United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
In radio, long wave or long-wave, abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave, medium-wave, short-wave radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would have been considered'ultra-short'. In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined and its intended meaning varies, it may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m i.e. frequencies up to 300 kilohertz, including the International Telecommunications Union's low frequency and low frequency bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz. In Europe and large parts of Asia, where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave refers to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum.
The "Longwave Club of America" is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band". Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth; this mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band. The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. Low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines. Low frequency waves can occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere, although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at F layers.
Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation, they identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz. There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example: WWVB in Colorado, United States, on 60 kHz DCF77 in Frankfurt, Germany, on 77.5 kHz JJY in Japan, on 40 & 60 kHz 66.66 kHz in Taldom transmitter, Russia BPC in Lintong, China, 68.5 kHz MSF time and 60 kHz frequency standard transmitted from Anthorn in the UK. TDF from Allouis, France, on 162 kHzRadio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers, they use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.
Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day; these different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter and when the signal is received by the clock depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, very nearly constant. Since the time lag is the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station; the militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.
In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allows unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna; this is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio. The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons. Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz. Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1; the long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia and Morocco. A larger geographic area can be covered by a long-w
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Interstate 95 in Maine
Interstate 95 in the US state of Maine is a 303-mile-long highway running from the New Hampshire state line near Kittery, to the Canadian border near Houlton. It is the only two-digit Interstate Highway in Maine. In 2004, the highway's route between Portland and Gardiner was changed so that it encompasses the entire Maine Turnpike, which runs from Kittery to Augusta. I-95 enters Maine from New Hampshire on the Piscataqua River Bridge, which connects Portsmouth, New Hampshire with Kittery. At mile 2 in Kittery, the highway becomes the Maine Turnpike; the highway runs in a general northeasterly direction, parallel with U. S. Route 1, at this point. I-95 bypasses connecting to Old Orchard Beach. At Scarborough, I-95 meets the southern terminus of I-295; the highway turns north, serving the Portland International Jetport and bypassing Portland to the west. At Falmouth, the highway meets unsigned I-495 called the Falmouth Spur; until January 2004, I-95 followed the Falmouth Spur and I-295 between Gardiner.
The highway continues north along the Maine Turnpike through Gray to Auburn and Lewiston, which the turnpike bypasses to the south. The highway runs in an easterly direction to meet the northern terminus of I-295 at Gardiner. From there, I-95 parallels the Kennebec River past Waterville; the highway crosses the river at Fairfield and turns northeast along the Sebasticook River past Pittsfield to Newport. I-95 continues east alongside US 2 from Newport to Bangor, where I-395 connects to the city of Brewer; the highway runs along the northern edge of Bangor's center turns northeast, following the Penobscot River past Orono and Old Town. The highway continues north, still running near the river, towards Howland. Near Lincoln, I-95 runs north through uninhabited forest land, crossing the Penobscot River at Medway; the highway goes northeast and east, passing a series of small Aroostook County farming towns before reaching Houlton, where it connects to New Brunswick Route 95 and US 2 at the international border.
North of Bangor, traffic levels drop noticeably, with AADT averaging only about 5,000 in northern Penobscot County and going down to as low as 2,000–4,000 in Houlton. The Maine Turnpike Authority was created by the Maine Legislature in 1941 to build and operate a toll highway connecting Kittery and Fort Kent. In 1947, the first section of highway, designated the Maine Turnpike, opened between Kittery and Portland. In 1953, the Turnpike Authority began construction on an extension to the state capital at Augusta using the former right-of-way of the Portland–Lewiston Interurban railway from Portland through Falmouth; the original turnpike was the largest construction project in the state's history until the construction of the extension, which opened to the public on December 13, 1955. The Maine Turnpike was the first highway funded using revenue bonds, it does not receive funding from the state or federal government. When the first section opened in 1947, it was only the second long-distance superhighway in the United States following the October 1940 opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
For these reasons, the Maine Turnpike was named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1999. In 1956, one year after the Portland-Augusta extension opened, Congress created the Interstate Highway System; the remaining sections to be built—from Augusta to Fort Kent—would be publicly funded freeways instead of toll roads under the Maine Turnpike Authority. Today this highway, which ends at Houlton instead of Fort Kent, is signed as Interstate 95 throughout and the Maine Turnpike between the New Hampshire line at Kittery and the junction with US 202 near Augusta; the Maine Turnpike had a posted speed limit of 70 mph in the early 1970s, but as Maine had no law against traveling less than 10 mph over the posted limit, the de facto speed limit was 79 mph. In 1974, as part of a federal mandate, the speed limit was reduced to 55 mph, with a new law including a "less than 10 over" violation. In 1987, Congress allowed states to post 65 mph on rural interstate highways.
Following the relaxation, Maine increased its speed limit. In May 2011, a bill was introduced to raise the speed limit on I-95 from Old Town to Houlton from 65 mph to 75 mph, it passed, with Maine the first state east of the Mississippi River since the 1970s to establish a 75 mph speed limit. A further law passed in 2013 by the Maine Legislature allowed the Maine Department of Transportation and the Turnpike Authority to change speed limits with the approval of the Maine State Police. Per that law, Maine DOT increased the 65 mph limit to 70 mph on several sections of Interstate 95 on May 27, 2014; these areas included the section from mile marker 114 just outside Augusta to mile 126 just before Waterville. In addition, the section from Fairfield to Bangor saw an increase to 70 mph. Speed limits on sections controlled by the Turnpike Authority increased on August 11, 2014; the sections from mile marker 2.1 in Kittery to mile marker 44.1 in Scarborough and the section from mile marker 52.3 in Falmouth to mile marker 109 in Augusta increased from 65 mph to 70 mph.
The section from mile marker 44.1 in Scarborough to mile marker 52.3 in Falmouth increased from 55 mph to 60 mph. The Maine Turnpike is a toll road for all of its length except south of York and between Auburn and
Signal Corps (United States Army)
The United States Army Signal Corps is a division of the Department of the Army that creates and manages communications and information systems for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of Major Albert J. Myer, had an important role in the American Civil War. Over its history, it had the initial responsibility for portfolios and new technologies that were transferred to other U. S. government entities. Such responsibilities included military intelligence, weather forecasting, aviation. Support for the command and control of combined arms forces. Signal support includes network operations and management of the electromagnetic spectrum. Signal support encompasses all aspects of designing, data communications networks that employ single and multi-channel satellite, tropospheric scatter, terrestrial microwave, messaging, video-teleconferencing, visual information, other related systems, they integrate tactical and sustaining base communications, information processing and management systems into a seamless global information network that supports knowledge dominance for Army and coalition operations.
While serving as a medical officer in Texas in 1856, Albert James Myer proposed that the Army use his visual communications system, called aerial telegraphy. When the Army adopted his system on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps was born with Myer as the first and only Signal Officer. Major Myer first used his visual signaling system on active service in New Mexico during the early 1860s Navajo expedition. Using flags for daytime signaling and a torch at night, wigwag was tested in Civil War combat in June 1861 to direct the fire of a harbor battery at Fort Wool against the Confederate positions opposite Fort Monroe. For nearly three years, Myer was forced to rely on detailed personnel, although he envisioned a separate, trained professional military signal service. Myer's vision came true on 3 March 1863, when Congress authorized a regular Signal Corps for the duration of the war; some 2,900 officers and enlisted men served, although not at any single time, in the Civil War Signal Corps. Myer's Civil War innovations included an unsuccessful balloon experiment at First Bull Run, and, in response to McClellan's desire for a Signal Corps field telegraph train, an electric telegraph in the form of the Beardslee magnetoelectric telegraph machine.
In the Civil War, the wigwag system, restricted to line-of-sight communications, was waning in the face of the electric telegraph. Myer used his office downtown in Washington, D. C. to house the Signal Corps School. When it was found to need additional space, he sought out other locations. First came Fort Greble, one of the Defenses of Washington during the Civil War, when that proved inadequate, Myer chose Fort Whipple, on Arlington Heights overlooking the national capital; the size and location were outstanding. The school remained there for over 20 years and was renamed Fort Myer. Signal Corps detachments participated in campaigns fighting Native Americans in the west, such as the Powder River Expedition of 1865; the electric telegraph, in addition to visual signaling, became a Signal Corps responsibility in 1867. Within 12 years, the corps had constructed, was maintaining and operating, some 4,000 miles of telegraph lines along the country's western frontier. In 1870, the Signal Corps established a congressionally mandated national weather service.
Within a decade, with the assistance of Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, Myer commanded a weather service of international acclaim. Myer died in 1880, having attained the rank of brigadier general and the title of Chief Signal Officer; the weather bureau became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1891, while the corps retained responsibility for military meteorology; the Signal Corps' role in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection was on a grander scale than it had been in the Civil War. In addition to visual signaling, including heliograph, the corps supplied telephone and telegraph wire lines and cable communications, fostered the use of telephones in combat, employed combat photography, renewed the use of balloons. Shortly after the war, the Signal Corps constructed the Washington-Alaska Military Cable and Telegraph System known as the Alaska Communications System, introducing the first wireless telegraph in the Western Hemisphere. For more details on this topic, see Aeronautical Division, U.
S. Signal Corps and Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps On 1 August 1907, an Aeronautical Division was established within the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. In 1908, on Fort Myer, the Wright brothers made test flights of the Army's first airplane built to Signal Corps' specifications. Reflecting the need for an official pilot rating, War Department Bulletin No. 2, released on 24 February 1911, established a "Military Aviator" rating. Army aviation remained within the Signal Corps until 1918. During World War I. Chief Signal Officer George Owen Squier worked with private industry to perfect radio tubes while creating a major signal laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail. Early radiotelephones developed by the Signal Corps were introduced into the European theater in 1918. While the new American voice radios were superior to the radiotelegraph sets and telegraph remained the major technology of World War I. A pioneer in radar, Colonel William Blair, director of the Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, patented the first Army radar demonstrated in May 1937.
Before the United States entered World War II, mass
Samantha Reed Smith was an American schoolgirl, peace activist and child actress from Manchester, who became famous during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1982, Smith wrote a letter to the newly appointed CPSU General Secretary Yuri Andropov, received a personal reply with a personal invitation to visit the Soviet Union, which she accepted. Smith attracted extensive media attention in both countries as a "Goodwill Ambassador", becoming known as "America's Youngest Ambassador" and subsequently participating in peacemaking activities in Japan, she wrote a book about her visit to the Soviet Union, Journey to the Soviet Union, became a child actress, hosting a child-orientated special on the 1984 United States presidential election for The Disney Channel and playing a supporting role in the television series Lime Street, before she was killed at the age of thirteen on 25 August 1985 in the Bar Harbor Airlines Flight 1808 plane crash. When Yuri Andropov succeeded Leonid Brezhnev as leader of the Soviet Union in November 1982, the mainstream Western newspapers and magazines ran numerous front-page photographs and articles about him.
Most coverage was negative and tended to give a perception of a new threat to the stability of the Western world. Andropov had been the Soviet Ambassador to Hungary during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Chairman of the KGB from 1967 to 1982, he began his tenure as Soviet leader by strengthening the powers of the KGB, by suppressing dissidents. Andropov declared, "the struggle for human rights was a part of a wide-ranging imperialist plot to undermine the foundation of the Soviet state." Much international tension surrounded both Soviet and American efforts to develop weapons capable of being launched from satellites in orbit. Both governments had extensive development programs to develop such technology. However, both nations were coming under increasing pressure to disband the project. In America, President Ronald Reagan came under pressure from a lobby of U. S. scientists and arms experts, while in Russia the government issued a statement that read, "To prevent the militarization of space is one of the most urgent tasks facing mankind".
During this period, large anti-nuclear protests were taking place across both Europe and North America, while the November 20, 1983, screening of ABC's post-nuclear war dramatization The Day After became one of the most anticipated media events of the decade. The two superpowers had by this point abandoned their strategy of détente and in response to the Soviet deployment of SS-20s, Reagan moved to deploy cruise and Pershing II missiles to Europe; the Soviet Union's involvement in a war in Afghanistan was in its third year, a matter, contributing to international tension. In this atmosphere, on November 22, 1982, Time magazine published an issue with Andropov on the cover; when Smith viewed the edition, she asked her mother: "If people are so afraid of him, why doesn't someone write a letter asking whether he wants to have a war or not?" Her mother replied, "Why don't you?" Samantha Smith was born on June 29, 1972, in the small town of Houlton, Maine, on the Canada–United States border, to Jane Goshorn and Arthur Smith.
At the age of five, she wrote a letter to Queen Elizabeth II in order to express her admiration to the monarch. When Smith had finished second grade in the spring of 1980, the family settled in Manchester, where she attended Manchester Elementary School, her father served as an instructor at Ricker College in Houlton before teaching literature and writing at the University of Maine at Augusta while her mother worked as a social worker with the Maine Department of Human Services. In November 1982, when Smith was 10 years old, she wrote to Soviet leader Yuri Andropov, seeking to understand why the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were so tense: Dear Mr. Andropov, My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren't please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war; this question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country.
God made the world for us to take care of. Not to fight over or have one group of people own it all. Please lets do what he wanted and have everybody be happy too. Samantha Smith Her letter was published in the Soviet newspaper Pravda. Samantha was happy to discover, she sent a letter to the Soviet Union's Ambassador to the United States asking if Mr. Andropov intended to respond. On April 26, 1983, she received a response from Andropov: Dear Samantha, I received your letter, like many others that have reached me from your country and from other countries around the world, it seems to me – I can tell by your letter – that you are a courageous and honest girl, resembling Becky, the friend of Tom Sawyer in the famous book of your compatriot Mark Twain. This book is well loved in our country by all boys and girls. You write, and you ask that war will not break out. Your question is the most important of those. I will reply to you and honestly. Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are trying to do everything so that there will not be war on Earth.
This is what every Soviet man
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag