Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, and the primary sector, the basic characteristic of this sector is the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and discussion, the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. The goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods. It is sometimes hard to define whether a company is part of the secondary or tertiary sector. These governmental classification systems have a hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries, the second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced.
For the last 100 years, there has been a shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialised countries. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world and these are not necessarily busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category and they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, and often more. The first economy to follow path in the modern world was the United Kingdom. The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time, manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers rarely face, services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, since the quality of most services depends largely on the quality of the individuals providing the services, people costs are usually a high fraction of service costs.
Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, for example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are often seen to provide identical services. Charging a premium for services is usually an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition
Langnau am Albis
Langnau am Albis is a village in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Langnau am Albis is first mentioned between 1101 and 1150 as Langenow, between 1133 and 1167 it was mentioned as Langenouw. Langnau am Albis has an area of 8.7 km2, of this area,27. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 48. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,22. 5% is settled, in 1996 housing and buildings made up 17. 1% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total area, water made up 0. 6% of the area. As of 200716. 6% of the municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. It is located in the Sihltal valley on the slopes of the Albis mountain range, the area is a rural/suburban community within 10 km of the city center of Zürich. Langnau is one of the communities in the Canton of Zürich. Langnau am Albis has a population of 7,449, as of 2007,21. 7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49. 3% male and 50. 7% female, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7. 2%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, in the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35. 6% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CVP, the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 20. 8% of the population, while adults make up 64. 6% and seniors make up 14. 7%. There are 3 schools in the village Vorder Zelg is the secondary school and Widmer are the two Primary Schools. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Langnau am Albis about 77. 4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, there are 2,926 households in Langnau am Albis. As of 2008 there were 2,333 Catholics and 2,510 Protestants in Langnau am Albis, in the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census,42. 8% were some type of Protestant,34. 8% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim,6. 6% belonged to another religion,2. 6% did not give a religion, and 12. 2% were atheist or agnostic
Districts of Switzerland
In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts, most cantons are divided into Bezirke. They are termed Ämter, district or distretto, the Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax, seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Nidwalden, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to five administrative regions. Vaud decided a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, valais is planning a similar reduction and in Thurgau, a reduction of eight to four districts is under discussion.
From 2005, districts only have a statistical meaning, the districts are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere in Switzerland, and are generally shown as municipalities on maps etc. The Canton is divided into 6 districts, Appenzell Gonten Oberegg Rüte Schlatt-Haslen Schwende Municipalities of Switzerland
Hirzel is a municipality in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Hirzel is first mentioned in 1269 as Hirsol, Hirzel spans an area of 9.6 km2. Of this area,68. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,9. 3% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 7. 2% of the total area, of the total unproductive area, water made up 1. 1% of the area. As of 2007 4% of the municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The municipality includes the sections of Hirzel-Kirche, Hirzel-Spitzen and Hirzel-Höchi, in 1878 the municipality borders were surveyed and moved. As a result, several individual farm houses came to Hirzel from Wädenswil, Hirzel has a population of 2,145. As of 2007,8. 2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, as of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49. 6% male and 50. 4% female. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -1. 9%, most of the population speaks German, with English being second most common and French being third.
In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP, the next two most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP. The age distribution of the population comprises children and teenagers who make up 27. 7% of the population, adults make up 59. 3%, the entire Swiss population is generally well-educated. In Hirzel about 84. 8% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, there are 727 households in Hirzel. Hirzel has an unemployment rate of 0. 7%, as of 2005, there were 101 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 43 businesses involved in this sector. 105 people are employed in the sector and there are 22 businesses in this sector. 296 people are employed in the sector, with 66 businesses in this sector. As of 200749. 6% of the population were employed full-time. As of 2008 there were 535 Catholics and 1063 Protestants in Hirzel, in the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census,56.
7% were some type of Protestant,27. 7% of the population were Catholic
The S24 is a regional railway line of the Zürich S-Bahn of the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund, Zürich transportation network. S24 Winterthur – Zürich Airport – Zürich HB – Thalwil – Zug The line runs from Thayngen to Zug via Schaffhausen, Winterthur Hauptbahnhof, Zürich Airport, Zürich Hauptbahnhof, most trips are operated using RABe 514 double-decker electric multiple units. Trains normally operate every half-hour between Winterthur and Zug, with trains starting from Thayngen. The trip between Thayngen and Zug takes 1 hour 53 minutes, before June 2014, S24 referred to a shorter line, running only between Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Horgen Oberdorf. This overlapped with service S21, which connected Thalwil and Zug, prior to 2012, the S21 served Sihlbrugg station, situated between Baar and Horgen and permanently closed in that year. In 2014, the S24 was extended at its end to Zug in replacement of the S21. In late 2015, the S24 was further extended from Zürich Oerlikon to Zürich Airport, Winterthur and Thayngen, rail transport in Switzerland Trams in Zürich Media related to S-Bahn Zürich at Wikimedia Commons ZVV official website
Education in Switzerland
The education system in Switzerland is very diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system mainly to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools, the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. After primary schools, the split up according to their abilities. Roughly 20% of all students attend secondary schools leading, normally after 12 school years in total to the federal recognized matura which grants access to all universities. The other students split in two or more school-types, depending on the canton, differing in the balance between theoretical and practical education and it is obligatory for all children to attend school for at least 9 years. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 in Basel and this place has a long tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland.
In addition, there are seven regional associations of Universities for Applied Sciences which require vocational education, Switzerland has a high rate of foreign students in tertiary education including one of the highest in the world of doctoral level students. Many Nobel prizes have been awarded to Swiss scientists, more recently Vladimir Prelog, Heinrich Rohrer, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Rolf Zinkernagel and Kurt Wüthrich have received nobel prizes in the sciences. In total,113 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to Switzerland, geneva hosts the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, the CERN. Other important research centers are the Empa and Paul Scherrer Institute which belong to the ETH domain, the obligatory school system usually includes primary education and secondary education I. Before that, children go to Kindergarten, but it is not required in every canton. The minimum age for school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden. The cantons Thurgau and Nidwalden allow five-year-olds to start school in exceptional cases.
Primary school continues until grade four, five or six, depending on the school/canton, any child can take part in school if they choose to, but pupils are separated depending on whether they speak French, German or Italian. At the end of school, pupils are separated according to their capacities. Students who aspire to an academic career enter Mittelschule to be prepared for further studies and this so-called dual system splitting academic and vocational training has its continuation in the higher education system. If in addition to the training the Berufsmaturitätsschule is completed the Fachhochschule may be visited instead. Rather recently introduced is a third, middle path via the Fachmittelschule which leads to an access to a Fachhochschule after a successful graduation of a Fachmatura
Oberrieden is a municipality in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. It is one of the towns along the shore of Lake Zurich. Oberrieden is first mentioned between 1133 and 1167 as Obrendrieden, Oberrieden has an area of 2.8 km2. Of this area,15. 1% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,40. 6% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 27. 2% of the total area, of the total unproductive area, water made up 0. 7% of the area. As of 200742. 1% of the municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The municipality is located on the side of Zurich Lake. It stretches from the Sihl to Zurich Lake, Oberrieden has a population of 5,027. As of 2007,15. 4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, as of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 47. 5% male and 52. 5% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 11. 6%, most of the population speaks German, with English being second most common and Italian being third.
In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 31. 7% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SPS and the CSP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 20. 1% of the population, while adults make up 62. 4%, in Oberrieden about 88% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 2133 households in Oberrieden, Oberrieden has an unemployment rate of 2%. As of 2005, there were 50 people employed in the economic sector. 69 people are employed in the sector and there are 19 businesses in this sector. 569 people are employed in the sector, with 138 businesses in this sector. As of 200769. 2% of the population were employed full-time. As of 2008 there were 1460 Catholics and 2135 Protestants in Oberrieden, in the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories
Thalwil is a municipality and town in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. As of 2010 its population was of 17,189, besides the town of Thalwil, the municipality includes the village of Gattikon. The official language of Thalwil is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Thalwil is first mentioned around 1030 as Talwile villam, which is derived from Tellewilare, Tellos Farm, only a few graves remain from this period. In 1133 it was mentioned as Telwil and this estate was once owned by the Dukes of Habsburg and held by the Barons of Eschenbach. The Abbeys of Muri and Wettingen had significant interests and owned 12 and 3 farms respectively, Thalwil boasts the oldest wood corporation in the Canton of Zurich, the Bannegg-Waldung. It was first mentioned in 1483, when Muri Abbey granted it to the beneficiaries of the Abbey farms in Thalwil. Today the corporation is owned by 16 members as well as by the Thalwil Gemeinde, the municipality of Thalwil is located on the Zimmerberg ridge between the western shore of Lake Zurich and the Sihl river.
It includes the town of Thalwil, on the slopes of the ridge alongside the lake, and the village of Gattikon, on the westen slopes. Thalwil borders on the communes of Rüschlikon, Langnau am Albis, Horgen, the municipality has an area of 5.5 km2. Of this area, 18% is used for agricultural purposes, while 23. 8% is forested, of the rest of the land,56. 1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 42. 3% of the total area, of the total unproductive area, water made up 1. 4% of the area. As of 200751. 3% of the municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The Gemeindewappen consists of two diagonally crossed black bulrushes with green stems and leaves on a white background, Thalwil has a population of 17,729. As of 2007,21. 4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, as of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 48. 5% male and 51. 5% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and English being third.
In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 28. 5% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CSP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 18. 8% of the population, while adults make up 65. 6%, in Thalwil about 81. 5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education
The period is usually considered to have begun with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Luther in 1517 to the Thirty Years War and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Protestant position, would come to incorporate doctrinal changes such as sola scriptura, the initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. The spread of Gutenbergs printing press provided the means for the dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the Lutherans and Calvinists, Lutheran churches were founded mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia, while the Reformed ones were founded in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Scotland. The new movement influenced the Church of England decisively after 1547 under Edward VI and Elizabeth I, there were reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation, which gave rise to the Anabaptist and other Pietistic movements. The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent, much work in battling Protestantism was done by the well-organised new order of the Jesuits.
In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while Central Europe was a site of a fierce conflict, culminating in the Thirty Years War, which left it devastated. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, the Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Churchs hierarchy, which included the pope. Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church, New perspectives came from John Wycliffe at Oxford University and from Jan Hus at the Charles University in Prague.
Hus rejected indulgences and adopted a doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone, the Roman Catholic Church officially concluded this debate at the Council of Constance by condemning Hus, who was executed by burning despite a promise of safe-conduct. Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428, the Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the century and could not prevent schism. Pope Sixtus IV established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead, Pope Alexander VI was one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia, in response to papal corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote The Ninety-Five Theses. The Reformation was born of Luthers dual declaration – first, the discovering of Jesus and salvation by faith alone, the Protestant reformers were unanimous in agreement and this understanding of prophecy furnished importance to their deeds.
It was the point and the battle cry that made the Reformation nearly unassailable