. The difficulty was overcome when Benzs fiancée, Bertha Ringer, bought out Ritters share in the company using her dowry, on 20 July 1872, Karl Benz and Bertha Ringer married.
They had five children, Richard, Thilde, despite the business misfortunes, Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents, first, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable petrol two-stroke engine
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germanys sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres, located in the middle of a large, formerly all German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, the area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony is divided into 10 districts,1. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke, in 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen. The Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland, the largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate.
To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan region with Halle. The latter city is located just across the border to Saxony-Anhalt, Leipzig shares for instance an S-train system and an airport with Halle. Saxony has, after Saxony Anhalt, the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany and its economy grew by 1. 9% in 2010. Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average, the eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an Objective 1 development-region within the European Union, and is eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013. FutureSAX, a business competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002. Microchip makers near Dresden have given the region the nickname Silicon Saxony, the publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today the automobile industry, machinery production and services contribute to the development of the region.
Saxony is one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany - especially the cities of Leipzig and Dresden, new tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz. Saxony reported an unemployment of 8. 8% in 2014. By comparison the average in the former GDR was 9. 8% and 6. 7% for Germany overall, the unemployment rate reached 8. 2% in May 2015. The Leipzig area, which recently was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit greatly from investments by Porsche. With the VW Phaeton factory in Dresden, and many part suppliers, zwickau is another major Volkswagen location
The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.8 million and is Germanys second-largest metropolitan region after Rhine-Ruhr. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurts CBD. Frankfurt is culturally and ethnically diverse, with half of the population. A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates, Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and traffic. Its the site of many global and European headquarters, Frankfurt Airport is among the worlds busiest. Automotive and research, consulting, Frankfurts DE-CIX is the worlds largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the worlds largest trade fairs, major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the worlds largest motor show, the Music Fair, and the Frankfurt Book Fair, the worlds largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europes largest English Theatre and many museums, Frankfurts skyline is shaped by some of Europes tallest skyscrapers. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon. Its the seat of German sport unions for Olympics, Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the worlds largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. Frankfurt is considered a city as listed by the GaWC groups 2012 inventory. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011, among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013.
Its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, Frankfurt Airport is one of the worlds busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germanys flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, in 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual Quality of Living survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germanys most expensive city, Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline. It is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, the other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt
Wanderer was a German manufacturer of bicycles, automobiles and other machinery. Winklhofer & Jaenicke was established in 1896 in Chemnitz and it built motorcycles from 1902 and automobiles from 1903. The Wanderer brand was chosen in 1911 for overseas exports and was adopted for domestic sales. The first two- or three-seater models used four-cylinder 1145 cc and 1220 cc engines, the 1220 cc model lasted until 1925. The first six-cylinder model appeared in 1928, motorcycle production continued in Chemnitz alone. During the Great Depression, in 1929, the owner, Dresdner Bank, sold the motorcycle business to František Janeček. The car division with its Siegmar factory became part of Auto Union together with Horch, Audi, in this quartet, Horch was positioned as the luxury brand, DKW built cheap two-stroke cars and Wanderer competed in different segments of mid-priced, technologically advanced small cars. Wanderers of Nazi period acquired a trademark radiator design, shaped as a heraldic shield, the next model W17 7/35 PS was propelled by a new 1692 cc OHV four-cylinder engine developed by Ferdinand Porsche.
In 1933 the new Audi Front was equipped with the Wanderer W22 engine, the top model from 1936 to 1939 was W50, propelled by a 2257 cc six-cylinder engine. From 1937 on there were sporting fours and another model of 2632 cc. Wanderer cars were always admired for their quality and sporting character. During World War II all civilian production was replaced in 1941 with licence-built military vehicles, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp, KZ Siegmar-Schonau, was operated during the war to provide slave labour for the Wanderer vehicle plants. From 1943 on the Auto Union Siegmar plant produced Maybach HL230 V12 engines, the Wanderer Siegmar plant of Auto Union were destroyed in early 1945, closing this chapter in the history of automobiles. List of automobile manufacturers List of German cars Auto Union Dates in the history of Wanderer - Audi USA AUTO UNION Sales Brochures 1939
DKW is a German car and motorcycle marque. The company and brand is one of the companies of the modern day Audi company as one of the four companies that formed Auto-Union. In 1916, Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen founded a factory in Zschopau, Saxony and that year he attempted to produce a steam-driven car, called the DKW. Although unsuccessful, he made a two-stroke toy engine in 1919, in 1932, DKW merged with Audi and Wanderer to form Auto Union. After World War II, DKW moved to West Germany, with the factory becoming MZ. Auto Union came under Daimler-Benz ownership in 1957 and was purchased by the Volkswagen Group in 1964, the last German-built DKW car was the F102, which ceased production in 1966. Its successor, the four-stroke F103, was marketed under the Audi brand, dKW-badged cars continued to be built under license in Brazil and Argentina until 1967 and 1969 respectively. DKW cars were made from 1928 until 1966, apart from an interruption caused by the Second World War, dKWs always used two-stroke engines, reflecting the companys position by the end of the 1920s as the worlds largest producer of motorcycles.
More significant was a series of cars built 300 km to the south in Zwickau in the plant acquired by the companys owner in 1928 when he had become the majority owner in Audi Werke AG. Models F1 to F8 were built between 1931 and 1942, with successor models reappearing after the end of the war in 1945 and they were the first volume production cars in Europe with front wheel drive, and were powered by transversely mounted two-cylinder two-stroke engines. Displacement was 584 or 692 cc, claimed power was initially 15 PS. These models had a generator that doubled as a starter, mounted directly on the crankshaft, dKWs from Zwickau notched up approximately 218,000 units between 1931 and 1942. Between 1929 and 1940, DKW produced a well remembered. Engine displacement was 1,000 cc, 1,100 cc, the engines had two extra cylinders for forced induction, so they appeared like V6 engines but without spark plugs on the front cylinder pair. In 1939, DKW made a prototype with the first three-cylinder engine, with a displacement of 900 cc, with a streamlined body, the car could run at 115 km/h.
It was put into production after World War II, first as an Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau F9 in Zwickau, East Germany, DKW engines were used by Saab as a model for the Saab two-stroke in its Saab 92 car manufacturing venture, in 1947. As Auto Union was based in Saxony in what became the German Democratic Republic and their first line of production took place in Düsseldorf. This van used the engine as the last F8 made before the war
Mercedes was a brand of the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. DMG began to develop in 1900, after the death of its co-founder, by Jellineks contract, the new model contained a newly designed engine designated Daimler-Mercedes. This engine name is the first instance of the use of the name, the automobile design would be called, the Mercedes 35 hp. Later he contracted with DMG for a series of dedicated sports cars containing an engine that officially bore his daughters name. He raced them successfully, gaining recognition that increased interest in customers. This model was a significant advancement in the history of automobiles, Jellinek seems to have become obsessed with the name and even had his name changed to Jellinek-Mercedes. Maybach quit DMG in 1907 and started up his own business, and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft in that year. Since Jellinek was a member of the board of directors by the time of the merger, Mercedes was a brand in the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft which began to develop in 1901, after the death of its co-founder, Gottlieb Daimler.
This caused DMG to abandon racing, the contract included an order for 36 standard DMG8 hp cars. The first one was not delivered to Jellinek until 22 December, Jellinek laid down strict specifications for the new model stating I dont want a car for today or tomorrow, it will be the car of the day after tomorrow. Over the next few months, Jellinek oversaw the development of the new car—at first by daily telegrams—and by traveling to Stuttgart. He took delivery of the first one on 22 December 1900, at Nices railway station—it had already sold to the Baron Henry of Rothschild. In 1901, the car amazed the automobile world, Jellinek again won the Nice races, easily beating his opponents in all the capacity classes and reaching 60 km/h. The director of the French Automobile Club, Paul Meyan, stated, We have entered the Mercedes era, the records set by the new Mercedes 35 hp model amazed the entire automobile world. The number of employees increased from 340 in 1900 to 2,200 in 1904
A hood/bonnet ornament, radiator cap, motor mascot or car mascot is a specially crafted model which symbolizes a car company like a badge, located on the front center portion of the hood. It has been used as an adornment nearly since the inception of automobiles, according to the author of A History of Cars written for youth, the first hood ornament was a sun-crested falcon mounted on Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamuns chariot. In the early years, automobiles had their radiator caps outside of the hood and this became a useful gauge for the driver because many early engines did not have water pumps, but a circulation system based on the thermo-syphon principle as in the Ford Model T. The exposed radiator cap became a point for automobile personalization. Hood ornaments were popular in the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, moreover, a healthy business was created in the supply of accessory mascots available to anyone who wanted to add a hood ornament or car mascot to their automobile. Most companies like Desmo and Smiths are now out of business with only Louis Lejeune Ltd.
in England surviving, sculptors such as Bazin, Sykes and Lejeune all created finely detailed sculptures in miniature. Restrictions to the fitting of ornaments on the front of vehicles have been introduced in some jurisdictions, projecting decorative designs on the hood may increase the risk of injury to pedestrians in the case of an accident. Regulations introduced in the United States for the 1968 model year vehicles meant the disappearance of fixed stand-up hood ornaments, versions featured flexibly mounted stand-up hood ornaments designed to fold without breaking on impact. In the European Union, since 1974 all new cars have had to conform to a European directive on vehicle exterior projections, rolls Royces mascot is now mounted on a spring-loaded mechanism designed to retract instantly into the radiator shell if struck with more than 10 kilograms of force. The Mercedes-Benz and many other ornaments were designed with a mount to fold on impact. For aftermarket ornaments, breakaway nylon fixings are available that comply with EC Directive 74/483, the hundreds of motor vehicle manufacturers before 1929 meant many customers for their customized emblems.
Along with the grille, the ornament is often a distinctive styling element. The radiator cap was transformed into an art form and became a way of individualizing the car, representing a companys vision of the automobile, Hood ornaments are usually cast in brass, zinc, or bronze and finished in a chrome plated finish. During the years when chrome plate was unavailable, they were plated in silver or nickel. Some incorporated other materials, such as plastic, bakelite, or colored glass, the best-known glass mascots were made by René Lalique in France. Other sellers or producers of glass mascots include Sabino in France, Red Ashay in England, the latter two had their products made in Czechoslovakia. The Lalique company, like Louis Lejeune, is one of the few survivors from this era of motoring, there is a collectors market for hood ornaments and car mascots. Flying Ladies, The Art of the Automobile Hood Ornaments and Car Mascots, jill Reger Photography—Photographic art of car mascots and hood ornaments Weiner, Geoffrey George
Ehrenfeld is a city district of the City of Cologne in Germany. It includes the seven quarters Bickendorf, Bocklemünd, Ehrenfeld, Ossendorf and it has about 104.509 inhabitants and covers an area of 23.83 square kilometres. The district borders with the Cologne districts of Chorweiler to the North and Innenstadt to the East, the landmark of Ehrenfeld is the Helios-lighthouse. Ehrenfeld got its name from the quarter Ehrenfeld, which represents the center of the borough, Ehrenfeld grew substantially during the Gründerzeit boom, became a municipality in 1867 and a town in 1879. Nine years later, Ehrenfeld became part of the city of Cologne, during summer and autumn of 1944 an anti-Nazi resistance group, known as the Ehrenfeld Group, operated from Ehrenfeld. Ehrenfeld consists of six Stadtteile, The borough is connected to the city centre of Cologne by numerous light rail stations of Cologne Stadtbahn line 3,4,5 and 13. The Bundesautobahn 57 connects Ehrenfeld with the Cologne Beltway, Venloer Straße is the principal road leading onto the Cologne Ring.
The Köln-Ehrenfeld station connects the borough to the rail network
Reichenbach im Vogtland
Reichenbach im Vogtland is a town in the Vogtlandkreis district of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 18,879, it is the second largest town in the Vogtlandkreis after Plauen and it lies by the A72 between Plauen and Zwickau. Reichenbach im Vogtland originated as a settlement of the Franks and thanks its early growth to its convenient position in a valley near Mylau Castle, in 1212 it was officially named Richenbach, possibly because of the many wetland basins in the area which now hosts the Altstadt. Much of the Reichenbach history was lost in the city fires of 1720,1773, the foundations of the Peter Paul parish church still date back to the 12th century. The rise of industrialisation allowed the city to further, again promoted by its accessibility. Some of Reichenbachs most remarkable structures date from this era, including its Rathaus, the station, and worlds largest brick bridge. Reichenbach im Vogtland has had an insignificant role in World War II. On March 21,1945, American bombings killed 161 citizens, against the orders of the National Socialists, Mayor Dr.
Otto Schreiber capitulated the city on April 17 without a fight. The town was occupied by American troops, who handed over control to the Red Army on July 1, about 120 innocent youth aged 15 and 16 were taken in custody and transferred to the Soviet Unions secret service, hoping all other citizens would be spared. After Germany was split up, Reichenbach im Vogtland became part of East Germany, the population has since declined from nearly 35,000 to little over 20,000 today. As was the case with many former East German industrial cities, many initiatives have since been deployed to rebuild the local economy. There are still many buildings in Reichenbach with a high historic value. Reichenbach station is part of the Leipzig–Hof line and this line includes the Göltzsch Viaduct, the largest brick bridge in the world, which lies 4 km west of the town. The Neuberinhaus is a historical and theatrical museum, named after the towns most famous citizen, actress Friederike Caroline Neuber. Permanent expositions include her life and work, 18th century German theatre, the Park der Generationen, the gardens of the 5th Saxon Landesgartenschau held between May 1 and October 18,2009.
Reichenbach im Vogtland has a tower of Deutsche Telekom erected out of concrete. It is not to be confused with the tower in Reichenbach which transmits MDR Info at 1,188 kHz, the Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau - University of Applied Sciences Zwickau teaches Architecture at bachelor and master level and Textile- and Leather Craftsmanship. The city has a gymnasium, a school, three primary schools, and a special school for the physically and mentally challenged