Horse Cave is a home rule-class city in Hart County, United States. Randall Curry serves as mayor of the city and is assisted by a city council, composed of six members; as of the 2010 census, the population of Horse Cave was 2,311. The town was settled by Major Albert Anderson in the 1840s; the landowner donated land for a Louisville and Nashville Railroad station in 1858 on the provision that it be named after nearby Horse Cave. The community around the station developed so that a post office was erected in 1860, the city was formally incorporated by the state assembly in 1864; the cave for which the city is named is located on the south side of Main Street. Various explanations are given for its unusual name. One is that Native outlaws hid horses in the cave; the cave has been known as "Hidden River Cave", for an underground stream located inside. That stream was used to power a dynamo, for a while in the late 19th century Horse Cave was the only city in Kentucky apart from Louisville and Ashland to have electric lights.
Around World War I, the only air-conditioned tennis courts in the world were located near the entrance of the cave. The stream provided the town's water supply, but mistaken development caused raw sewage to seep into the water and forced the closure of the cave for fifty years; the stench was so bad in the 1960s that pedestrians crossed to the other side of Main Street rather than walk near the entrance and birds would sometimes fall from the sky. The problem has been solved in recent years; the town changed its name to "Caverna" in 1869 but the inability to change the name of the railroad station prompted the community to reconsider and restore the name "Horse Cave" in 1879. Owing to its early rail connection, Horse Cave was a major center of agricultural commerce for Hart, Metcalfe and Barren counties since the 1870s. Tobacco warehouses provided the majority of the income. Since the 1970s, some factories have relocated to the area, including Dart Container Corporation, T Marzetti Company, Sister Schubert's Bakery.
Tourist attractions include Kentucky Down Under/Kentucky Caverns, Hidden River Cave/American Cave Museum, the nearby Mammoth Cave National Park. Civil War Days are an annual tourist event, during which time parades down Main Street and reenactments of the Battle of Rowlett's Station between Horse Cave and Munfordville are staged. A local theatre known as the Horse Cave Theatre and/or the Kentucky Repertory Theatre once operated in Horse Cave but is no longer in business. Horse Cave serves as filming location for several films, including "Runaway Romance" and "Never Forgive."Horse Cave was the birthplace of Jack Robert Thompson, the father of noted author and journalist Hunter S. Thompson, former NBA player Clarence Glover. Horse Cave is located in southern Hart County at 37°10′34″N 85°54′22″W, its southern border is the border of Cave City. U. S. Route 31W is the main road through Horse Cave, leading north 8 miles to Munfordville and southwest through Cave City 10 miles to Park City near the entrance to Mammoth Cave National Park.
Interstate 65 passes 2 miles west of Horse Cave, with access from Exit 58. I-65 leads southwest 97 miles to Nashville, Tennessee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Horse Cave has a total area of 2.7 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.74%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,252 people, 977 households, 601 families residing in the city; the population density was 758.0 people per square mile. There were 1,091 housing units at an average density of 367.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.91% White, 17.94% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.04% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 977 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,134, the median income for a family was $28,026. Males had a median income of $25,905 versus $18,457 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,861. About 24.1% of families and 27.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.8% of those under age 18 and 22.5% of those age 65 or over. Horse Cave has the Horse Cave Public Library. Simon Bolivar Buckner, 30th governor of Kentucky Clarence Glover, former NBA player Tom Moran, National Football League player John Stanley Palmore, Jr. former Chief Justice of Kentucky's Supreme Court List of caves in the United States Official website Hart County News-Herald, local newspaper Hidden River Cave/American Cave Museum
Jan Erlend Kruse is a Norwegian former footballer. Hailing from Kristiansund, he came through the ranks of talent factory Clausenengen before joining first-tier club Brann in 1987. After two seasons there, he took two seasons in one in Hamkam. In 1993 he spent several months on free transfer before joining third-tier club Averøykameratene in March, he did however manage to return to the top flight with Vålerenga, where he stayed until the summer of 1997 when he was loaned out to Skeid. He was loaned out to Clausenengen in the spring of 1998 before venturing to Greek football and Panionios. After two years there he retired in 2000. Kruse was capped a total of 6 games for Norway at international youth level
Tsuruoka National College of Technology is a Japanese National College of Technology, located in Tsuruoka, Yamagata. The abbreviated name is TNCT 。 1963 Tsuruoka National College of Technology was founded on April 1, 1963. 1967 Department of Industrial Chemistry established. 1990 Department of Control and Information Systems Engineering came into being by reorganizing the two-class Department of Mechanical Engineering. 1993 Department of Industrial Chemistry was reorganized into Department of Material Engineering. 2003 Advanced Engineering Course was established. 2004 After the "Institution of National Colleges of Technology Japan" Act was enacted, this college has become the Tsuruoka College of Technology of the Institute of National Colleges of Technology Japan. 2005 Department of Electrical Engineering was renamed Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Five years' course. Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of Control and Information Systems Engineering Department of Material Engineering Two years' course.
Graduated regular course student can enter this course after entrance examination acceptance. Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Colleges of technology in Japan Mosuke Hayashi Shingi Saito Shozo Watarai Mayumi Someno Jiro Shimizu Mitsuo Abe Tsutomu Nonaka Masaaki Yokoyama Yasushi Kato Koji Takahashi Tsuruoka National College of Technology
The Disputed Vote of Mr. Cayo is a 1986 Spanish film directed by Antonio Giménez-Rico, it is based on the 1978 homonymous novel written by Miguel Delibes. The film begins during the years of democracy in Spain after the death of caudillo Francisco Franco. Rafael Iñaki Miramón is informed of the death of his former boss Victor Velasco, an honest and benevolent politician. In the funeral, Rafael sees Laly, a former colleague in his political party, they reminisce about the time they embarked on a campaign trip with Victor to the northern outskirts of Burgos to convince the local mayors of each zone for their vote. There they met mayor of a small village and a self-sufficient farmer. Victor never found out for whom this always intrigued him. After pressure from Laly, Rafael decides to go back to the small village to find the answer; as consequence, Rafael has flashbacks of his time campaigning with Victor in Burgos and the surrounding areas in June 1977. These were the first democratic elections of the post-Francoist era that were known as la Transición Española.
Most of the film concerns his memories during the campaign trail. It is worth noting that the scenes during the democratic years are in black and white while the scenes during la Transición are in color; the first scenes of Burgos during the first democratic elections focus on the saturation of political propaganda in the city's infrastructure. Since Victor is running for Senator, he embarks on a campaign trip, along with Rafael and Laly to the countryside to persuade local mayors for their vote. During the trip we see the generational differences between three and their perspectives on the country and society. Victor, the older and wiser politician, has a certain appreciation for the rural side of Burgos as he believes that it is of great importance for the post-Francoist Spain. To delve into the matter, landmarks are key components during the foundation of the modern nation state; when Victor sees the Ebro River during their trip, he appreciates it as a foundational component to the nation's identity.
He compares it to. However and Laly, the two generations following Victor's, fail to see its relevance as they show disinterest to the countryside, they arrive at a village of three people. At this point, the film valorizes the self-sufficient rural existence of Mr. Cayo in harmony with nature, on the verge of extinction and attempts to bring the concerns of rural Spain to the political agenda of the transition. At the same time, it shows the disconnection between rural society; as a result, Mr. Cayo is ironic and sardonic in his conversations with Victor and Laly. For example, Victor introduces himself as the candidate for the poor. Mr. Cayo responds, "But I'm not poor". In other words, Mr. Cayo has all the resources. Exchanges such as this one reflect the social differences between Mr. Cayo and the three political activists. Furthermore, Rafael's and Laly's lack of understanding of Mr. Cayos’ lifestyle magnify these social gaps. Victor, on the other hand, is able to connect and communicate with Mr. Cayo without any trouble and admires him.
Before they leave, members of the right wing party arrive to visit Mr. Cayo to persuade his vote; the young men threaten Mr. Cayo for his vote. In addition, they vandalize the political propaganda put up by Rafael in the village with the phrase “Viva España”, they put up their own posters. At the end of the film Rafael arrives at Mr. Cayo's house but the now older and fragile man is sick and in need of help. Rafael does not know how to help, since Mr. Cayo only has herbal medicines, so instead he calls an ambulance; as Mr. Cayo is taken to the local hospital, Rafael stays in the house and sees in one of the walls a poster of Victor that he put up in the village during their trip; the Disputed Vote of Mr. Cayo on IMDb
In logic, linear temporal logic or linear-time temporal logic is a modal temporal logic with modalities referring to time. In LTL, one can encode formulae about the future of paths, e.g. a condition will be true, a condition will be true until another fact becomes true, etc. It is a fragment of the more complex CTL *. Subsequently, LTL is sometimes called propositional temporal logic, abbreviated PTL. Linear temporal logic is a fragment of first-order logic. LTL was first proposed for the formal verification of computer programs by Amir Pnueli in 1977. LTL is built up from a finite set of propositional variables AP, the logical operators ¬ and ∨, the temporal modal operators X and U. Formally, the set of LTL formulas over AP is inductively defined as follows: if p ∈ AP p is an LTL formula. X is read as next and U is read as until. Other than these fundamental operators, there are additional logical and temporal operators defined in terms of the fundamental operators to write LTL formulas succinctly.
The additional logical operators are ∧, →, ↔, false. Following are the additional temporal operators. G for always F for R for release W for weak until M for strong release An LTL formula can be satisfied by an infinite sequence of truth evaluations of variables in AP; these sequences can be viewed as a word on a path of a Kripke structure. Let w = a0,a1,a2... be such an ω-word. Let w = ai. Let wi = ai,ai+1..., a suffix of w. Formally, the satisfaction relation ⊨ between a word and an LTL formula is defined as follows: w ⊨ p if p ∈ w w ⊨ ¬ψ if w ⊭ ψ w ⊨ φ ∨ ψ if w ⊨ φ or w ⊨ ψ w ⊨ X ψ if w1 ⊨ ψ w ⊨ φ U ψ if there exists i ≥ 0 such that wi ⊨ ψ and for all 0 ≤ k < i, wk ⊨ φ We say an ω-word w satisfies an LTL formula ψ when w ⊨ ψ. The ω-language L defined by ψ is, the set of ω-words that satisfy ψ. A formula ψ is satisfiable if there exist an ω-word w such that w ⊨ ψ. A formula ψ is valid if for each ω-word w over alphabet 2AP, w ⊨ ψ; the additional logical operators are defined as follows: φ ∧ ψ ≡ ¬ φ → ψ ≡ ¬φ ∨ ψ φ ↔ ψ ≡ ∧ true ≡ p ∨ ¬p, where p ∈ AP false ≡ ¬trueThe additional temporal operators R, F, G are defined as follows: φ R ψ ≡ ¬ F ψ ≡ true U ψ G ψ ≡ false R ψ ≡ ¬F ¬ψ Some authors define a weak until binary operator, denoted W, with semantics similar to that of the until operator but the stop condition is not required to occur.
It is sometimes useful since both U and R can be defined in terms of the weak until: φ W ψ ≡ ∨ G φ ≡ φ U ≡ ψ R φ U ψ ≡ Fψ ∧ φ R ψ ≡ ψ W The strong release binary operator, denoted M, is the dual of weak until. It is defined similar to the until operator, so that the release condition has to hold at some point. Therefore, it is stronger than the release operator. Φ M ψ ≡ ¬ ≡ ∧ F φ ≡ φ R ≡ ψ U The semantics for the temporal operators are pictorially presented as follows. Let φ, ψ, ρ be LTL formulas; the following tables list some of the useful equivalences which extend standard equivalences among the usual logical operators. All the formulas of LTL can be transformed into negation normal form, where all negations appear only in front of the atomic propositions, only other logical operators true, false, ∧, ∨ can appear, only the temporal operators X, U, R can appear. Using the above equivalences for negation propagation, it is possible to derive the normal form; this normal form allows R, false, ∧ to appear in the formula, which are not fundamental operators of LTL.
Note that the transformation to the negation normal form does not blow up the size of the formula. This normal form is useful in translation from LTL to Büchi automaton. LTL can be shown to be equivalent to the monadic first-order logic of order, FO—a result known as Kamp's theorem— or equivalently star-free languages. Computation tree logic and linear temporal logic are incomparable. For example, No formula in CTL can define the language, defined by the LTL formula F. No formula in LTL can define the language, defined by the CTL formulas AG or AG. However, a subset of CTL* exists, a proper superset of both CTL and LTL. Model checking and satisfiability problem against a LTL formula is PSPACE-complete. LTL synthesis and the problem of verification of games against a LTL winning conditions is 2EXPTIME-complete. Automata-theoretic linear temporal logic model checking An important way to model check is to express desired properties using LTL operators and check if the model satisfies this property.
One technique is to ob
Chi is a 2013 National Film Board of Canada documentary film by Anne Wheeler about Vancouver actress Babz Chula and her death from cancer. Part of the film was shot at an ayurvedic clinic in Kerala, where Chula had travelled for cancer treatment in 2010; the idea to make a film about her story first occurred to Wheeler when she cast Chula diagnosed with cancer in real life, as a cancer patient who dispenses philosophical advice in her 2008 TV movie, Living Out Loud. When Wheeler and Chula worked together again the following year on Carl Bessai's film Fathers & Sons, Chula shared the story of a patient she'd met at a chemotherapy who credited her recovery to treatment in India. Wheeler, who had spent considerable time in India, decided to accompany Chula on her search for a cure; the film had its world premiere in April 2013 at the Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival. On March 9, 2014, Chi was named best short documentary film at the Canadian Screen Awards. Official website Chi on IMDb