2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
A snowmobile known as a motor sled, motor sledge, snowscooter, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow. It is designed to be operated on snow and ice and does not require a road or trail, but most are driven on open terrain or trails. Snowmobiling is a sport. Older snowmobiles could accommodate two people. Snowmobiles built with the ability to accommodate two people are referred to as "2-up" snowmobiles or'touring' models and make up an small share of the market. Snowmobiles do not have any enclosures, except for a windshield, their engines drive a continuous track at the rear. Skis at the front provide directional control. Early snowmobiles used rubber tracks, but modern snowmobiles' tracks are made of a Kevlar composite. Snowmobiles were powered by two-stroke gasoline internal combustion engines and since the mid-2000s four-stroke engines have entered the market; the second half of the 20th century saw the rise of recreational snowmobiling, whose riders are called snowmobilers or sledders.
Recreational riding is known as snowcross/racing, trail riding, boondocking and grass drags. In the summertime snowmobilers can drag race on grass, asphalt strips, or across water. Snowmobiles are sometimes modified to compete in long-distance off-road races. In 1911 a 24 year old, Harold J. Kalenze, patented the Vehicle Propeller in Brandon, Canada. In 1915 Ray H. Muscott of Waters, received the Canadian patent for his motor sleigh, or "traineau automobile", on June 27, 1916, he received the first United States patent for a snow-vehicle using the now recognized format of rear track and front skis. Many individuals modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced by tracks and skis following this design, they were popular for rural mail delivery for a time. The common name for these conversion of cars and small trucks was Snowflyers. In 1935 Joseph Bombardier assembled and tested the first snowmobile, it was a vehicle with a sprocket wheel and a track drive system, it was steered by skis.
The challenges of cross-country transportation in the winter led to the invention of the snowmobile, an all-terrain vehicle designed for travel across deep snow where other vehicles floundered. During the 20th century evolving designs produced machines that were two-person tracked vehicles powered by gas engines that enabled them to tow a sled or travel at low-to-moderate speeds, depending on snow conditions and obstacles protruding above the snow like brush and trees. Where early designs had 10 horsepower two-stroke engines, there has been a move toward newer style two and four-stroke gasoline engines, some with over 200 hp; the origin of the snowmobile is not the work of any one inventor but more a process of advances in engines for the propulsion of vehicles and supporting devices over snow. It parallels the development of the automobile and aviation inventors using the same components for a different use. Wisconsinites experimented with over-snow vehicles before 1900, experimenting with bicycles equipped with runners and gripping fins.
A patent for the Sled-Propeller design, without a model, was submitted on Sept. 5, 1895 by inventors William J. Culman and William B. Follis of Brule, Wisconsin. In the first races held near Three Lakes in 1926, 104 of these "snowbuggies" started. Carl Eliason of Sayner developed the prototype of the modern snowmobile in the 1920s when he mounted a two-cylinder motorcycle engine on a long sled, steered it with skis under the front, propelled it with single, endless track. Eliason made 40 snowmobiles, patented in 1927. Upon receiving an order for 200 from Finland, he sold his patent to the FWD Company of Clintonville, they made 300 for military use transferred the patent to a Canadian subsidiary. The American Motor Sleigh was a short-lived novelty vehicle produced in Boston in 1905. Designed for travel on snow, it consisted of a sleigh body mounted on a framework that held an engine, a drive-shaft system, runners. Although considered an interesting novelty, sales were low and production ceased in 1906.
The Aerosani, propeller-driven and running on skis, was built in 1909–1910 by Russian inventor Igor Sikorsky of helicopter fame. Aerosanis were used by the Soviet Red Army during the Winter War and World War II. There is some dispute over whether Aerosanis count as snowmobiles because they were not propelled by tracks. Adolphe Kégresse designed an original caterpillar tracks system, called the Kégresse track, while working for Tsar Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916; these used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow. Conventional front wheels and steering were used but the wheel could be fitted with skis as seen in the upper right image, he applied it to several cars in the Royal garage including Packard trucks. Although this was not a snowmobile, it is an ancestor of the modern concept; the dry snow conditions of the United States Midwest suited the converted Ford Model Ts and other like vehicles, but they were not suitable for humid snow areas such as southern Quebec and New England.
This led Joseph-Armand Bombardier from the small town of Valcourt, Quebec, to invent a different caterpilla
Houghton is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula and largest city in the Copper Country on the Keweenaw Peninsula. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 7,708, it is the county seat of Houghton County. It has been listed as one of the "100 Best Small Towns in America."Houghton is sometimes confused with, or thought to be close to, Houghton Lake. Due to its location in the northwestern portion of the Upper Peninsula, Houghton is isolated from the state's most populous areas, it is farther to drive from Houghton to Detroit than it is from Detroit to Washington, D. C, it takes fewer hours to travel to Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, or Chicago, Illinois from Houghton than it does to travel to Detroit. Houghton, as its county, was named after Douglass Houghton, an American geologist and physician known for his exploration of the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. Native Americans mined copper in and around what would be Houghton thousands of years before European settlement.
"French explorers had noted... existence as early as the seventeenth century, 1772 Alexander Henry had prospected for copper on the Ontonagon River near Victoria." When Horace Greeley said, "Go West, young man" he was referring to the copper rush in "Michigan's western Upper Peninsula." Many Cornish and Finnish immigrants arrived in the Houghton area to work in the copper mines. The Finns and others called much of the area Copper Island. Smaller numbers of French-Canadian immigrants moved to Houghton, while more of them settled elsewhere in Houghton County; the last nearby mines closed in the late 1960s, but a school founded in 1885 by the Michigan State Legislature to teach metallurgy and mining engineering, the Michigan College of Mines, continues today under the name of Michigan Technological University and is the primary employer in the city. The first known European settler of Houghton was named Ransom Shelden, who set up a store named Ransom's near Portage Lake, though it is unclear whether this was in the same building as the 1852 Shelden and Shafer drugs, sometimes described as "the first commercial building constructed in Houghton," which Shelden owned with his son Ransom B.
The main street of Houghton, variously called "Sheldon Avenue," Sheldon Street, Shelden Avenue, is named for him. In the 1970s the construction of a parking deck and the connection of downtown stores to create Shelden Center changed the downtown. William W. Henderson was appointed the first postmaster of Houghton in 1852. In 1854, Ernest F. Pletschke platted Houghton, was incorporated as a village in 1861. In Houghton's first days it was said that "only thieves, crooks and Indians" lived there; the postwar boom and increasing demand for copper wiring fueled the development of Houghton in the 1860s and 1870s. Houghton gained in importance as a port with the opening of the Keweenaw Waterway in 1873, the waterway being the cumulative dredging and extension of the Portage Lake, Portage Shipping Canal and Lily Pond so as to isolate the northern part of the Keweenaw Peninsula into Copper Island. By 1880 Houghton had become "a burgeoning city" and in 1883, the railroad was extended from Marquette. 1909 saw the founding of what would become Portage Lake District Library.
During the bitter Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the Michigan National Guard was called in after the sheriff petitioned the governor. Houghton was the birthplace of professional ice hockey in the United States when the Portage Lakers were formed in 1903. Houghton is the home of the Portage Lake Pioneers Senior Hockey Team; the team's home ice is Dee Stadium, named after James R. Dee. Dee Stadium was called the Amphidrome, before it was damaged in a 1927 fire. Houghton was incorporated as a city in 1970. In the winter of 2001, Houghton was the site of one of the first lumitalos to be constructed in the United States. On October 28, 2002, the first day of issue ceremony was held in Houghton for the "snowman stamps" issued by the United States Postal Service. One of the 2006 United States Postal Service snowflake stamps were unveiled in Houghton. A pictorial postmark commemorating Winter Carnival 2007, "Ancient Worlds Come to Play in Snowy Drifts of Modern Day", was applied at the Winter Carnival temporary station in Michigan Technological University's Memorial Union Building, February 10, 2007.
The city is located on the south shore of the Keweenaw Waterway "on rolling wooded hills less than a mile" across Portage Lake." From Hancock. The city is bounded on the east by Portage Township and Pilgrim, on the west by Dakota Heights and on the south by Hurontown and Isle Royale Location, unincorporated communities that are part of Portage Township. Houghton is named after discoverer of copper nearby. Houghton is the home of Michigan Technological University; the city is served by Houghton County Memorial Airport in nearby Oneco. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.69 square miles, of which 4.45 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water. In the West Houghton neighborhood is West Houghton Park, containing an outdoor ice rink and lawn tennis courts. Along Portage Lake is the Raymond Kestner Waterfront Recreation Area, the principal feature of, a large "Chutes and Ladders" playground.
Iron County, Michigan
Iron County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 11,817; the county seat is Crystal Falls. Iron County was organized with territory partitioned from Marquette and Menominee counties. In 1890, the county's population was 4,432, it was named for the valuable iron ore found within its borders. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,211 square miles, of which 1,166 square miles is land and 45 square miles is water. US 2 – runs east-west through lower part of county. Enters west line at 6 miles above SW corner runs east and southeast to Crystal Falls, where it turns south and runs into Wisconsin. Passes Mineral Hills, Iron River, Fortune Lake. US 141 – runs north-south through center of county. Enters north line of county from Covington in Baraga County runs south to intersection with US-2 at Crystal Falls. M-69 – runs east from Crystal Falls into Dickinson County. M-73 – enters south line of county from Nelma, Wisconsin runs northeast to intersection with US-2 at Iron River.
M-189 – enters south line of county from Tipler, Wisconsin runs north to intersection with US-2 at Iron River. Ottawa National Forest The 2010 United States Census indicates Iron County had a population of 11,817; this decrease of 1,321 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a 10.1% population decrease. In 2010 there were 5,577 households and 3,284 families in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 9,197 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile. 97.1% of the population were White, 2.9% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.2% of some other race and 1.4% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 14.3% were of German, 11.5% Finnish, 11.3% Italian, 8.6% French, French Canadian or Cajun, 8.0% Swedish, 6.5% English, 5.8% American and 5.4% Irish ancestry. There were 5,577 households out of which 18.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.1% were non-families.
36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.65. The county population contained 17.1% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 17.2% from 25 to 44, 34.1% from 45 to 64, 26.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.9 years. 49.3% of the population was male, 50.7% was female. The median income for a household in the county was $35,390, the median income for a family was $46,337; the per capita income for the county was $20,099. About 6.5% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Iron County was reliably Republican during its first three decades. However, since 1936 its voters have selected the Democratic Party nominee in 16 of the national elections through 2016. Iron County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. West Iron County Schools Forest Park School District Caspian Crystal Falls Gaastra Iron River Stambaugh Alpha Mineral Hills Amasa Iron County MRA List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Iron County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Iron County, Michigan Iron County website Iron County Economic Chamber Alliance website Iron County Profile, Sam M Cohodas Regional Economist Hunt's Guide to the Iron Mountain area Western Upper Peninsula Planning & Development Region
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c