Hot chocolate known as drinking chocolate, as chocolate tea in Nigeria, is a heated drink consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, a sweetener. Hot chocolate may be topped with whipped cream or marshmallows. Hot chocolate made with melted chocolate is sometimes called drinking chocolate, characterized by less sweetness and a thicker consistency; the first chocolate drink is believed to have been created by the Maya around 2,500–3,000 years ago, a cocoa drink was an essential part of Aztec culture by 1400 AD, by which they referred to as xocōlātl. The drink became popular in Europe after being introduced from Mexico in the New World and has undergone multiple changes since then; until the 19th century, hot chocolate was used medicinally to treat ailments such as liver and stomach diseases. Hot chocolate is consumed throughout the world and comes in multiple variations, including the spiced chocolate para mesa of Latin America, the thick cioccolata calda served in Italy and chocolate a la taza served in Spain, the thinner hot cocoa consumed in the United States.
Prepared hot chocolate can be purchased from a range of establishments, including cafeterias, fast food restaurants and teahouses. Powdered hot chocolate mixes, which can be added to boiling water or hot milk to make the drink at home, are sold at grocery stores and online. Archaeologists have found evidence that Mayan chocolate consumption occurred as early as 500 BC, there is speculation that chocolate predates the Mayans. To make the chocolate drink, served cold, the Maya ground cocoa seeds into a paste and mixed it with water, chili peppers, other ingredients, they poured the drink back and forth from a cup to a pot until a thick foam developed. Chocolate was available to Maya of all social classes, although the wealthy drank chocolate from "large spouted vessels" that were buried with elites. An early Classic period Mayan tomb from the site of Rio Azul, had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink; because sugar was yet to come to the Americas, xocōlātl was said to be an acquired taste.
What the Spaniards called xocōlātl was said to be a drink consisting of a chocolate base flavored with vanilla and other spices, served cold. The drink tasted bitter as opposed to sweetened modern hot chocolate; as to when xocōlātl was first served hot, sources conflict on when and by whom. However, Jose de Acosta, a Spanish Jesuit missionary who lived in Peru and Mexico in the 16th century, described xocōlātl as: Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth, unpleasant taste, yet it is a drink much esteemed among the Indians, where with they feast noble men who pass through their country. The Spaniards, both men and women, that are accustomed to the country, are greedy of this Chocolate, they say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some cold, some temperate, put therein much of that "chili". Within Mesoamerica many drinks were made from cacao beans, further enhanced by flowers like vanilla to add flavor; this was a tribute to the Aztecs. The Aztecs, or Mexica, required conquered people to provide them with chocolate.
Cups, cacao beans, as well as others things they acquired were listed in The Essential Codex Mendoza. Cacao became used as a currency throughout Mesoamerica; the Aztecs used chocolate to show high status: it was a bad omen for someone low or common to drink chocolate. Europeans' first recorded contact with chocolate wasn't until 1502 on Columbus's fourth voyage. After defeating Montezuma's warriors and demanding that the Aztec nobles hand over their valuables, Cortés returned to Spain in 1528, bringing cocoa beans and chocolate drink making equipment with them. At this time, chocolate still only existed in the bitter drink invented by the Mayas. Sweet hot chocolate and bar chocolate were yet to be invented. After its introduction to Europe, the drink gained popularity; the court of King Charles V soon adopted the drink, what was only known as "chocolate" became a fashionable drink popular with the Spanish upper class. Additionally, cocoa was given as a dowry when members of the Spanish Royal Family married other European aristocrats.
At the time, chocolate was expensive in Europe because the cocoa beans only grew in South America. Sweet-tasting hot chocolate was invented, leading hot chocolate to become a luxury item among the European nobility by the 17th century; when the first Chocolate House opened in 1657, chocolate was still expensive, costing 50 to 75 pence a pound. At the time, hot chocolate was mixed with spices for flavor. In the late 17th century, Hans Sloane, president of the Royal College of Physicians, visited Jamaica. There, he tried chocolate and considered it "nauseous", but found it became more palatable when mixed with milk; when he returned to England, he brought the recipe with him. The aristocratic nature of the drink led to chocolate being referred to as "the drink of the gods" in 1797; the Spanish began to use jicaras made of porcelain in place of the hollowed gourds used by the natives. They further tinkered with the recipes by using spices such as cinnamon, black pepper and sesame. Many of these things were used to try to recreate the flavor of the native flowers which they could not eas
Aberystwyth Town Football Club is a Welsh semi-professional football team playing in the Cymru Premier, the top tier of football in Wales. They are the only top flight football club in Ceredigion; the club was founded in 1884, plays at Park Avenue, where their ground accommodates 5,000 spectators with 1,002 of that capacity seated. The club is a founding member of the other being Newtown; the club's youth team, Aberystwyth Town Under 19's play in the Welsh Premier Development League – South, whilst the Ladies team play in the Welsh Premier Women's League. The club has an academy, which has produced many players that have played for the first team and some that have gone on to play at higher levels; the team's first choice strip is green shirts with black shorts and socks. The second choice strip is orange shirts with black black shorts and socks. Although Aberystwyth Town FC was formed in 1884, the club existed in the 1870s in an earlier incarnation – the re-establishment of a "town" club is recorded in 1876.
The club was founded by Arthur Hughes, son of a local solicitor, his brothers Jack and Hugh. Although football had been played in the town since at least the early 1870s, it was in October 1884 that Arthur Hughes placed an advertisement in the local press: Aberystwyth Football ClubGentlemen wishing to join the above club are requested to attend a meeting to be held at the Belle Vue Hotel on Saturday, the 4th inst. at 4pm. Members' subscriptions to be paid in advance, 2s. 6d. The club's early days were limited to friendly matches, as the club did not join a league until 1896, it joined the Welsh League for a year, before reverting to playing friendlies again. In 1900 Town beat Druids 3–0 in the Welsh Cup final and became the first team from mid-Wales to take the trophy; the club joined the Welsh League in 1951, although they continued to field a team in the Mid-Wales League, for a while in the Cambrian Coast League. Aberystwyth returned to the Mid-Wales competition in 1963 but did not win the league championship until 1984, after having been runners-up six times.
They retained the title the following season, both under team boss Meirion Appleton. In 1987 they returned to the Welsh League, they were three times runners-up before they became founder members of the League of Wales in 1992. Aberystwyth achieved 3rd in the first season. Aberystwyth Town are one of only three teams that have taken part in each season of the Cymru Premier. Manager Meirion Appleton was replaced by Barry Powell after a 5–0 home defeat to Caersws. In 1998/9 they qualified to represent Wales in the UEFA Intertoto Cup. Aberystwyth lost 3–4 over two legs against Floriana of Malta; the success of European qualification brought many changes to Park Avenue. There were a new BBC studio and TV gantry, followed by the new Dias stand which brought the number of seats in the two stands up to nearly 600; the Dias stand was named after David "Dias" Williams, who holds the club scoring record of 476 goals in only 433 games between 1966 and 1983. The club did not qualify for European football again, but they gained entry to the FAW Premier Cup competition for the third year running.
They reached the quarter-finals twice. Barry Powell left the club by mutual consent. Powell was replaced at the beginning of the 2001–02 season by Frank Gregan. Gregan was unanimously voted in as new manager before the start of the season, he was responsible for bringing in several players with extensive experience in the English pyramid. Town lost in the Welsh Cup to Aberaman Athletic in October 2001; this was combined with a poor away record and an exit from the stages of the FAW Premier Cup at the hands of Caersws. Gary Finley took over as player/manager after Gregan departed for Weston-super-Mare. There was an instant improvement in form and minimal additions to the squad despite most of Gregan's signings departing; the club missed out on the FAW Premier Cup. Finley took the club to fourth in 2003/4 and the club again qualified for the UEFA InterToto Cup, but following a policy decision to base the team on more local players, Finley departed and David Burrows took over as player/manager; the change of strategy produced a worsening of results in 2004/05, but the club's management decided to stick with the Ceredigion player policy despite seeing Park Avenue attendances slump by nearly 40%.
The club received a further setback in December 2004 when a serious fire destroyed much of the social club's facilities, ruling out the ground for the staging of cup finals until the new John Charles lounge was opened in 2005 by his widow, Glenda. After several undistinguished seasons, the Seasiders reached the final of the Welsh Cup in 2009 under manager Brian Coyne, only to be beaten 2–0 by Bangor City F. C.. Coyne stepped down early the following season with Alan Morgan appointed as the new boss, the club finished fourth in the 2009/10 season, missing out on qualification for Europe. In the first season of the Cymru Premier Super 12, although in the top six for most of the first half of the season, were in the bottom half of the table at the mid season split, being beaten to the top half again by Port Talbot; the club finished in 7th place, before beating Airbus in the UEFA Europa League playoff quarter final, losing out to Neath F. C. in the semi-final. In the 2011/2012 season Aberystwyth Town found itself in the bottom six again, in a relegation battle.
After a defeat to Cymru Alliance side Cefn Druids A. F. C. in the Welsh Cup, Alan Morgan stepped aside and Tomi Morgan returned as manager. Under Morgan the team finished in 8th place, so qualified once again fo
Wagner Domingues Costa, known professionally as Mr. Catra, was a Brazilian funk singer and actor, he was known in Brazilian pop culture for his large number of children, having two wives, his famous laugh at the beginning or ending of his songs. Mr. Catra graduated in law and was a polyglot, speaking English, French and Hebrew, besides his native Brazilian Portuguese, he had 33 recognized children with 18 women, Catra used to say that "he always adds 2 because he never knows if he has more around that he doesn't know of". He never asked for a paternity test. Two of his children are HIV positive, he had been with one of his three wives for 22 years. One of his sons died aged leaving the singer traumatized by his loss. In 2011 he converted to Judaism. Catra was diagnosed with stomach cancer in January 2017 and died on September 9, 2018. O Bonde dos Justos O Segredo do Altíssimo O Fiel Bonde do Tesão Proibidão Liberado Humildade é Tudo Poder da Favela Com Todo Respeito ao Samba Mr. Catra on Facebook
Phantom in the Twilight is a Japanese and Chinese anime television series produced by the game developer Happy Elements and animated by the studio Liden Films. The series aired from July 10 to September 25, 2018. A manga adaptation was launched in March 2018. Ton Baileu Voiced by: Kana Hanazawa Vlad Garfunkel Voiced by: Takahiro Sakurai Luke Bowen Voiced by: Nobuhiko Okamoto Tauryu Voiced by: Tomokazu Sugita Wayne King Voiced by: Daiki Yamashita Van Helsing Voiced by: Rikiya Koyama Haysin Voiced by: Junichi Suwabe Chris Voiced by: Yūki Ono Shinyao Mu Voiced by: Manaka Iwami Backup Voiced by: Kousuke Toriumi Rijan Sha Voiced by: Yui Horie George L. Gregory Voiced by: Kenji Nomura Mobile game company Happy Elements announced the original anime on March 25, 2018; the series is a Chinese coproduction. The anime is directed by Kunihiro Mori and written by Fumiaki Maruto and Shunsaku Yano, with animation by studio Liden Films. Hidari designed the characters, Megumi Yamashita adapted the designs for animation.
Z-Ton provided the creature designs for the series. The series aired from July 10 to September 25, 2018, broadcast on Tokyo MX and BS Fuji. Crunchyroll simulcasted the series. Haruta Mayuzumi launched a manga adaptation of the series on LINE Manga on March 25, 2018; the anime series' first episode received positive reviews from Anime News Network's staff during the Summer 2018 season previews. While finding the overall plot awkwardly delivered and lacking development, James Beckett praised Ton Baileu as the main heroine, the male cast having solid rapport with one another and the action scenes they take place in, concluding that fans of otome video games will enjoy it. Theron Martin praised the execution of a "pretty straightforward reverse-harem premise", highlighting the characterization of Ton and her male harem, both the animation and soundtrack that culminate into "a respectable production effort." Rebecca Silverman commended Ton as a character and both the character designs and fight scenes but found the episode overall to be "a messy and over-stuffed affair", concluding that viewers will enjoy it if they accept the melodrama and unintentional humor.
Nick Creamer was critical of the show's slow opening and staying too close to their given genre with its story but gave praise to the overall execution with its main cast having chemistry, engaging fantasy setting and Ton being a more than capable heroine, concluding that "f you're in the mood for a supernatural fantasy, it's worth a look."Fellow ANN editor Christopher Farris reviewed the complete anime series. He gave praise to Ton's leading presence carrying the show, along with the supernatural worldbuilding involving its cast of Twilights but found criticism in the off-model character art and a "general lack of complex, impressive animation" outside of the art direction and a few "battle-heavy" scenes in the final episodes that are hampered by lackluster villains, concluding that, "Even though most of its individual elements are pretty mediocre, Phantom in the Twilight isn't so difficult to recommend - there's enough strong material in here to elevate the show to "pleasant surprise" status, a good-enough romp worth watching if you have a craving for sexy supernatural boyfriends, want a series that won't disappoint you."
Silverman placed the series at number three on her top 5 best anime list of 2018, praising the action-harem plot being carried by Ton's no-nonsense characterization and the male harem having distinct personalities from each other, concluding with, "Add in some nice attention to folklore and literature, Phantom in the Twilight becomes the reverse harem show for people who don't like the genre or who want to see it do something new." Official website Phantom in the Twilight at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Disney's Raw Toonage was a half-hour Disney animated cartoon series that aired on the CBS network in the fall of 1992. The idea for the show had an unusual genesis. Walt Disney Television Animation was developing a 65 episode half hour series for their Disney Afternoon block entitled He's Bonkers D. Bobcat; the premise was similar to Who Framed Roger Rabbit, as series dealt with the lead character's adventures post-stardom. The actual production of this series was troubled. At the same time, Michael Eisner had purchased the rights to the popular Belgian comic strip Marsupilami. At some point, someone had the post-modern idea to make the cartoons that Bonkers had starred in before becoming a policeman, the show that would become Raw Toonage was born; the additional segment, Totally Tasteless Video, was intended as a satire of popular culture. A host was added to give the show the familiar feel of the World of Disney show. Due to the shorter production schedule, Raw Toonage, with its Bonkers shorts, was on the air before the above-mentioned half hour show, thus adding some credibility to the back story.
Raw Toonage opens with an introduction by a famous character from Disney, who attempts to share some of their expertise with the audience. The premise of the Bonkers shorts is that Bonkers is a delivery person assisted by Jitters A. Dog. Conflict is provided by Bonkers' unrequited love for Fawn Deer; the Marsupilami cartoons took the look of the character from the Belgian comic, but the characterization differs significantly. The secondary characters in Disney's Marsupilami series are different to those of the comics. Tasteless Video did each show in a different style, they were story edited by Tom Minton, who would write many Pinky and the Brain episodes at Warner Bros.. The first Totally Tasteless Video segment is a parody of movie coming attraction trailers, followed by a spoof on the TV series Doogie Howser, M. D. Other notable cartoons involve badly animated superhero, a prehistoric spoof of Magnum, P. I. an exorchicken fighting chicken ghosts that haunt a family, a Robin Hood twist in the Jay Ward style.
Larry Latham produced and directed the Bonkers, Totally Tasteless Video, host segments. At least one of the Marsupilami cartoons was produced with the idea of a theatrical run in mind. Music composed by Stephen James Taylor, Mark Watters, Eric Schmidt, Jerry Grant, Walter Murphy, Craig Stuart Garfinkle. Reruns of the show were aired on both Disney Toon Disney. Disney's Raw Toonage was nominated for a Daytime Emmy in the category of outstanding writing in an animated program and Outstanding Music Direction and Composition in 1993; each of the Bonkers shorts were included in the half-hour "Bonkers" series, while every one but three of the Marsupilami shorts were included in the half-hour "Marsupilami" series. Hosting: A "host" segment which serves as a wraparound for the other cartoons. HB: A "He's Bonkers" cartoon, starring Bonkers D. Bobcat. M: A Marsupilami cartoon. TTV: "Totally Tasteless Video," each of, either a parody or a music video. Goofy starred in the short, "Goofy's Guide to the Olympics."
Jeff Bennett – Jitters A. Dog Rodger Bumpass – Grumbles the Grizzly Nancy Cartwright – Fawn Deer, Windy Jim Cummings – Bonkers D. Bobcat, Norman, Don Karnage Steve Mackall – Marsupilami René Auberjonois – Chef Louie Corey Burton – Ludwig Von Drake, Captain Hook, Robin Hoof Christine Cavanaugh – Gosalyn Mallard Bill Farmer – Goofy Terry McGovern – Launchpad McQuack Russi Taylor – Webby Vanderquack Samuel E. Wright – Sebastian the Crab Alan Young – Scrooge McDuck Jack Angel - Cro-Magnum PI Gregg Berger - Rock Doo-Wop, Caveman Security Guard, Caveman Police Officer S. Scott Bullock – Jodi Carlisle – Brian Cummings – Mel Cranium Narrator, Various Announcers June Foray - Milkmaid Marian, Aunt Mindy Pat Fraley – Teresa Ganzel - Patty the Cavewoman Tress MacNeille – Carrot Wife Rita Moreno – Tanya Trunk Gary Owens – Badly-Animated Man Rob Paulsen – Doggie Schnauzer, Exorchicken Hal Rayle - Kath Soucie – Wife, Baby Dave Thomas – Marcia Wallace - Female Tourist Frank Welker - Ginny McSwain – Dialogue Director Jamie Thomason – Talent Coordinator Cotter, Bill.
The Wonderful World of Disney Television: A Complete History'. Disney Editions. ISBN 978-0-7868-6359-4. Raw Toonage on IMDb Raw Toonage at the Big Cartoon DataBase Raw Toonage at TV.com The opening sequence on YouTube
This is a list of countries with Burger King franchises. Burger King itself began as a franchise of Insta-Burger King, it grew in the United States using a combination of corporate locations and franchising, before divesting itself of its corporate holdings in 2013. It began its international expansion in 1969 with a location in Canada, followed by Australia in 1971, Europe in 1975. Latin America and South America became part of its market in that decade, Asia followed in the 1980s, Northern Africa and the Middle East followed shortly thereafter. Sub-Saharan Africa and the former nations of the Iron Curtain came much beginning in the late 1990s and continuing into the 2010s; as of 2014, Burger King operates in every country in the Western Hemisphere, most of Europe and East Asia. It has embarked on a plan to base a good portion of its future growth in the BRIC Nations of Brazil, Russia and China, with plans to open more than 3000 locations in three of those four countries. Burger King has a longstanding presence at U.
S. Army and U. S. Air Force installations worldwide, dating back to the 1980s under a contract with Army and Air Force Exchange Service. Today, while other chains such as Taco Bell and Subway have a presence on military bases every major Army and Air Force installation hosts a BK restaurant. Shortly after the acquisition of the chain by Pillsbury in 1969, Burger King opened its first Canadian restaurant in Windsor, Ontario, in 1969. Other international locations followed soon after: Oceania in 1971 with its Australian franchise Hungry Jack's, Europe in 1975 with a restaurant in Madrid, Spain. Beginning in 1982, BK and its franchisees began operating stores in several East Asian countries, including Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. Due to high competition, all of the Japanese locations were closed in 2001. BK's Central and South American operations began in Mexico in the late 1970s, by the early 1980s it was operating locations in Caracas, Santiago and Buenos Aires, Argentina. While Burger King lags behind McDonald's in international locations by over 12,000 stores, by 2008 it had managed to become the largest chain in several countries, including Mexico and Spain.
The company divides its international operations into three segments: The Middle East and Africa division, Asia-Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. In each of these regions, Burger King has established several subsidiaries to develop strategic partnerships and alliances to expand into new territories. In its EMEA group, Burger King's Switzerland-based subsidiary Burger King Europe GmbH is responsible for the licensing and development of BK franchises in those regions. In the APAC region, the Singapore-based BK AsiaPac, Pte. Ltd. business unit handles franchising for East Asia, the Asian subcontinent and all Oceanic territories. The LAC region includes Mexico and South America and the Caribbean Islands. During 2012, the African market saw a new agreement with Grand Parade Investments of South Africa to enter Africa's largest economy, with restaurants opening in 2013; the company began its move into Sub-Saharan Africa in May 2013 when Burger King opened its first outlets in South Africa.
The company sold franchise rights to local gaming and slots machine operator Grand Parade Investments Ltd. The South African operation sold over double its initial forecasts in its opening weeks with sales of $474,838 at just one of its outlets in Cape Town in its first seven weeks. In a deal with local petrochemical company Sasol, outlets were opened at filling stations across the country starting in 2014. In April 2014 it was announced that due to high demand, the number of new outlets being opened in 2014 would be increased from 12 to 14 across the country; as of December 2015 there are 51 Burger King restaurants in South Africa. The first Burger King in Asia opened in Des Voeux Road, Hong Kong on 7 August 1979, as the 2500th Burger King globally. In 1982, franchisees opened stores in several East Asian countries, including Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. Due to high competition, it withdrew from the Japanese market in 2001. However, Burger King reentered the Japanese market by opening the first store in Shinjuku, Tokyo in November 2006.
It reentered the Hong Kong market in December 2007. This time its Hong Kong operation is wholly owned by North Asia Strategic, who obtained the exclusive right to operate from BK AsiaPac Pte Limited; the first store was opened on 29 December 2007 in the Sun Arcade, Canton Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon. As of 2008, 15 stores were in operation, including five in Hong Kong Island, five in Kowloon and five in the New Territories. However, due to fierce competition, legal problems, rising rents, the number of stores was reduced to two in late 2015.2012 saw a major international expansion initiative. The primary thrust was aimed at the BRIC nations, with several new master franchise agreements in those countries that will create upwards of 2500 new stores by 2020. One of these deals creates the single largest international franchise agreement in the company history, a deal to open over 1000 stores in China with a new "super"-franchise headed by the Kurdoglu family of Turkey. An updated agreement with its Russian franchisee will see a major expansion into Siberia.
This move puts Burger King in a superior position to its chief rival McDonald's, as it doesn't operate any locations east of the Ural Mountains. Burger King's growth into the Caribbean began in 1963 when the company opened its first location in Puerto Rico. Thes