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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force, he served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. He assumed the presidency after President Anwar Sadat's assassination in 1981. Mubarak's presidency lasted thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country for 43 years from 1805 to 1848. Mubarak stepped down during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after 18 days of demonstrations. On 11 February 2011, former Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak and he had resigned as president and vice president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power.

Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation ordered a retrial. On retrial and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court, he was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and released on 24 March 2017. He died on 25 February 2020, he received a military burial at a family plot outside Cairo. Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Monufia Governorate, Egypt. On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and receiving a bachelor's degree in aviation sciences.

Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various units. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander as a base commander. In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years. Two years he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force. In 1972, Mubarak became Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the Yom Kippur War, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal.

Egyptian pilots hit 90 % of their targets. The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel. Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war; the Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal said the Air Force played a psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity. However Mubarak's influence was disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly, she said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum, El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973, she said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak.

She stated. In April 1975, President Anwar Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel. In September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to Riyadh and Damascus to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government, but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad. During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd, whom Sadat had refused to meet or contact and, now seen as major player who could help mend the failing relationship between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Mubarak developed friendships with several other important Arab leaders, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's Sultan Qaboos, Morocco's King Hassan II, Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry. Sadat sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders outside the Arab world.

Mubarak's political significance as Vice-President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975 between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador Hermann Eilts. Fahmy told Eilts that "Mubarak is, for the time being

Scott, Brown County, Wisconsin

Scott is a town in Brown County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census the population was 3,545; the unincorporated communities of Bay Settlement, Chapel Ridge, Edgewater Beach, New Franken, Red Banks, Wequiock are located in the town. Scott is located in northeastern Brown County along the southeast shore of Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan; the city of Green Bay borders the town to the south. The town of Green Bay, a separate municipality, borders Scott to the east, the town of Humboldt is to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, Scott has a total area of 52.7 square miles, of which 18.1 square miles is land and 34.6 square miles, or 65.58%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,712 people, 1,145 households, 906 families residing in the town; the population density was 188.5 people per square mile. There were 1,234 housing units at an average density of 62.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.12% White, 1.62% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.57% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population. There were 1,145 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.9% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.8% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 16.8% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $58,051, the median income for a family was $62,138. Males had a median income of $41,996 versus $26,167 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,992. About 0.6% of families and 2.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.6% of those under age 18 and 0.6% of those age 65 or over.

Town of Scott official website

Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria

Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria was Palatine of Hungary, appointed during the reign of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, serving into the reign of his elder brother, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. Archduke Alexander Leopold was born in Florence, Tuscany, as the sixth child and fourth son of Leopold I, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. During his education, Alexander Leopold excelled in chemistry, he had a fine physique and his father thus wanted him to pursue a military career, with the intent to appoint him president of the Hofkriegsrat. In 1790, Grand Duke Leopold succeeded his brother, Joseph II, as Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia. Hungary had been ruled by governors since 1765, but the Emperor-King wished to reinstate the office of palatine and allowed the Diet of Hungary to elect a new officeholder; the Diet elected Archduke Alexander Leopold, who thus became the first member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine to occupy the post.

In 1792, his father died. As palatine, Archduke Alexander Leopold led a moderate government. However, he changed his policy after the Jacobin conspiracy in 1794, which left him disappointed; the object of the plot was to make Hungary independent from the Habsburg Monarchy, with Alexander Leopold as its king. He punished the rebels and replaced the moderate dignitaries, adopting a policy of repression; the same year, Tadeusz Kościuszko, wishing to secure the neutrality of Austria during an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia, offered the crown of Poland to Archduke Alexander Leopold. The offer was turned down. Archduke Alexander Leopold, suffering from poor health, left Hungary for Vienna in 1795, after dealing with the conspiracy, his memorandum, written during his stay in Vienna, shows a rather conservative worldview. He argued that differences between classes should not be overcome when it comes to education; because of his interest in chemistry and in pyrotechnics, Archduke Alexander Leopold decided to prepare a firework display at Laxenburg Palace in order to surprise his sister-in-law and cousin, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily.

He decided to manufacture and light the fireworks himself in the casemates of the palace, attended by a few of his servants. Empress Maria Theresa was on her way to spend summer at the palace and when her arrival was announced by a gunshot, Alexander Leopold lit the first rocket. At that moment, the door opened and a draught of air threw the rocket back on the gunpowder; the gunpowder exploded and, unable to escape, Alexander Leopold was burned all over his body. He died as did his servants, his body is buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. His heart was buried separately in Augustinian Church, Vienna, his younger brother, Archduke Joseph, succeeded him as palatine of Hungary