Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn was a German gymnastics educator and nationalist whose writing is credited with the founding of the German gymnastics movement as well as influencing the German Campaign of 1813, during which a coalition of German states ended the occupation of Napoleon's First French Empire. His admirers know him as Turnvater Jahn meaning "father of gymnastics" Jahn, he was born in Lanz in Prussia. He studied theology and philology from 1796 to 1802 at the Halle, Göttingen, at the University of Greifswald. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt in 1806 he joined the Prussian army. In 1809, he went to Berlin, where he became a teacher at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster and at the Plamann School. Brooding upon what he saw as the humiliation of his native land by Napoleon, Jahn conceived the idea of restoring the spirits of his countrymen by the development of their physical and moral powers through the practice of gymnastics; the first Turnplatz, or open-air gymnasium, was opened by Jahn in Berlin in 1811, the Turnverein movement spread rapidly.
Young gymnasts were taught to regard themselves as members of a kind of guild for the emancipation of their fatherland. The nationalistic spirit was nourished in a significant degree by the writings of Jahn. In the Early 1813 Jahn took an active part in the formation of the famous Lützow Free Corps, a volunteer force in the Prussian army fighting Napoleon, he commanded a battalion of the corps, but he was employed in the secret service during the same period. After the war, he returned to Berlin, where he was appointed state teacher of gymnastics, he took on a role in the formation of the student patriotic fraternities, or Burschenschaften, in Jena. A man of populistic nature, rugged and outspoken, Jahn came into conflict with the authorities; the authorities realized he aimed at establishing a united Germany and that his Turner schools were political and liberal clubs. The conflict resulted in the closing of the Turnplatz in Jahn's arrest. Kept in semi-confinement successively at Spandau, Küstrin, at the fortress in Kolberg until 1824, he was sentenced to imprisonment for two years.
The sentence was reversed in 1825. He therefore took up residence at Freyburg on the Unstrut, where he remained until his death, with the exception of a short period in 1828, when he was exiled to Kölleda on a charge of sedition. While at Freyburg, he received an invitation to become professor of German literature at Cambridge, which he declined, saying that “deer and hares love to live where they are most hunted.” In 1840, Jahn was decorated by the Prussian government with the Iron Cross for bravery in the wars against Napoleon. In the spring of 1848, he was elected by the district of Naumburg to the German National Parliament. Jahn died in Freyburg, where a monument was erected in his honor in 1859. Jahn popularized the four Fs motto "fromm, fröhlich, frei" in the early 19th century. Among his works are the following: Bereicherung des hochdeutschen Sprachschatzes, Deutsches Volksthum, Runenblätter, Die Deutsche Turnkunst Neue Runenblätter, Merke zum deutschen Volksthum, Selbstvertheidigung.
A complete edition of his works appeared at Hof in 1884-1887. See the biography by Schultheiss, Jahn als Erzieher, by Friedric. Jahn promoted the use of parallel bars and the high bar in international competition. In honor and memory of him, some gymnastic clubs, called Turnvereine, took up his name, the most well known of these is the SSV Jahn Regensburg. A memorial to Jahn exists in St. Louis, within Forest Park, it features a large bust of Jahn in the center of an arc of stone, with statues of a male and female gymnast, one on each end of the arc. The monument is on the edge of Art Hill next to the path running north and south along the western edge of Post-Dispatch lake, it is directly north of the St. Louis Zoo. Other memorials to Jahn are located in Germany. An elementary school in Chicago is named after Jahn. In his own time Friedrich Jahn was seen by both opponents as a liberal figure, he advocated that the German states should unite after the withdrawal of Napoleon's occupying armies, establish a democratic constitution, which would include the right to free speech.
As a German nationalist, Jahn advocated maintaining German language and culture against foreign influence. In 1810 he wrote, "Poles, priests and Jews are Germany's misfortune." At the time Jahn wrote this, the German states were occupied by foreign armies under the leadership of Napoleon. Jahn was "the guiding spirit" of the fanatic book burning episode carried out by revolutionary students at the Wartburg festival in 1817. Jahn gained infamy in English-speaking countries through the publication of Peter Viereck's Metapolitics: The Roots of the Nazi Mind. Viereck claimed Jahn as the spiritual founder of Nazism, who inspired the early German romantics with anti-Semitic and authoritarian doctrines, influenced Wagner and the Nazis. However, Jacques Barzun observed that Viereck's portrait of cultural trends leading to Nazism was "a caricature without resemblance" relying on "misleading shortcuts". Scholarly focus on the völkischness of Jahn's thought started in the 1920s with a new generation of Jahn interpreters like
Acrobatics is the performance of extraordinary human feats of balance and motor coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts, sporting events, martial arts. Acrobatics is most associated with activities that make extensive use of gymnastic elements, such as acro dance and gymnastics, but many other athletic activities — such as ballet and diving — may employ acrobatics. Although acrobatics is most associated with human body performance, it may apply to other types of performance, such as aerobatics. Acrobatic traditions are found in many cultures, there is evidence that the earliest such traditions occurred thousands of years ago. For example, Minoan art from c. 2000 BC contains depictions of acrobatic feats on the backs of bulls. Ancient Greeks practiced acrobatics, the noble court displays of the European Middle Ages would include acrobatic performances that included juggling. In China, acrobatics have been a part of the culture since the Western Han Dynasty. Acrobatics were part of village harvest festivals.
During the Tang Dynasty, acrobatics saw much the same sort of development as European acrobatics saw during the Middle Ages, with court displays during the 7th through 10th century dominating the practice. Acrobatics continues to be an important part of modern Chinese variety art. Though the term applied to tightrope walking, in the 19th century, a form of performance art including circus acts began to use the term as well. In the late 19th century and other acrobatic and gymnastic activities became competitive sport in Europe. Acrobatics has served as a subject for fine art. Examples of this are paintings such as Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando by Impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir, which depicts two German acrobatic sisters, Pablo Picasso's 1905 Acrobat and Young Harlequin, Acrobats in a Paris suburb by Viktor Vasnetsov. An aerialist is an acrobat who performs in the air, on a suspended apparatus such as a trapeze, cloud swing, aerial cradle, aerial pole, aerial silk, or aerial hoop. Acrobatic gymnastics Contortion List of acrobatic activities
International Gymnastics Federation
The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique is the governing body of competitive gymnastics. Its headquarters is in Switzerland, it was founded on July 23, 1881, in Liège, making it the world's oldest existing international sports organisation. Called the European Federation of Gymnastics, it had three member countries—Belgium and the Netherlands—until 1921, when non-European countries were admitted and it received its current name; the federation sets the rules, known as the Code of Points, that regulate how gymnasts' performances are evaluated. Seven gymnastics disciplines are governed by the FIG: artistic gymnastics, further classified as men's artistic gymnastics and women's artistic gymnastics. Additionally, the federation is responsible for determining gymnasts' age eligibility to participate in the Olympics; the main governing bodies of the federation are the president and vice presidents, the Congress held every two years, the Executive Committee, the Council, technical committees for each of the disciplines.
As of July 2018, there were 146 national federations affiliated with FIG, three of which have been suspended, as well as two associated federations and the following four continental unions: European Union of Gymnastics Pan-American Gymnastic Union Asian Gymnastic Union African Gymnastics Union Across all disciplines, participation in FIG sanctioned events exceeds 30,000 athletes, about 70% of whom are female. Morinari Watanabe was elected president of the organization in 2016. According to the technical regulations of the International Gymnastcs Federation, the competitions organized by FIG are: World Gymnastics Championships World Artistic Gymnastics Championships World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships Trampoline World Championships Aerobic Gymnastics World Championships World Acrobatic Gymnastics Championships World Cup series Artistic Gymnastics World Cup Rhythmic Gymnastics World Cup Trampoline World Cup Acrobatic Gymnastics World Cup Aerobic Gymnastics World Cup Parkour World Cup World Challenge Cup series Artistic Gymnastics World Challenge Cup Rhythmic Gymnastics World Challenge CupOther official FIG competitions include: Olympic Games Youth Olympic Games World GamesDefunct events organized of sanctioned by FIG: Four Continents Gymnastics Championships Olympic Games Test Events The FIG regulates the age at which gymnasts are allowed to participate in senior-level competitions.
The purpose is to protect young gymnasts, but it has caused some controversy, there have been cases of age falsification. Major achievements in gymnastics by nation Official website
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move.
There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ — a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros.
The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.
The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.
In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68
Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths
Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths called Guts Muth or Gutsmuths, was a teacher and educator in Germany, is known for his role in the development of physical education. He is thought of as the "grandfather of gymnastics" – the "father" being Friedrich Ludwig Jahn. GutsMuths introduced systematic physical exercise into the school curriculum, he developed the basic principles of artistic gymnastics, he attended the University of Halle from 1778 to 1782. Sometime after 1785 while a private tutor in Schnepfenthal he was appointed as a teacher, it was there he taught gymnastics supervised by Salzmann. In 1793, GutsMuths published Gymnastik für die Jugend, the first systematic coursebook on gymnastics, his literary output on both moral and physical education continued upwards of twenty-five years after the production of his seminal work Gymnastik. The full title of the manual is Gymnastics for Youth: Or a practical guide to Delightful and Amusing exercises for the Use of Schools, An Essay Toward the Necessary Improvement of Education Chiefly as It Relates to Body.
Wolff is acknowledged as being an influence on the writing, the intellectual movement called naturalism, embodied in the work of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau and using the prior gymnastics of ancient Greece. GutsMuths used the exercises known to his students in composing those within the work, his students were taken from European countries. In-as-much his work relied on a bed-rock or foundation of thought originating in the European tradition. Gutsmuths is thought to have in some way imitated his Philanthropinum. Gutsmuths' work was most influential in the formalizing of a novel way of understanding physical exercise, he describes twenty-nine different exercises in his manual. GutsMuths designed the core of the curriculum as the Greek pentathlon and new exercises he himself had invented, his work included climbing, jumping, military exercises, swimming and walking. The second edition contained additional information on balancing, carrying, fasting, leaping exercises, manual labour, organising an open air gymnasium and wrestling.
Gutsmuths described gymnastics as culture for the body, integral to an holistic education with the aim of building a foundation of strength of character and achieving self-control. The first principle of an education in gymnastics for him was that it might:... develop the aptitudes of the physical individual and attain the body's potential beauty and perfect usefulness An edition was published within London during 1800, printed by J. Johnston, in the United States of America, within the state of Philadelphia, printed by William Duane during 1802. A second edition of Gyymnastic for the Youth was published during 1804. P. H. Clias, a Captain in the English army and Superintendent of gymnastics in the Royal Military College, was a follower of the teachings of GutsMuths, he subsequently wrote his own work on gymnastics, in its fourth edition in 1825