An hour is a unit of time conventionally reckoned as 1⁄24 of a day and scientifically reckoned as 3,599–3,601 seconds, depending on conditions. The hour was established in the ancient Near East as a variable measure of 1⁄12 of the night or daytime; such seasonal, temporal, or unequal hours varied by latitude. Medieval astronomers such as al-Biruni and Sacrobosco, subsequently divided the hour into 60 minutes, each of 60 seconds. Equal or equinoctial hours were taken as 1⁄24 of the day. Since this unit was not constant due to long term variations in the Earth's rotation, the hour was separated from the Earth's rotation and defined in terms of the atomic or physical second. In the modern metric system, hours are an accepted unit of time defined as 3,600 atomic seconds. However, on rare occasions an hour may incorporate a positive or negative leap second, making it last 3,599 or 3,601 seconds, in order to keep it within 0.9 seconds of UT1, based on measurements of the mean solar day. Hour is a development of the Anglo-Norman houre and Middle English ure, first attested in the 13th century.
It displaced span of time. The Anglo-Norman term was a borrowing of Old French ure, a variant of ore, which derived from Latin hōra and Greek hṓrā. Like Old English tīd and stund, hṓrā was a vaguer word for any span of time, including seasons and years, its Proto-Indo-European root has been reconstructed as *yeh₁-, making hour distantly cognate with year. The time of day is expressed in English in terms of hours. Whole hours on a 12-hour clock are expressed using the contracted phrase o'clock, from the older of clock. Hours on a 24-hour clock are expressed as "hundred" or "hundred hours". Fifteen and thirty minutes past the hour is expressed as "a quarter past" or "after" and "half past" from their fraction of the hour. Fifteen minutes before the hour may be expressed as "a quarter to", "of", "till", or "before" the hour; the ancient Egyptians began dividing the night into wnwt at some time before the compilation of the Dynasty V Pyramid Texts in the 24th century BC. By 2150 BC, diagrams of stars inside Egyptian coffin lids—variously known as "diagonal calendars" or "star clocks"—attest that there were 12 of these.
Clagett writes that it is "certain" this duodecimal division of the night followed the adoption of the Egyptian civil calendar placed c. 2800 BC on the basis of analyses of the Sothic cycle, but a lunar calendar long predated this and would have had twelve months in each of its years. The coffin diagrams show that the Egyptians took note of the heliacal risings of 36 stars or constellations, one for each of the ten-day "weeks" of their civil calendar; each night, the rising of eleven of these decans were noted, separating the night into twelve divisions whose middle terms would have lasted about 40 minutes each. The original decans used by the Egyptians would have fallen noticeably out of their proper places over a span of several centuries. By the time of Amenhotep III, the priests at Karnak were using water clocks to determine the hours; these were filled to the brim at sunset and the hour determined by comparing the water level against one of its twelve gauges, one for each month of the year.
During the New Kingdom, another system of decans was used, made up of 24 stars over the course of the year and 12 within any one night. The division of the day into 12 hours was accomplished by sundials marked with ten equal divisions; the morning and evening periods when the sundials failed to note time were observed as the first and last hours. The Egyptian hours were connected both with the priesthood of the gods and with their divine services. By the New Kingdom, each hour was conceived as a specific region of the sky or underworld through which Ra's solar barge travelled. Protective deities were used as the names of the hours; as the protectors and resurrectors of the sun, the goddesses of the night hours were considered to hold power over all lifespans and thus became part of Egyptian funerary rituals. Two fire-spitting cobras were said to guard the gates of each hour of the underworld, Wadjet and the rearing cobra were sometimes referenced as wnwt from their role protecting the dead through these gates.
The Egyptian word for astronomer, used as a synonym for priest, was wnwty, "One of the Hours" or "Hour-Watcher". The earliest forms of wnwt include one or three stars, with the solar hours including the determinative hieroglyph for "sun". Ancient China divided its day into 100 "marks" running from midnight to midnight; the system is said to have been used since remote antiquity, credited to the legendary Yellow Em
Richmond Mumford Pearson, Jr. was an American diplomat and member of the U. S. House of Representatives from North Carolina. Richmond Mumford Pearson, Jr. was born 26 January 1852 at Richmond Hill in Yadkin County, North Carolina, the fourth of five children of North Carolina Supreme Court Justice Richmond Mumford Pearson. Pearson studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1874; the same year he was appointed United States consul to Verviers and Liege, which he resigned in 1877. Pearson was elected to one term in the North Carolina House of Representatives and to two consecutive terms in the U. S. House, serving from 1895 to 1899; when he ran for re-election in 1898, he was declared the loser, William T. Crawford the winner, but he contested the election and was seated for the last half of the Fifty-sixth Congress. President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Pearson consul to Genoa in 1901, ambassador to Persia in 1902, ambassador to Greece and Montenegro in 1907, he retired from the diplomatic service in 1909, lived most of his life at his home in Asheville, North Carolina, called "Richmond Hill".
It was there that he died in 1923. United States Congress. "PEARSON, Richmond". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Appalachian State University Library National Register of Historic Places Richmond Hill Inn website University of North Carolina at Asheville Library
Harry Edward Flaherty is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He was a member of the Tampa Bay Bandits of the United States Football League, he played college football at the College of the Holy Cross. Flaherty attended Red Bank Catholic High School, where he played football and track, he accepted a football scholarship from the College of the Holy Cross. He played baseball, he was a four-year starter at middle linebacker and finished as the school's all-time leader with 447 tackles. As a senior in 1983, he set a school record with 152 tackles in a season, while contributing to the team winning the Lambert Cup Championship and advancing to the NCAA Division I-AA playoffs for the first time in school history. In 1995, he was inducted into the Holy Cross Athletic Hall of Fame. In 1997, he was inducted into the Jersey Shore Sports Hall of Fame. In 2015, he was inducted into the Crusader Football Legends Ring of Honor. Flaherty was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Philadelphia Eagles after the 1984 NFL Draft on June 18.
He was released before the start of the season on August 14. In 1985, he signed as a free agent with the Tampa Bay Bandits of the United States Football League, he started in some of the games at inside linebacker. He was not re-signed after the season. In 1986, he was signed as a free agent by the Baltimore Stars, but the league folded and never had a chance to play with the team. After the NFLPA strike was declared on the third week of the 1987 season, those contests were canceled and the NFL decided that the games would be played with replacement players. In September, he was signed to be a part of the Dallas Cowboys replacement team, given the mock name "Rhinestone Cowboys" by the media, he was the backup at left outside linebacker behind Dale Jones. He was released after the strike ended on October 20. In 1988, he married sister of former Dallas Cowboys' head coach Jason Garrett, his son Harry Flaherty Jr. tried out at tight end during the 2011 and 2012 preseasons. Since 1995, he has served as New Jersey's director of the ministry Fellowship of Christian Athletes.
He coached tight ends and linebackers at Red Bank Catholic High School
Diego de Torres Vargas, a priest, was the first person to write a book about the history of Puerto Rico. Torres Vargas was born in Puerto Rico, to a prosperous family, his father, Garcia de la Torre, was a Sergeant Mayor in the Spanish Army who died while fighting alongside Captain Juan de Amézqueta against Captain Balduino Enrico, leader of the Dutch armada, who attempted to invade the island, in the Battle of San Juan of 1625. Torres Vargas studied and graduated from the University of Salamanca in Spain where he earned his degree in Theology and Canon law, he returned to Puerto Rico. King Philip IV appointed him to various positions in the Cathedral of San Juan including the position of Dean of said institution. Torres Vargas, became the secretary of the Bishop of San Juan, Haro Damian Lopez. In 1647 he wrote "Descripción de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto Rico"; this historical book was the first to make a detailed geographic description of the island. The book described commercial establishments.
It listed and described every mine and hospital in the island at the time. The book contained notices on the Capital, plus an extensive and erudite bibliography; this is considered to be the first organized history of Puerto Rico written by a Puerto Rican. Diego de la Torre de Vargas died in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1649 On March 8, 1948 the city government of San Juan adopted as the city's first flag an orange field, in the center of, the Coat of Arms of the City; the orange color was based and taken from Father Diego de Torres Vargas' text and it reads: "Escudo de armas dado a Puerto Rico por los Reyes Católicos en el año de 1511, siendo Procurador un vecino llamado Pedro Moreno. Son: un cordero blanco con su banderilla colorada, sobre un libro, y todo sobre una isla verde, que es la de Puerto Rico, y por los lados una F y una I, que quiere decir Fernando e Isabel, los Reyes Católicos que se las dieron, y hoy se conservan en el estandarte real, que es de damasco anaranjado, con que se ganó la ciudad".
Crow Village Sam was a Yup'ik Alaskan Native who lived in the mid Kuskokwim River valley in Alaska. Crow Village Sam was born around 1893 in Alaska. Birth records in the area were not maintained until 1914, so that date is based on Crow Village Sam's recollection as told to archeologist Wendell H. Oswalt in 1963, it has been reported by some of his descendants. When he was 10 years old, he was part of the evacuation of Crow Village to a settlement downriver, referred to as New Crow Village although today it is called Crow Village and the original settlement is referred to as Old Crow Village, he had survived the kanukpuk or "big sickness" - a Kuskokwim influenza epidemic of the early 20th century that wiped out about 50% of the population. He lived in Akiak, Chuathbaluk. By the 1940s, Crow Village Sam was recognized as the leader of the native people living in the mid Kuskokwim valley, he was an accomplished boat builder, wood worker, snowshoe maker among other things. He was fluent in the English language, the biggest asset in his role as leader.
In 1954, Crow Village Sam orchestrated the abandonment of Crow Village when he moved the inhabitants upstream to Chuathbaluk. Chuathbaluk was a village located 18 miles upstream from Crow Village, abandoned since 1929. Crow Village Sam still maintained a fish camp at the abandoned Crow Village with a large fish smoke house and would install a wind powered generator at Crow Village to supply his radio with electricity. Crow Village Sam was an avid subsistence fisher and had the largest fish smoke house in Chuathbaluk as well. Crow Village Sam married 3 times; each one would die, he would marry again. Amazingly, each one of his wives was named Lucy, he had at least 7 offspring from his first wife. Given his fluency in English, he was able to obtain ownership of the land surrounding Crow Village after the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act in 1971. Crow Village Sam died in 1974 at the age of 81; that was remarkable longevity for a person living in that culture during that time frame.
The Chuathbaluk grade school built in 1969 was renamed Crow Village Sam School in 1991 in his honor
Creole is an album by David Murray released on the Canadian Justin Time label. Recorded in 1997 and released in 1998 the album features performances by Murray with Michel Cilla, Max Cilla, Ray Drummond, Billy Jabali Hart, D. D. Jackson, Klod Kiavue, François Landreseau, Gérard Lockel, James Newton; the Allmusic review by Tim Sheridan awarded the album 3 stars stating "Celebrating the Caribbean spirit through bold rhythms and atonal experiment, this disc is for the most part an intriguing effort. While the "noodling" is not for everyone's taste, there are many beautiful moments throughout.". "Gété" - 6:00 "Flor Na Paul" - 8:40 "Guadeloupe Sunrise" - 5:50 "Soma Tour" - 7:26 "Savon de Toilette" - 4:53 "Gansavan'n" - 9:15 "Mona" - 9:59 "Guadeloupe After Dark" - 4:59 "Tonte Vontarde" - 7:27Recorded October 19 & 20, 1997 in Martinique David Murray - tenor saxophone, bass clarinet Michel Cilla - dibass drum, voice Max Cilla - flute des mornes Ray Drummond - bass Billy Jabali Hart - drums D. D. Jackson - piano Klod Kiavue - ka drum and voice François Landreseau - ka drum and voice Gérard Lockel - guitar James Newton - flute