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Horseradish is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae. It is a root vegetable prepared as a condiment; the plant is native to southeastern Europe and western Asia. It is used worldwide, it grows up to 1.5 meters tall, is cultivated for its large, tapered root. Intact horseradish root has little aroma; when cut or grated, enzymes from within the plant cells digest sinigrin to produce allyl isothiocyanate, which irritates the mucous membranes of the sinuses and eyes. Once exposed to air or heat, horseradish loses its pungency, darkens in color, develops a bitter flavor. Horseradish is indigenous to temperate Eastern Europe, where its Slavic name khren seemed to Augustin Pyramus de Candolle more primitive than any Western synonym. Horseradish has been cultivated since antiquity. According to Greek mythology, the Delphic Oracle told Apollo that the horseradish was worth its weight in gold. Dioscorides listed horseradish as Persicon sinapi or Sinapi persicum, which Pliny's Natural History reported as Persicon napy.

Horseradish is the plant mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History under the name of Amoracia, recommended by him for its medicinal qualities, the wild radish, or raphanos agrios of the Greeks. The early Renaissance herbalists Pietro Andrea John Gerard showed it under Raphanus, its modern Linnaean genus Armoracia was first applied to it by Heinrich Bernhard Ruppius, in his Flora Jenensis, 1745, but Linnaeus himself called it Coclearia armoracia. Both root and leaves were used as a traditional medicine during the Middle Ages; the root was used as a condiment on meats in Germany and Britain. It was introduced to North America during European colonialization. William Turner mentions horseradish as Red Cole in his "Herbal", but not as a condiment. In The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, John Gerard describes it under the name of raphanus rusticanus, stating that it occurs wild in several parts of England. After referring to its medicinal uses, he says: he Horse Radish stamped with a little vinegar put thereto, is used among the Germans for sauce to eat fish with and such like meats as we do mustard.

The word horseradish is attested in English from the 1590s. It combines the word radish. In Central and Eastern Europe, horseradish is called khren and ren in many Slavic languages, in Austria, in parts of Germany, in North-East Italy, in Yiddish, it is common in Ukraine, in Belarus, in Poland, in the Czech Republic, in Russia, in Hungary, in Romania, in Lithuania, in Bulgaria, in Slovakia. Horseradish is perennial in hardiness zones 2–9 and can be grown as an annual in other zones, although not as as in zones with both a long growing season and winter temperatures cold enough to ensure plant dormancy. After the first frost in autumn kills the leaves, the root is dug and divided; the main root is harvested and one or more large offshoots of the main root are replanted to produce next year's crop. Horseradish can become invasive. Older roots left in the ground become woody, after which they are no longer culinarily useful, although older plants can be dug and re-divided to start new plants; the early season leaves can be distinctively different, asymmetric spiky, before the mature typical flat broad leaves start to be developed.

Introduced by accident, "cabbageworms", the larvae of Pieris rapae, the small white butterfly, are a common caterpillar pest in horseradish. The adults are white butterflies with black spots on the forewings that are seen flying around plants during the day; the caterpillars are velvety green with faint yellow stripes running lengthwise down the back and sides. Full grown caterpillars are about 1-inch in length, they move sluggishly. They overwinter in green pupal cases. Adults start appearing in gardens after the last frost and are a problem through the remainder of the growing season. There are three to five overlapping generations a year. Mature caterpillars chew ragged holes in the leaves leaving the large veins intact. Handpicking is an effective control strategy in home gardens; the distinctive pungent taste of horseradish is from the compound allyl isothiocyanate. Upon crushing the flesh of horseradish, the enzyme myrosinase is released and acts on the glucosinolates sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, which are precursors to the allyl isothiocyanate.

The allyl isothiocyanate serves the plant as a natural defense against herbivores. Since allyl isothiocyanate is harmful to the plant itself, it is stored in the harmless form of the glucosinolate, separate from the enzyme myrosinase; when an animal chews the plant, the allyl isothiocyanate is released. Allyl isothiocyanate is an unstable compound, degrading over the course of days at 37 °C; because of this instability, horseradish sauces lack the pungency of the freshly crushed roots. Cooks use the terms "horseradish" or "prepar

G. Dennis McGuire

G. Dennis McGuire is a pastor and administrator in the Church of God denomination, he served two terms as the General Overseer and has been First and Second Assistant General Overseer. The General Overseer is the highest office in the Church of God and has primary responsibility for leading a current membership of over 7 million members spanning 185 countries. McGuire's ministerial background includes a wide variety of pastoral and administrative roles in the Church of God, he pastored a total of 16 years before being appointed to serve as Church of God State Overseer of Indiana in 1984. He went on to serve as the State Overseer of Western North Carolina and Tennessee, he has been the Assistant Director of Evangelism and Home Missions, the International Director of Military and Multi-Cultural Ministries. McGuire holds a Bachelor of Arts from Lee University, Master of Arts from Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, honorary Doctorate of Divinity degree from East Coast Bible College. In 1994, he was selected as Lee University's Distinguished Alumnus of the Year.

As a student at Lee, he was elected Student Body President for the 1965-66 school year and was one of the early members of Upsilon Xi. He was honored in 1998 as Upsilon Xi's Alumnus of the Year, his hometown city of Kingsport, Tennessee honored him on August 5, 2007, naming it "Dr. G. Dennis McGuire Day."

Disufenton sodium

Disufenton sodium is the disulfonyl derivative of the neuroprotective spin trap phenylbutylnitrone or "PBN". It was under development at the drug company AstraZeneca. A 2005 phase-3 clinical trial called "SAINT-1" reported some efficacy in the acute treatment of ischemia injury due to stroke. However, a 2006 attempt to repeat this trial indicated no significant activity. After ruling out other causes, the authors tentatively attributed the positive results in the first trial to "chance". AstraZeneca terminated the development programme. PBN and its derivatives hydrolyze and oxidize in vitro to form MNP-OH and its parent spin-trap MNP. Oxidants and the ischemic brain NXY-059: Review of Neuroprotective Potential for Acute Stroke

Naruto Ninja Council 2

Naruto: Ninja Council 2 is an action video game, released for Game Boy Advance and is the second installment in the Ninja Council series. It is based on the popular manga and anime series Naruto by Masashi Kishimoto and is developed by Aspect and Tomy and published by D3 Publisher and Tomy. Naruto: Ninja Council 2 is side-scroller game in which the player has to advance through a 2D level while fighting enemy ninja; the levels vary from the original anime locals like Akagahara and the third exam stadium to some new settings like a cave system. The player is able to double-jump and teleport up and sideways to get to places that are out of reach; the game features special levels in which the character's speed doubles and is asked to run through the whole level while collecting leaf symbols in a specific time. The playable characters are Naruto Uzumaki, Sasuke Uchiha and Sakura Haruno, it is possible to unlock Rock Lee; the player is able to swap between characters using the left trigger, each one has a separate life bar, however when a health package is picked up by one character, it affects the whole party.

In certain points of the game however, the player is not able to switch between one or two of the characters, which results in a higher difficulty level. Combat is performed by using the attack button continuously. Jutsus can be performed by a simple combination of attack buttons; each character has three sets of Jutsus: Naruto can use his sexy jutsu, summoning jutsu and "Uzumaki Barrage". Sasuke is able to use "Lion Barrage" and Chidori. Sakura's jutsus are Speed boost, "Chaa!!" Barrage and timed "Chaa!!" Barrage. Ninja tools can be acquired, they are thrown using the attack button. Using scrolls that are scattered throughout the levels will result in one of the anime characters to appear and perform one of his Jutsus. Ninja Council 2 is based on the anime series episodes 22 to 80, however it features a new mission in which the three ninjas are asked to deliver a scroll. Orochimaru steals the scroll and while attempting to retrieve the scroll the player finds out that Orochimaru requested the scroll in the first place only to watch Sasuke.

The game's story is told via "cut-scenes". In these cut-scenes the character, speaking is shown by a large picture of him on the top of the screen while the dialogue is presented as a text on the bottom of the screen, it features two multiplayer modes which are played via GBA Link Cable: Versus and Co-Op. The game received "mixed" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. List of Naruto video games Naruto anime and manga Naruto Ninja Council 2 at MobyGames

Drama Queen (Vanessa Petruo song)

"Drama Queen" is a song by German pop singer Vanessa Petruo. Written by Petruo, Alexander Geringas, Thorsten Brötzmann, it was released by Polydor and Cheynne Records on 26 April 2004 as Petrus's first solo single following the disbandment of her group No Angels in fall 2003; the pop song achieved moderate success on the charts, peaking at number eleven in Germany, number 35 in Austria and number 88 in Switzerland. "Drama Queen" marked Petruo's only release with the label. Credits adapted from the liner notes of "Drama Queen". "Drama Queen" at the YouTube "Drama Queen" at the

Pont Flavien

The Pont Flavien is a Roman bridge across the River Touloubre in Saint-Chamas, Bouches-du-Rhône department, southern France. The single-arch crossing, built from limestone, was on a Roman road - the Via Julia Augusta - between Placentia and Arles, it is the only surviving example of a Roman bridge bounded by triumphal arches from the Augustan period, although similar bridges existed elsewhere, as indicated by portrayals on coins of the late 1st century BC. The bridge replaced an earlier wooden structure on the same site, it measures 21.4 metres long by 6.2 metres wide. The two arches at either end, each standing 7 metres high with a single wide bay, are constructed of the same local stone as the bridge and are broader than they are tall. At the corners of the arches are fluted Corinthian pilasters at the top of which are carved eagles. Acanthus scrolls extend partway along the pediments, in the middle of, an inscription that reads: L·DONNIVS·C·F·FLAVOS·FLAMEN·ROMAE ET·AVGVSTI·TESTAMENTO·FIEREI·IVSSIT ARBITRATV·C·DONNEI·VENAE·ET·C·ATTEI·RVFEIIn translation, this means: Lucius Donnius, son of Caius, flamen of Rome and Augustus, has ordained in his will that be built under the direction of Cauis Donnius Vena and Caius Attius Rufius.

Lucius Donnius Flavos was evidently a figure of some importance and owned land in the vicinity of the bridge. He was a Romanised Gaul, to have been an aristocrat of the Avatici, a local Gallic tribe, he was also a significant player in the affairs of the nearby city of Arelate, as he served the imperial cult, most in one of the city's temples. He may have built his mausoleum nearby; as the inscription indicates, the bridge was constructed at Flavos' instigation following his death. Its stylistic elements are typical of funerary monuments; the frieze of the arches decorated with a wave pattern symbolises the constant rebirth of life. The eagles carved above the capitals and the pairs of free-standing lions atop the arches' pediments are common features of tombs and, in the case of the lions, were popular in Provence in the latter part of the first century BC; the combination of arches and a bridge may have been intended to symbolise the passage of life. Because the Pont Flavien was a private monument it did not have the triumphal imagery associated with Roman arches and does not bear any portrait of Flavos.

He would most have been depicted in figure at his tomb but this, assuming it was nearby, has long since disappeared. In the 20s BC, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa carried out a programme of road building in Provence on behalf of the Emperor Augustus, constructing the Via Julia Augusta; this would have given Flavos an opportunity to make his mark in a visible way, proclaiming his dedication to Roman values and highlighting the importance of his own personage. Considering the date of the stylistic elements, the Pont Flavien was most built some time between 20 and 10 BC; the bridge was used until as late as the latter part of the 20th century. It has suffered accidental damage over the years, it has been resurfaced to prevent the collapse of the bridge and the parapet has been replaced. The bridge was a traditional stopping point for the Compagnons du Tour de France, journeyman masons who underwent a tour of notable monuments around the country and who left their graffiti on the bridge; the western arch has collapsed at least twice.

It was rebuilt in 1763 by Jean Chastel, who restored the sculptures. The second collapse was during the Second World War, when the arch was first damaged when a German tank collided with it collapsed when an American truck hit it in 1945, it was rebuilt in 1949 and some years a modern bridge was built 50 metres to the south to bypass it. The Pont Flavien is now reserved for pedestrian use only. In 1977, prior to the landscaping of the surrounding area, an archaeological excavation was carried out by the Antiquités Historiques de Provence under the direction of Anne Roth Congés. List of Roman bridges Roman architecture Roman engineeringPont Flavien on Youtube Media related to Pont Flavien at Wikimedia Commons Pont Flavien at Structurae "Pont Flavien".