The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the monarch who would receive the coronation at the hands of the Pope. After 1508, the election was sufficient to acquire the Imperial title without Papal coronation. Charles V was the last person to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, election by the princely electoral college was a de jure requirement. De facto the Imperial throne followed the order of succession of the Austrian House of Habsburg: every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the House of Austria except for Charles VII and Francis I, both of whom were related to the Habsburgs by blood or marriage. In the end, the Electors ratified such inheritance; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors held exclusive privileges that were not shared with other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector.
The heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose. In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht.
As Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, to autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and to precedence over other subjects. The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes.
In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes. Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors; the lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes. The assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted in religious coalitions, as provided for in the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers.
Thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant. The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was grante
Amber Marie Bollinger is an American actress, director and singer. She is best known for Listening. Amber Marie Bollinger was born in Ohio where she graduated from Bellevue High School. In high school, Amber excelled in sports, she played volleyball and track & field. She was admitted into the Bellevue Sports Hall of Fame in 2010, she was the Ohio all-state high jump champion, the first female in an individual event in Bellevue to win a gold medal. She revived her BFA from The University of Cincinnati, where she earned field scholarship. While majoring in'Electronic media', she discovered her love for cinema. After graduation, she moved to Hollywood to pursue an acting career, she has appeared in many national television commercials, short films, several feature length films. In 2014, she played a lead role in the Sci-Fi drama, which she received the Best Actress Award for her performance as'Jordan' from Irvine International Film Festival, she was noted as one of the top-5 actresses of 2015 by'Starpulse'.
The Hopi was an air-to-surface missile developed by the United States Navy's Naval Ordnance Test Station. Intended to provide a medium-range nuclear capability for carrier aircraft, the missile reached the flight test stage during 1958, but the project was cancelled following testing and no production was undertaken. Developed by the Naval Ordnance Test Station at China Lake, California during the mid-to-late 1950s, the Hopi missile was an improved development of the earlier BOAR. BOAR had been developed at China Lake as an unguided, nuclear-armed rocket for use by carrier-based aircraft, seeing limited service in the fleet between 1957 and 1963. In its essentials an enlarged version of BOAR, which it was intended to replace in service, Hopi was designed as a medium-range weapon capable of being carried by a wide variety of carrier-based fighter and attack aircraft; the rocket-powered missile was capable of being fitted with a W50 nuclear warhead capable of producing a yield between 60 and 400 kilotons.
Following its development, the Hopi missile was flight-tested on the China Lake weapons range during 1958. The missile was test-fired from a variety of aircraft, including the North American FJ-4 Fury, Douglas AD Skyraider, Douglas A3D Skywarrior and Douglas A4D Skyhawk. However, no details of the tests are known to have survived, the Hopi project was cancelled shortly thereafter