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House of Hohenzollern

The House of Hohenzollern is a German royal dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors and emperors of Hohenzollern, Prussia, the German Empire, Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle; the first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, which ruled the Burgraviate of Nuremberg and became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch; the Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525; the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701 leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.

Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the princely Swabian line. Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire, its capital was Hechingen. The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps; the Hohenzollern Castle lies on an 855 meters high mountain called Hohenzollern. It still belongs to the family today; the dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. According to the medieval chronicler Berthold of Reichenau, Burkhard I, Count of Zollern was born before 1025 and died in 1061. In 1095 Count Adalbert of Zollern founded the Benedictine monastery of Alpirsbach, situated in the Black Forest; the Zollerns received the comital title from Emperor Henry V in 1111.

As loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty, they were able to enlarge their territory. Count Frederick III accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Henry the Lion in 1180, through his marriage was granted the Burgraviate of Nuremberg by Emperor Henry VI in 1192. In about 1185 he married the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. After the death of Conrad II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted Nuremberg as Burgrave Frederick I. In 1218 the burgraviate passed to Frederick's elder son Conrad I, he thereby became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch, which acquired the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1415; until 1061: Burkhard I before 1125: Frederick I between ca. 1125 and 1142: Frederick II, eldest son of Frederick I between ca. 1143 and 1150–1155: Burkhard II, 2nd oldest son of Frederick I between ca. 1150–1155 and 1160: Gotfried of Zimmern, 4th oldest son of Frederick I before 1171 – c. 1200: Frederick III/I After Frederick's death, his sons partitioned the family lands between themselves: Conrad I received the county of Zollern and exchanged it for the burgraviate of Nuremberg with his younger brother Frederick IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern.

Members of the Franconian line became the Brandenburg-Prussia branch. The Franconian line converted to Protestantism. Frederick IV received the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father and exchanged it for the county of Zollern in 1218 with his brother, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern; the Swabian line remains Catholic. The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg; the family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands. In the first phase, the family added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian region of Germany: Ansbach in 1331 Kulmbach in 1340In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and present-day Poland: Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1417 Duchy of Prussia in 1618These acquisitions transformed the Franconian Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important dynasties in Europe.

1192–1200/1204: Frederick I 1204–1218: Frederick II 1218–1261/1262: Conrad I/III 1262–1297: Frederick III, son of 1297–1300: John I, son of 1300–1332: Frederick IV, brother of 1332–1357: John II, son of 1357–1397: Frederick V, son ofAt Frederick V's death on 21 January 1398, his lands were partitioned between his two sons: 1397–1420: John III/I 1397–1427: Frederick VI/I/I, After John III/I's death on 11 June 1420, the margraviates of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach were reunited under Frederick VI/I/I. He ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach after 1398. From 1420, he became Margrave of Branden

Brooklyn, Baltimore

Brooklyn is one of the southernmost neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. It is located near Anne Arundel County along Governor Ritchie Highway, Maryland Route 2, its main roads are South Hanover Street, Potee Street, East Patapsco Avenue, Sixth Street, Tenth Street, West Bay Avenue which borders the neighboring Curtis Bay community to the east, running through Bay Brook Park, which separates the two. South Hanover Street serves as the dividing line between east-west streets in Brooklyn, as Charles Street does not exist here. Mistaken as Brooklyn Park, Brooklyn shares the 21225 ZIP Code with the greater Brooklyn Park area, across the Baltimore City Line in and the other neighboring community of Cherry Hill to the west and northwest across the now small western branch of the Patapsco River flowing from Ellicott City and Elkridge and along the shoreline-hugging southern extension "South Hanover Street" of the downtown's old colonial-era "Hanover Street" across the 1914-1917 Hanover Street Bridge renamed the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Bridge in the 1990s.

To the northeast, along the shoreline of the Patapsco River is the former residential communities of Fairfield and Wagner's Point, which were "islands of houses" surrounded by the belt of river-front heavy industry. During the construction of the 1955-1957 Baltimore Harbor Tunnel of Interstate 895, another smaller residential island neighborhood of Masonville was purchased and razed by the highway construction, its old name has been resurrected as the name of the nearby cove on the south shore of the river which has endured as a swampy forested "island of nature" and slated to be preserved amidst the nearby development of further port facilities for the Helen Delich Bentley Port of Baltimore. In the past decade these two communities of Fairfield and Wagner's Point have been bought out and razed. Brooklyn is within the Baltimore City limits and Brooklyn Park and Brooklyn Heights along with smaller neighboring neighborhoods of Arundel Village, Arundel Gardens and Roland Terrace are in northern Anne Arundel County.

Brooklyn is the location of the John R. Hargrove, Sr. District Court Building, located right off of Patapsco Avenue. There is a host of industry in the region shipping ports, rail yards, oil tanks. Many car imports come through this area, as well as being the south end of the Harbor Tunnel that runs off I-895. On 26 December 1911, King Johnson was lynched in Brooklyn. A mob was able to shoot him four times. Nobody was tried for the killing; the Brooklyn neighborhood was included in the areas annexed to the City of Baltimore in 1918 as a result of state legislation. Prior to the annexation, the neighborhood had been part of Anne Arundel County. "On Jan. 3, 1941, with the world engulfed in a second global war and America on the precipice of entering the fray, President Franklin Roosevelt announced an emergency, $350-million shipbuilding program. The S. S. Patrick Henry, the first of these ships, was launched with great fanfare on Liberty Fleet Day in September 1941. 384 Liberty ships and 94 leaner, faster Victory ships were built at Bethlehem Steel’s Fairfield shipyard, which made more vessels than any U.

S. shipyard. By late 1943, the shipyard employed some 46,700 workers, including 6,000 African Americans, who worked around the clock, according to The Baltimore Sun.” Many of the maritime and steel workers lived in Brooklyn. Brooklyn is an ethnically diverse neighborhood, with low-income and lower middle class residents. Due to the close proximity of Cherry Hill and general neglect from the city of Baltimore, there has been an increase of crime and drug trafficking in the area, spreading out to Fairhaven Avenue and into the neighborhood of Curtis Bay; these are the same problems as most other low income neighborhoods in the city. Increased police presence and video cameras in the last few years have helped curb some crime, with a somewhat positive effect on the community. There are plans to gentrify the area. For many years, Brooklyn has been divided from the Patapsco River waterfront by major roadways like the Harbor Tunnel Throughway and Frankfurst Avenue; this has meant that residents, living just blocks away from the water, were unable to experience this important natural resource.

In 2008, the State of Maryland broke ground on the Masonville Cove Environmental Education Center, created to provide environmental educational programs for the Brooklyn community. Part of a $153 million restoration effort for the cove, which included bike trails, environmental restoration, the creation of new habitat, the Education Center was designed to be a focal point for school programs and community efforts. Design/Built by Baltimore Green Construction, the Center is a "Near-Zero Net Energy Building", designed to consume 75% less energy than a standard commercial building of its size; the Center was opened by Lt. Governor Anthony Brown on Earth Day of 2009, is now open for educational programs. Hargrove District Court House 3700 Potee St is up for development by the Baltimore Development Corporation Fairfield Industrial Park is scheduled for redevelopment. Gateway South is progressing, right around the corner from Brooklyn. Brooklyn Park, Maryland

Oliver Starkey

Sir Oliver Starkey, was an English knight who lived in the 16th century. He was the only English knight present at the siege of Malta, it was wrongly assumed. The tombstone with his name on it contains only a poem written by Oliver Starkey for Grand Master Jean de Valette; the Poem reads, in translation:'To God, Almighty, Sacrosanct. He was the dread of Asia and Libya and once the guardian of Europe, after he had subdued the Turks by means of his Sacred Arms, the first one to lie buried in the grave, here in this propitious city of Valletta which he founded, worthy of eternal honour. Fra. Oliver Starkey, Pro-Turcopolier, wrote poem.' He was MP for St Alban's in April and November 1554. Oliver Starkey’s' parentage <https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/starkey-oliver-1523-8386> is set out in the depositions of witnesses in a chancery case begun by him in 1546, soon after his father’s death. He was born in Antwerp, where his father was in the service of Sir Thomas Baldry, ‘at which time the said Roger kept the mother of the said Oliver as his harlot not being at any time married together'.

Although there are other possibilities the strongest evidence is that he was the illegitimate son of Hugh Starkey of the township of Oulton Lowe in the ancient Cheshire parish of Over and that he was born in the 1520s. Hugh Starkey had fought at the battle of Flodden and subsequently had connections with the court of Henry VIII. In about 1550 Oliver Starkey was admitted to the Order of the Knights of Malta. In 1558 he was involved in the establishment of the English Langue of the Order and in November of that year was appointed as a joint proctor of the Langue. In 1560 he was elected to be Lieutenant Turcopolier of the Order; the following year he was authorised to establish an English Auberge in Birgu, he lived in the house next door. Starkey was involved in the siege of Malta which lasted from May to September 1565, was the only English knight to have played a part in it; as Lieutenant Turcopolier he was responsible for a section of the coastal defences around Birgu. At the same time he was Latin Secretary to the contemporary Grand Master, Jean Parisot de la Valette.

Valette died in 1568 and ten years his remains were moved to a tomb in the crypt of the newly completed co-cathedral of St John. Starkey composed the Latin inscription on his tomb. In 1569 he was appointed Bailiff of Eagle, the fourth highest dignity in the English Langue and in 1578 he was made Grand Prior of the Order of St. John in England, he continued to carry out further duties for the Order, serving under a total of four Grand Masters, until he died in the spring of 1588. He was commander of Quenington, Gloucestershire which the position was given to him by Cardinal Pole. List of the priors of St John of Jerusalem in England Bedford, William Kirkpatrick Riland and the Knights Hospitallers, London: Seeley & Co. OCLC 15910350, retrieved 16 October 2009 Bostock, Tony, "Sir Oliver Starkey, Knight of Malta", Cheshire History, Chester: Cheshire Local History Association, 49, ISSN 0141-8696 Munro, Memento Mori, a Companion to the Most Beautiful Floor in the World. Malta, MJ Publications. ISBN 978-99932-90-11-7