A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or front yard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Beit in Arabic means house. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Humans build houses for domestic or wild animals resembling smaller versions of human domiciles. Familiar animal houses built by humans include birdhouses and doghouses, while housed agricultural animals more live in barns and stables. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities.
In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with humans. Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room; the names of parts of a house echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could include: Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, t
The 2008 Hungarian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 3 August 2008, at the Hungaroring in Mogyoród, near Budapest, Hungary. It was the 11th race of the 2008 Formula One season. Contested over 70 laps, the race was won by Heikki Kovalainen for the McLaren team, from a second position start. Timo Glock finished second with Kimi Räikkönen third in a Ferrari, it was Kovalainen's first Formula One victory, which made him the sport's 100th driver to win a World Championship race, it was Glock's first podium finish. It turned out to be the only F1 race Kovalainen won; the majority of the race consisted of a duel between Lewis Hamilton and Felipe Massa, who drove for McLaren and Ferrari, respectively. Hamilton started from pole position but was beaten at the first corner by Massa, who passed him around the outside; the two championship rivals began a battle for the lead, resolved when Hamilton sustained a punctured tyre just over halfway through the race, giving Massa a lead of more than 20 seconds over Kovalainen.
The Ferrari's engine, failed with three laps remaining, allowing the McLaren driver to win. Räikkönen set the race's fastest lap in the other Ferrari, but was hampered by a poor qualifying performance and was stuck behind Fernando Alonso and Glock in turn for all of the race; as a consequence of the race, Hamilton extended his lead in the World Drivers' Championship to five points over Räikkönen, with Massa a further three behind. Robert Kubica, who finished eighth after finding his BMW Sauber car uncompetitive at the Hungaroring, slipped to 13 points behind Hamilton, ahead of teammate Nick Heidfeld and Kovalainen. In the World Constructors' Championship, McLaren passed BMW Sauber for second position, 11 points behind Ferrari; the Grand Prix was contested by 20 drivers in ten teams of two. The teams known as "constructors", were Ferrari, McLaren-Mercedes, Honda, Force India-Ferrari, BMW Sauber, Red Bull-Renault, Williams-Toyota and Toro Rosso-Ferrari. Before the race, Ferrari was in the lead of the Constructors' Championship with 105 points, 16 ahead of BMW Sauber and a further three in front of McLaren.
Vying for fourth place were Toyota, Red Bull and Renault, all within two points of each other but more than 60 points behind McLaren. In the Drivers' Championship, Lewis Hamilton led with 58 points, ahead of Ferrari teammates Felipe Massa and Kimi Räikkönen, who were on 54 and 51 points respectively. BMW drivers Robert Kubica and Nick Heidfeld were fourth and fifth in the championship, followed by Heikki Kovalainen, who had scored 28 points in the second McLaren. Following the German Grand Prix on July 20, the teams conducted testing sessions at the Jerez circuit from July 22–25; each team was limited to 30,000 kilometres of testing during the 2008 calendar year, a reduction compared with previous seasons. Sebastian Vettel set the fastest time of the first and second days, while Mark Webber topped the third day's running, Heikki Kovalainen was fastest on the final day of testing. Several teams tested using Bridgestone slick tyres, as preparation for the switch from grooved to slick tyres for the 2009 season, BMW Sauber tested a Kinetic Energy Recovery System for the following year.
Among the other teams, Force India's test driver, Vitantonio Liuzzi, tested the team's new "seamless-shift" gearbox ahead of the system's race début in the year, while Timo Glock of Toyota took part after a heavy crash at the German Grand Prix. In the week leading up to the race, a meeting between the teams at Ferrari's headquarters in Maranello resulted in the formation of a new representative body, the Formula One Teams Association, led by Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo. McLaren team principal Ron Dennis said the establishment of FOTA was intended to encourage greater co-operation between the teams in framing new sporting and technical regulations, to act as a counterweight to the sport's existing governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and the company responsible for its commercial management, Formula One Management. On July 31, the day before the event's first free practice sessions took place, McLaren confirmed the team would retain Kovalainen for 2009 alongside Hamilton, while the organisers of the Hungarian Grand Prix signed a deal with Bernie Ecclestone, the president of FOM, to continue hosting the race until 2016.
Several teams made technical changes to their cars for the Grand Prix. Ferrari altered the F2008 chassis's cooling system and bodywork following high brake wear and engine water temperatures at the German Grand Prix. McLaren and Force India introduced revised aerodynamic packages for their MP4-23 and VJM01 chassis, aimed at increasing the amount of downforce, therefore grip, produced by the bodywork. Force India brought its seamless-shift gearbox to the event. Ferrari and Toyota débuted raised engine covers, nicknamed "shark-fins" for the way they stretched toward the rear wing, Honda introduced a new rear suspension package; the sport's sole tyre supplier, provided two specifications of grooved dry tyres for the race, designated Soft and Super Soft. The Super Soft compound was distinguished by a white stripe in one of the tyre's grooves; as was the case for all of the 2008 Grands Prix, the rules stipulated that all cars should use both types of tyre during the course of the race, each driver was limited to seven sets of dry tyres for the weekend.
Three practice sessions were held before the Sunday race—two on Friday from 10:00 to 11:30 and 14:00 to 15:30 local time, a th
Joseph Patrick Dudgeon is a football coach and scout, former player, employed by the Northern Ireland under-17 team and Manchester City respectively. As a player, Dudgeon was a left-back. Born in Leeds, England, he represented the Northern Ireland national under-21 team on four occasions between 2009 and 2011. Dudgeon played his first match for the Manchester United Under-18s side in April 2006, when he was still only 15 years old, coming on as a substitute for Oliver Norwood in a 3–2 defeat away to Sunderland, he appeared in two matches at the 2006 Northern Ireland Milk Cup in August 2006 – a 1–0 win over County Tyrone and a 2–2 draw with Sheffield United – but didn't play for the club again until February 2007, when he appeared in eight of the club's last 10 Premier Academy League fixtures. His performances earned him a trainee contract with the club, which he signed in July 2007; the following season, Dudgeon became a regular in the Under-18 team, appearing 21 times as they managed a third-place finish in the Premier Academy League and the Fourth Round of the FA Youth Cup.
He received his first taste of reserve team football during 2007–08, being named as an unused substitute for the reserves' 4–0 win over Oldham Athletic in the quarter-finals of the Lancashire Senior Cup. He retained his spot in the under-18 side for 2008–09, while continuing to establish himself in the reserves as a substitute, making his debut on 22 January 2009 in a 3–0 win over Accrington Stanley in the first round of the Lancashire Senior Cup, coming on as a half-time substitute for Fábio. At the end of the season, Dudgeon was named in the reserve squads for the finals of both the Manchester Senior Cup and the Lancashire Senior Cup. In 2009–10, Dudgeon made the full step-up to the reserve team, after playing in the first six Premier Reserve League games of the season, he was rewarded for his performances with a first team squad number ahead of the League Cup Fourth Round tie against Barnsley. However, he was not included in the matchday squad, he remained a regular in the reserve team throughout the season, appearing in 14 out of the team's 18 Premier Reserve League matches as they claimed the Premier Reserve League North title.
He appeared in the Premier Reserve League play-off against Aston Villa, which United won 3–2 on penalties after coming from behind three times to draw 3–3 in normal time. After appearing for the reserve team during the 2010–11 pre-season, Dudgeon underwent knee surgery at the end of August 2010 and missed three months of the start of the season, he returned in mid-November 2010 to reclaim his regular left-back berth, appearing in the next five Premier Reserve League matches. On 27 January 2011, Dudgeon signed for Carlisle United on loan until the end of the season to provide defensive cover after Sean McDaid suffered a season-ending injury in October 2010, he was the fourth Manchester United player to go on loan to Carlisle in 2010–11. Dudgeon made his debut for Carlisle on 29 January, coming on as a half-time substitute for Peter Murphy in a 2–2 at home to Oldham Athletic, he made his first league start three days in Carlisle's 2–0 defeat away to Huddersfield Town. On 11 May 2011, Hull City signed Dudgeon on a three-year contract.
He made his debut in the first game of the season on 5 August 2011 at the KC Stadium in the 1–0 defeat to Blackpool. For the remainder of the 2011–12 season, Dudgeon was in and out of the starting line-up, with regular competition for the left back slot with Andy Dawson. Under new Hull manager Steve Bruce, Dudgeon started the 2012–13 season in fine form, was ever-present in the side until a serious knee injury in October ruled him out for the rest of the season. On 7 July 2014, Dudgeon signed a new one-year contract with the club. On 28 May 2015, Hull City did not renew Dudgeon's contract along with five other players who were out of contract at the end of the 2014–15 season. On 31 July 2014, Dudgeon joined League One side Barnsley on a one-month loan. Although he was born in England, Dudgeon is of Northern Irish descent and was called up to the Northern Ireland national under-21 team in October 2009, he appeared in the team that lost 2–1 away to Iceland U21 on 13 October, played again against Germany U21 in a 1–1 home draw.
On 5 October 2012 it was announced that he had received his first call up for the Northern Ireland senior team for their game against Portugal on 16 October 2012. Profile at ManUtd.com Joe Dudgeon at Soccerbase