The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, housing some 3.5 million books in its "vast and cavernous" stacks, is the centerpiece of the Harvard College Libraries and, more broadly, of the entire Harvard Library system. It honors 1907 Harvard College graduate and book collector Harry Elkins Widener, was constructed by his mother Eleanor Elkins Widener after his death in the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912; the library's holdings, which include works in more than one hundred languages, comprise "one of the world's most comprehensive research collections in the humanities and social sciences." Its 57 miles of shelves, along five miles of aisles on ten levels, comprise a "labyrinth" which one student "could not enter without feeling that she ought to carry a compass, a sandwich, a whistle." At the building's heart are the Widener Memorial Rooms, displaying papers and mementos recalling the life and death of Harry Widener, as well as the Harry Elkins Widener Collection, "the precious group of rare and wonderfully interesting books brought together by Mr. Widener", to, added one of the few perfect Gutenberg Bibles—the object of a 1969 burglary attempt conjectured by Harvard's police chief to have been inspired by the heist film Topkapi.
Campus legends holding that Harry Widener's fate led to institution of an undergraduate swimming-proficiency requirement, that an additional donation from his mother subsidizes ice cream at Harvard meals, are without foundation. By the opening of the twentieth century alarms had been issuing for many years about Harvard's "disgracefully inadequate" :276 library, Gore Hall, completed 1841:5 and declared full in 1863.:5 Harvard Librarian Justin Winsor concluded his 1892 Annual Report by pleading, "I have in earlier reports exhausted the language of warning and anxiety, in representing the inadequate accommodations for books and readers which Gore Hall affords. Each twelve months brings us nearer to a chaotic condition". No amount of tinkering can make it good... Hopelessly overcrowded... leaks when there is a heavy rain... intolerably hot in summer... Books are put in double rows and are not infrequently left lying on top of one another, or on the floor...:51–52 With university librarian William Coolidge Lane reporting that the building's light switches were delivering electric shocks to his staff, dormitory basements pressed into service as overflow storage for Harvard's 543,000 books,:50 the committee drew up a proposal for replacement of Gore in stages.
Andrew Carnegie was approached for financing without success. In 1912, Harry Elkins Widener—scion of two of the wealthiest families in America, a 1907 graduate of Harvard College, an accomplished bibliophile despite his youth—died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic, his father George Dunton Widener perished, but his mother Eleanor Elkins Widener survived. Harry Widener's will instructed that his mother, when "in her judgment Harvard University shall make arrangements for properly caring for my collection of books... shall give them to said University to be known as the Harry Elkins Widener Collection", he had told a friend, not long before he died, "I want to be remembered in connection with a great library, I do not see how it is going to be brought about." To enable the fulfillment of her son's wishes Eleanor Widener considered funding an addition to Gore Hall, but soon determined to build instead a new and far larger library building—"a perpetual memorial" :90 to Harry Widener, housing not only his personal book collection but Harvard's general library as well, with room for growth.
As Biel has written, "The committee's Beaux Arts design, with its massiveness and symmetry, offered monumentality with nothing more particular to monumentalize than the aspirations of the modern university"—until the Titanic sank and "through delicate negotiation, convinced Eleanor Widener that the most eloquent tribute to Harry would be an entire library rather than a rare book wing." :88-89 To her gift Eleanor Widener attached a number of stipulations,:43 including that the project's architects be the firm of Horace Trumbauer & Associates, which had built several mansions for both the Elkins and the Widener families.:27 "Mrs. Widener does not give the University the money to build a new library, but has offered to build a library satisfactory in external appearance to herself," Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowell wrote privately. "The exterior was her own choice, she has decided architectural opinions." :167 Harvard historian William Bentinck-Smith has written that To Mrs. Widener was a lovely and generous lady whose wealth and remoteness made her a somewhat terrifying figure who must not be roused to annoyance or outrage.
Once began, all financial transactions were the donor's private business, no one at Harvard knew the exact cost. Mrs. Widener was counting on $2 million, it is probable. Though Harvard awarded Trumbauer an honorary degree on the day of the new library's dedication, it was Trumbauer associate Julian F. Abele who had overall responsibility for the building's design, which followed the 1910 architects' committee's outline (though with the committee's central circulation room shifted f
Sarah Margaret Fuller Ossoli known as Margaret Fuller, was an American journalist, editor and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism, her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States. Born Sarah Margaret Fuller in Cambridge, she was given a substantial early education by her father, Timothy Fuller, she had more formal schooling and became a teacher before, in 1839, she began overseeing her Conversations series: classes for women meant to compensate for their lack of access to higher education. She became the first editor of the transcendentalist journal The Dial in 1840, before joining the staff of the New York Tribune under Horace Greeley in 1844. By the time she was in her 30s, Fuller had earned a reputation as the best-read person in New England, male or female, became the first woman allowed to use the library at Harvard College.
Her seminal work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, was published in 1845. A year she was sent to Europe for the Tribune as its first female correspondent, she soon allied herself with Giuseppe Mazzini. She had a relationship with Giovanni Ossoli, with. All three members of the family died in a shipwreck off Fire Island, New York, as they were traveling to the United States in 1850. Fuller's body was never recovered. Fuller was an advocate of women's rights and, in particular, women's education and the right to employment, she encouraged many other reforms in society, including prison reform and the emancipation of slaves in the United States. Many other advocates for women's rights and feminism, including Susan B. Anthony, cite Fuller as a source of inspiration. Many of her contemporaries, were not supportive, including her former friend Harriet Martineau, she said. Shortly after Fuller's death, her importance faded. Sarah Margaret Fuller was born on May 23, 1810, in Cambridgeport, the first child of Congressman Timothy Fuller and Margaret Crane Fuller.
She was named after her paternal grandmother and her mother, but by age nine she dropped "Sarah" and insisted on being called "Margaret." The Margaret Fuller House, in which she was born, is still standing. Her father taught her to read and write at the age of three and a half, shortly after the couple's second daughter, Julia Adelaide, died at 14 months old, he offered her an education as rigorous as any boy's at the time and forbade her to read the typical feminine fare of the time, such as etiquette books and sentimental novels. He incorporated Latin into his teaching shortly after the birth of the couple's son Eugene in May 1815, soon Margaret was translating simple passages from Virgil. In life Margaret blamed her father's exacting love and his valuation of accuracy and precision for her childhood nightmares and sleepwalking. During the day Margaret spent time with her mother. In 1817, her brother William Henry Fuller was born, her father was elected as a representative in the United States Congress.
For the next eight years, he spent four to six months a year in Washington, D. C. At age ten, Fuller wrote a cryptic note which her father saved: "On 23 May 1810, was born one foredoomed to sorrow and pain, like others to have misfortunes."Fuller began her formal education at the Port School in Cambridgeport in 1819 before attending the Boston Lyceum for Young Ladies from 1821 to 1822. In 1824, she was sent to the School for Young Ladies in Groton, on the advice of aunts and uncles, though she resisted the idea at first. While she was there, Timothy Fuller did not run for re-election, in order to help John Quincy Adams with his presidential campaign in 1824. On June 17, 1825, Fuller attended the ceremony at which the American Revolutionary War hero Marquis de Lafayette laid the cornerstone of the Bunker Hill Monument 50 years after the battle. 15-year-old Fuller introduced herself to Lafayette in a letter which concluded: "Should we both live, it is possible to a female, to whole the avenues of glory are accessible, I will recal my name to your recollection."
Early on, Fuller sensed herself to be thinker. Fuller left the Groton school after two years and returned home at 16. At home she studied the classics and trained herself in several modern languages and read world literature. By this time, she realized, she wrote, "I have felt that I was not born to the common womanly lot." Eliza Farrar, wife of Harvard professor John Farrar and author of The Young Lady's Friend, attempted to train her in feminine etiquette until the age of 20, but was never wholly successful. Fuller was an avid reader. By the time she was in her 30s, she had earned a reputation as the best-read person, male or female, in New England, she used her knowledge to give private lessons based on the teaching style of Elizabeth Palmer Peabody. Fuller hoped to earn her living through translation; when she was 23, her father's law practice failed and he moved the family to a farm in Groton. On February 20, 1835, Frederic Henry Hedge and James Freeman Clarke asked her to contribute to each of their periodicals.
Clarke helped her publish her first
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, Evangeline. He was the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy and was one of the Fireside Poets from New England. Longfellow was born in Portland, still part of Massachusetts, he studied at Bowdoin College and, after spending time in Europe, he became a professor at Bowdoin and at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of Other Poems. Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, he lived the remainder of his life in a former Revolutionary War headquarters of George Washington in Cambridge, Massachusetts, his first wife Mary Potter died in 1835 after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861 after sustaining burns. After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on translating works from foreign languages, he died in 1882. Longfellow wrote many lyric poems known for their musicality and presenting stories of mythology and legend.
He became the most popular American poet of his day and had success overseas. He has been criticized, for imitating European styles and writing for the masses. Longfellow was born on February 27, 1807 to Stephen Longfellow and Zilpah Longfellow in Portland, Maine a district of Massachusetts, he grew up in -- Longfellow House. His father was a lawyer, his maternal grandfather was Peleg Wadsworth, a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress, his mother was descended from a passenger on the Mayflower. He was named after his mother's brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli, he was the second of eight children. Longfellow's ancestors were English colonists, they included Mayflower Pilgrims Richard Warren, William Brewster, John and Priscilla Alden, as well as Elizabeth Pabodie, the first child born in Plymouth Colony. Longfellow attended a dame school at the age of three and was enrolled by age six at the private Portland Academy.
In his years there, he earned a reputation as being studious and became fluent in Latin. His mother encouraged his enthusiasm for reading and learning, introducing him to Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote, he published his first poem in the Portland Gazette on November 17, 1820, a patriotic and historical four-stanza poem called "The Battle of Lovell's Pond". He studied at the Portland Academy until age 14, he spent much of his summers as a child at his grandfather Peleg's farm in Maine. In the fall of 1822, 15 year-old Longfellow enrolled at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, along with his brother Stephen, his grandfather was a founder of the college and his father was a trustee. There Longfellow met Nathaniel Hawthorne, he boarded with a clergyman for a time before rooming on the third floor in 1823 of what is now known as Winthrop Hall. He joined a group of students with Federalist leanings. In his senior year, Longfellow wrote to his father about his aspirations: I will not disguise it in the least….
The fact is, I most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature, my whole soul burns most ardently after it, every earthly thought centres in it…. I am confident in believing, that if I can rise in the world it must be by the exercise of my talents in the wide field of literature, he pursued his literary goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines due to encouragement from Professor Thomas Cogswell Upham. He published nearly 40 minor poems between January 1824 and his graduation in 1825. About 24 of them were published in the short-lived Boston periodical The United States Literary Gazette; when Longfellow graduated from Bowdoin, he was ranked fourth in the class and had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He gave the student commencement address. After graduating in 1825, Longfellow was offered a job as professor of modern languages at his alma mater. An apocryphal story claims that college trustee Benjamin Orr had been impressed by Longfellow's translation of Horace and hired him under the condition that he travel to Europe to study French and Italian.
Whatever the catalyst, Longfellow began his tour of Europe in May 1826 aboard the ship Cadmus. His time abroad lasted three years and cost his father $2,604.24. He traveled to France, Italy, back to France to England before returning to the United States in mid-August 1829. While overseas, he learned French, Spanish and German without formal instruction. In Madrid, he spent time with Washington Irving and was impressed by the author's work ethic. Irving encouraged the young Longfellow to pursue writing. While in Spain, Longfellow was saddened to learn that his favorite sister Elizabeth had died of tuberculosis at the age of 20 that May. On August 27, 1829, he wrote to the president of Bowdoin that he was turning down the professorship because he considered the $600 salary "disproportionate to the duties required"; the trustees raised his salary to $800 with an additional $100 to serve as the college's librarian, a post which required one hour of work per day. During his years teaching at the college, he translated textbooks from French and Spanish.
He published the travel book Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea in serial form before a book edition was released in 1835. Shortly
John Harvard (statue)
John Harvard is a sculpture in bronze by Daniel Chester French in Harvard Yard, Massachusetts honoring John Harvard, whose deathbed bequest to the "schoale or Colledge" undertaken by the Massachusetts Bay Colony was so gratefully received that it was ordered "that the Colledge agreed upon to bee built at Cambridg shalbee called Harvard Colledge." There being nothing to indicate what John Harvard had looked like, French used a Harvard student collaterally descended from an early Harvard president as inspiration. The statue's inscription—JOHN HARVARD • FOUNDER • 1638—is the subject of an arch polemic, traditionally recited for visitors, questioning whether John Harvard justly merits the honorific founder. According to a Harvard official, the founding of the college was not the act of one but the work of many, John Harvard is therefore considered not the founder, but rather a founder, of the school, though the timeliness and generosity of his contribution have made him the most honored of these.
Tourists rub the toe of John Harvard's left shoe for luck, in the mistaken belief that doing so is a Harvard student tradition. The New York Times described the statue at its unveiling: The young clergyman is represented sitting, holding an open on his knee; the costume is the simple clerical garb of the seventeenth century... low shoes, silk hose, loose knee breeches, a tunic belted at the waist, while a long cloak, thrown back, falls in broad, picturesque folds. John Harvard's gift to the school was £780 and—perhaps more importantly—his 400-volume scholar's library: Partly under the chair, within easy reach, lie a pile of books; that he had died of tuberculosis, at about age thirty, was one of the few things known about John Harvard at the time of the statue's composition. Historian Laurel Ulrich suggests that John Harvard's general composition may have been inspired by Hendrik Goltzius' engraving of Clio, that the figure's collar, buttons and mustache may have been taken from a portrait of Plymouth Colony Governor Edward Winslow.
On June 27, 1883, at the Commencement Day dinner of Harvard alumni a letter was read from "a generous benefactor, General Samuel James Bridge, an adopted alumnus of the college": To the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Gentlemen, — I have the pleasure of offering you an ideal statue in bronze, representing your founder, the Rev. John Harvard, to be designed by Daniel C. French of Concord... I am assured that the same can be in place by June 1, 1884. Bridge specified an "ideal" statue because there was nothing to indicate what John Harvard had looked like. "In looking about for a type of the early comers to our shores," he wrote, "I chose a lineal descendant of them for my model in the general structure of the face. He has more of what I want than anybody I know." The commission weighed on French as the figure neared completion. "I am sometimes scared by the importance of this work. It is a subject that one might not have in a lifetime," wrote the sculptor—who thirty years would create the statue of Abraham Lincoln for the Lincoln Memorial—"and a failure would be inexcusable.
As a general thing, my model looks pretty well to me, but there are dark days."French's final model was ready the following May and realized in bronze by the Henry-Bonnard Bronze Company over the next several months. The cost was more than $20,000; the statue was installed—"looking wistfully into the western sky", said Harvard president Charles W. Eliot—at the western end of Memorial Hall on the triangular city block known as the Delta. At its October 15, 1884 unveiling Ellis gave "a singularly felicitous address, telling the story of the life of John Harvard, who passes so mysteriously across the page of our early history." In 1920 French wrote to Harvard president Abbott Lawrence Lowell desiring that the statue be relocated. That year the Lampoon imagined the frustrations of the metallic, immobile John Harvard surrounded by Harvard undergraduates— Great men arise / Before my eyes / From yonder pile I foundedWhile I must sit / Quite out of it / My jealousy unbounded —though twelve years David McCord portrayed the founder as satisfied in his stationarity: "Is that you, John Harvard?" / I said to his statue."Aye, that's me," said John, / "And after you're gone."
Sometime in the 1990s tour guides began encouraging visitors to emulate a "student tradition"—nonexistent—of rubbing the toe of John Harvard's left shoe for luck, so that while the statue as a whole is darkly weathered the toe now "gleams throbbingly bright, as though from an excruciating inflammation of the bronze." It is, traditional for seniors, as they process to gradu
Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the oldest part of the Harvard University campus, its historic center and modern crossroads. It contains most of the freshman dormitories, Harvard's most important libraries, Memorial Church, several classroom and departmental buildings, the offices of senior University officials including the President of Harvard University; the Yard is a grassy area of 22.4 acres bounded principally by Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge Street and Quincy Street. Its perimeter fencing – principally iron, with some stretches of brick – has twenty-seven gates; the center of the Yard, known as Tercentenary Theatre, is a wide grassy area bounded by Widener Library, Memorial Church, University Hall, Sever Hall. Tercentenary Theater is the site of other convocations; the western third of Harvard Yard, which opens onto Peabody Street at Johnston Gate and abuts the center of Harvard Square to the south, is known as the Old Yard. Most of the freshman dormitories cluster around the Old Yard, including Massachusetts Hall, Harvard's oldest building and the second-oldest academic building in the United States.
Massachusetts Hall houses the offices of the President of Harvard University. The original Harvard Hall in the Old Yard housed the College library, including the books donated by John Harvard—all but one of which were destroyed when the building burned in 1764. Rebuilt in 1766, the current Harvard Hall now houses classrooms. Across the Old Yard from Johnston Gate is University Hall, whose white-granite facade was the first to challenge the red-brick Georgian style until ascendant. University Hall contains major administrative offices, including those of the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and the Dean of Harvard College. Libraries in the Yard are Widener Library, its connected Pusey Library annex, Houghton Library for rare books and manuscripts, Lamont Library, the main undergraduate library. Classroom and departmental buildings include Emerson Hall, Sever Hall, Robinson Hall, Boylston Hall; the Harvard Bixi, a Chinese stele with inscribed text, is located near Widener. The freshman dormitories of Harvard Yard include the upper levels of Massachusetts Hall, Wigglesworth Hall, Weld Hall, Grays Hall, Matthews Hall, Straus Hall, Mower Hall, Hollis Hall, Stoughton Hall, Lionel Hall, Holworthy Hall, Canaday Hall, Thayer Hall.
Nestled among Mower, Hollis and Stoughton Halls is Holden Chapel, home of the Holden Choirs. Nearby is Phillips Brooks House, dedicated to student service to the community. Administrative buildings in the Yard include the aforementioned University Hall and Massachusetts Hall. Loeb House is the home of Harvard's governing bodies: the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers. Wadsworth House houses the Harvard University Librarian and the Office of the University Marshal, among others. Lehman Hall, at the southwestern corner of the Yard, provides administrative services for students who live off-campus. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts "Park the car in Harvard Yard" Campus map showing Harvard Yard
John Keats was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, despite his works having been in publication for only four years before his death from tuberculosis at the age of 25. Although his poems were not well received by critics during his lifetime, his reputation grew after his death, by the end of the 19th century, he had become one of the most beloved of all English poets, he had a significant influence on a diverse range of writers. Jorge Luis Borges stated that his first encounter with Keats' work was the most significant literary experience of his life; the poetry of Keats is characterised by sensual imagery, most notably in the series of odes. This is typical of romantic poets, as they aimed to accentuate extreme emotion through an emphasis on natural imagery. Today his letters are some of the most popular and most analysed in English literature; some of the most acclaimed works of Keats are "Ode to a Nightingale", "Sleep and Poetry", the famous sonnet "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer".
John Keats was born in Moorgate, London, on 31 October 1795 to Thomas Keats and his wife, Frances Jennings. There is little evidence of his exact birthplace. Although Keats and his family seem to have marked his birthday on 29 October, baptism records give the date as the 31st, he was the eldest of four surviving children. Another son was lost in infancy, his father first worked as a hostler at the stables attached to the Swan and Hoop Inn, an establishment he managed, where the growing family lived for some years. Keats believed that he was born at the inn, a birthplace of humble origins, but there is no evidence to support his belief; the Globe pub now occupies the site, a few yards from the modern-day Moorgate station. He was baptised at St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate, sent to a local dame school as a child, his parents were unable to afford Eton or Harrow, so in the summer of 1803, he was sent to board at John Clarke's school in Enfield, close to his grandparents' house. The small school had a liberal outlook and a progressive curriculum more modern than the larger, more prestigious schools.
In the family atmosphere at Clarke's, Keats developed an interest in classics and history, which would stay with him throughout his short life. The headmaster's son, Charles Cowden Clarke became an important mentor and friend, introducing Keats to Renaissance literature, including Tasso and Chapman's translations; the young Keats was described by his friend Edward Holmes as a volatile character, "always in extremes", given to indolence and fighting. However, at 13 he began focusing his energy on reading and study, winning his first academic prize in midsummer 1809. In April 1804, when Keats was eight, his father died from a skull fracture, suffered when he fell from his horse while returning from a visit to Keats and his brother George at school. Thomas Keats died intestate. Frances remarried two months but left her new husband soon afterwards, the four children went to live with their grandmother, Alice Jennings, in the village of Edmonton. In March 1810, when Keats was 14, his mother died of tuberculosis, leaving the children in the custody of their grandmother.
She appointed Richard Abbey and John Sandell, to take care of them. That autumn, Keats left Clarke's school to apprentice with Thomas Hammond, a surgeon and apothecary, a neighbour and the doctor of the Jennings family. Keats lodged in the attic above the surgery at 7 Church Street until 1813. Cowden Clarke, who remained a close friend of Keats, described this period as "the most placid time in Keats' life." From 1814, Keats had two bequests, held in trust for him until his 21st birthday: £800 willed by his grandfather John Jennings and a portion of his mother's legacy, £8000, to be divided between her living children. It seems. Blame has been laid on Abbey as legal guardian, but he may have been unaware. William Walton, solicitor for Keats' mother and grandmother did know and had a duty of care to relay the information to Keats, it seems. The money would have made a critical difference to the poet's expectations. Money was always a great concern and difficulty for him, as he struggled to stay out of debt and make his way in the world independently.
Having finished his apprenticeship with Hammond, Keats registered as a medical student at Guy's Hospital and began studying there in October 1815. Within a month of starting, he was accepted as a dresser at the hospital, assisting surgeons during operations, the equivalent of a junior house surgeon today, it was a significant promotion. Keats' long and expensive medical training with Hammond and at Guy's Hospital led his family to assume he would pursue a lifelong career in medicine, assuring financial security, it seems that at this point Keats had a genuine desire to become a doctor, he lodged near the hospital, at 28 St Thomas's Street in Southwark, with other medical students, including Henry Stephens who became a famous inventor and ink magnate. However, Keats' training took up increasing amounts of his writing time, he was ambivalent about his medical career, he felt. He had written his first extant poem, "An Imitati
An academic library is a library, attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown. An academic and research portal maintained by UNESCO links to 3,785 libraries. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there are an estimated 3,700 academic libraries in the United States; the support of teaching and learning requires material for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university.
When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries, these are referred to as niche collections. These collections are the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. There is a great deal of variation among academic libraries based on their size, resources and services; the Harvard University Library is considered to be the largest strict academic library in the world, although the Danish Royal Library—a combined national and academic library—has a larger collection. Another notable example is the University of the South Pacific which has academic libraries distributed throughout its twelve member countries; the University of California operates the largest academic library system in the world, it manages more than 34 million items in 100 libraries on ten campuses. The first colleges in the United States were intended to train members of the clergy; the libraries associated with these institutions consisted of donated books on the subjects of theology and the classics.
In 1766, Yale had 4,000 volumes, second only to Harvard. Access to these libraries was restricted to faculty members and a few students: the only staff was a part-time faculty member or the president of the college; the priority of the library was to protect the books. In 1849, Yale was open 30 hours a week, the University of Virginia was open nine hours a week, Columbia University four, Bowdoin College only three. Students instead created literary societies and assessed entrance fees in order to build a small collection of usable volumes in excess of what the university library held. Around the turn of the century, this approach began to change; the American Library Association was formed in 1876, with members including Melvil Dewey and Charles Ammi Cutter. Libraries re-prioritized in favor of improving access to materials, found funding increasing as a result of increased demand for said materials. Academic libraries today vary in regard to the extent to which they accommodate those who are not affiliated with their parent universities.
Some offer borrowing privileges to members of the public on payment of an annual fee. The privileges so obtained do not extend to such services as computer usage, other than to search the catalog, or Internet access. Alumni and students of cooperating local universities may be given discounts or other consideration when arranging for borrowing privileges. On the other hand, access to the libraries of some universities is restricted to students and staff. In this case, they may make it possible for others to borrow materials through inter-library loan programs. Libraries of land-grant universities are more accessible to the public. In some cases, they are official government document repositories and so are required to be open to the public. Still, members of the public are charged fees for borrowing privileges, are not allowed to access everything they would be able to as students. Academic libraries in Canada are a recent development in relation to other countries; the first academic library in Canada was opened in 1789 in Windsor, Nova Scotia.
Academic libraries were small during the 19th century and up until the 1950s, when Canadian academic libraries began to grow as a result of greater importance being placed on education and research. The growth of libraries throughout the 1960s was a direct result of many overwhelming factors including inflated student enrollments, increased graduate programs, higher budget allowance, general advocacy of the importance of these libraries; as a result of this growth and the Ontario New Universities Library Project that occurred during the early 1960s, 5 new universities were established in Ontario that all included catalogued collections. The establishment of libraries was widespread throughout Canada and was furthered by grants provided by the Canada Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, which sought to enhance library collections. Since many academic libraries were constructed after World War Two, a majority of the Canadian academic libraries that were built before 1940 that have not been updated to modern lighting, air conditioning, etc. are either no longer in use or are on the verge of decline.
The total number of college and university libraries increased from 31 in 1959-1960 to 105 in 1969-1970. Following the growth of academic libraries in Canada during the 1960s, there was a br