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Horemheb

Horemheb was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled for 14 years somewhere between 1319 BC and 1292 BC, he had no relation to the preceding royal family other than by marriage to Mutnedjmet, disputed to have been the daughter of his predecessor Ay. Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankhamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed the Egyptian state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began. Due to this, he is considered the man who restabilized his country after the troublesome and divisive Amarna Period. Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb had no surviving sons, as he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who would assume the throne as Ramesses I. Horemheb is believed to have originated from Herakleopolis Magna or ancient Hnes on the west bank of the Nile near the entrance to the Fayum since his coronation text formally credits the God Horus of Hnes for establishing him on the throne.

His parentage is unknown but he is believed to have been a commoner. According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to be the same person as Paatenemheb, the commander-in-chief of Akhenaten's army. Grimal notes that Horemheb's political career first began under Tutankhamun where he "is depicted at this king's side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis."In the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served as "the royal spokesman for foreign affairs" and led a diplomatic mission to visit the Nubian governors. This resulted in a reciprocal visit by "the Prince of Miam" to Tutankhamun's court, "an event depicted in the tomb of the Viceroy Huy." Horemheb rose to prominence under Tutankhamun, becoming commander-in-chief of the army and advisor to the pharaoh. Horemheb's specific titles are spelled out in his Saqqara tomb, built while he was still only an official: "Hereditary Prince, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, Chief Commander of the Army"; the royal couple depicted in this scene and in the adjacent scene 76, which shows Horemheb acting as an intermediary between the king and a group of subject foreign rulers, are therefore to be identified as Tut'ankhamun and'Ankhesenamun.

This makes it unlikely from the start that any titles of honours claimed by Horemheb in the inscriptions in the tomb are fictitious. The title iry-pat was used frequently in Horemheb's Saqqara tomb but not combined with any other words; when used alone, the Egyptologist Alan Gardiner has shown that the iry-pat title contains features of ancient descent and lawful inheritance, identical to the designation for a "Crown Prince." This means that Horemheb was the recognised heir to Tutankhamun's throne and not Ay, Tutankhamun's immediate successor. As the Dutch Egyptologist Jacobus Van Dijk observes: There is no indication that Horemheb always intended to succeed Tut'ankhamun, it must always have been understood that his appointment as crown prince would end as soon as the king produced an heir, that he would succeed Tut'ankhamun only in the eventuality of an early and/or childless death of the sovereign. There can be no doubt that nobody outranked the Hereditary Prince of Upper and Lower Egypt and Deputy of the King in the Entire Land except the king himself, that Horemheb was entitled to the throne once the king had unexpectedly died without issue.

This means. Why was Ay able to ascend the throne upon the death of Tut'ankhamun, despite the fact that Horemheb had at that time been the official heir to the throne for ten years? The aged Vizier Ay sidelined Horemheb's claim to the throne and instead succeeded Tutankhamun because Horemheb was in Asia with the army at the time of Tutankhamun's death. No objects belonging to Horemheb were found in Tutankhamun's tomb, but items donated by other high-ranking officials such as Maya and Nakhtmin were found in there by Egyptologists. Further, Tutankhamun's queen, refused to marry Horemheb, a commoner, so make him king of Egypt. Having pushed Horemheb's claims aside, Ay proceeded to nominate the aforementioned Nakhtmin, Ay's son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than Horemheb. After Ay's reign, which lasted for a little over four years, Horemheb managed to seize power thanks to his position as commander of the army, to assume what he must have perceived to be his just reward for having ably served

National Board of Review Awards 1997

The 69th National Board of Review Awards, honoring the best in filmmaking in 1997, were announced on 9 December 1997 and given on 9 February 1998. L. A. Confidential As Good as It Gets The Wings of the Dove Good Will Hunting Titanic The Sweet Hereafter Boogie Nights The Full Monty The Rainmaker Jackie Brown Shall We Dance? Beaumarchais, l'insolent Ma vie en rose La Promesse Ponette Best Picture: L. A. Confidential Best Foreign Film: Shall We Dance? Best Actor: Jack Nicholson - As Good as It Gets Best Actress: Helena Bonham Carter - The Wings of the Dove Best Supporting Actor: Greg Kinnear - As Good as It Gets Best Supporting Actress: Anne Heche - Donnie Brasco, Wag the Dog Best Acting by an Ensemble The Sweet Hereafter Breakthrough Performance: Bai Ling - Red Corner Best Director: Curtis Hanson - L. A. Confidential Outstanding Directorial Debut: Kasi Lemmons - Eve's Bayou Best Documentary: Fast and Out of Control Career Achievement Award: Robert Duvall Billy Wilder Award for Excellence in Directing: Francis Ford Coppola Special Achievement in Filmmaking: Ben Affleck and Matt Damon - Good Will Hunting William K. Everson Award for Film History Gavin Lambert, Nazimova Freedom of Expression: Richard Gere and Jon Avnet - Red Corner Special Citations: Edward Bernds, Lifetime Achievement in Film Technology James Cameron, Special Effects Technology, Titanic Special Recognition for Excellence in Filmmaking: The Apostle Chasing Amy The Daytrippers Different for Girls Gridlock'd In the Company of Men Star Maps The Tango Lesson Telling Lies in America Welcome to Sarajevo National Board of Review of Motion Pictures:: Awards for 1997

Port of Saints (album)

Port of Saints is a live album of performed by multi-instrumentalist Joe McPhee recorded in 2000 in France and first released on the CjR label. On All About Jazz, Lyn Horton wrote "Port of Saints describes an epic journey whose main character is the saxophone. A guitar acts as the saxophone's alter ego. Two basses supply avuncular guide posts for traveling to an certain destination; the journey is rife both with fantasy and human spirit". All compositions by Raymond Boni, Michael Bisio and Dominic Duval. "Port of Saints" – 51:00 "The Snake, the Fish" – 13:52 Joe McPhee – tenor saxophone Raymond Boni – electric guitar Michael Bisio, Dominic Duval – bass