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M-231 (Michigan highway)

M-231 is the designation of a state trunkline highway in the Lower Peninsula of the US state of Michigan that serves as a partial bypass to US Highway 31 around Grand Haven. This highway was built south of Interstate 96 as an additional crossing over the Grand River; the route runs from M-45 northward and across the river to a connection with I-96 near the current M-104 interchange. The Michigan Department of Transportation announced the proposed highway in early November 2006; the new corridor was funded through a state employment program. The Grand River bridge construction was planned for 2010 while the land for the project was being acquired. Other smaller bridges were included in the original plans. Roadway construction was scheduled for 2012. Recent developments in MDOT schedules had construction starting on the Grand River bridge after federal approval was secured with the remainder of the project deferred until additional funding is in place; the road opened on October 2015, as a two-lane, limited-access expressway.

M-231 begins along M-45 in Robinson Township near the intersection with 120th Avenue. It runs due north through a mix of farm fields and forest lands in Ottawa County; the highway is a limited-access highway. The trunkline crosses North Cedar Drive on an overpass, it crosses the Grand River into Crockery Township; as it crosses the river, M-231 angles northeasterly before intersecting M-104 the latter's eastern terminus at I-96, M-231 continues north to its own northern terminus at a new partial interchange with I-96. Though it does not physically connect to that highway, M-231 is a scaled-down bypass of US 31 through Grand Haven; the highway is expected to reduce response times for emergency services in the area by shortening the driving distance across the Grand River. The bridge over the river, including approaches over adjacent wetlands, is the seventh-longest in the state at 3,709 feet and sits 47 feet above the river. Seven other bridges along M-231 bring the total to nearly a mile for the entire highway.

The highway project included the construction of a non-motorized pathway parallel to the road. The path was built using funds from the Michigan Department of Transportation Alternative Program, it was designed as part of a collection of bike trails to connect the Lake Michigan shoreline with Grand Rapids and across the Grand River; the four-mile-long trail was dedicated on October 17, 2015, as the "Sgt. Henry E. Plant Memorial Grand River Bridge Non-Motorized Pathway", named for Ottawa County's first Medal of Honor recipient, Henry E. Plant, a veteran of the American Civil War. Initial planning for what is now M-231 started before 1990. In 2006, the Michigan Department of Transportation was acquiring land for the highway right-of-way and designing sections of the highway; the route going to the Grand River from M-45 was being designed at this time as well. The department was expecting the construction of the bridge over the river to begin in 2010 and last until at least 2013. There was another small creek or river that required a bridge to be built.

That project was projected to begin in 2011 and end in 2012. One more bridge was being considered over Leonard Street, a major street that runs east to west halfway between I-96 and the Grand River. Construction of that bridge was projected to begin in 2012. On I-96 itself, a bridge that went over the abandoned Grand Trunk Western Railroad was projected to be replaced starting in 2012. Further work on I-96 was projected to begin in 2012 to create the new interchange between it and M-231; that included extending 112th Avenue over I-96 and placing a bridge over the M-231 ramp for I-96. The last item on the five-year plan list was the 2.5 miles running from the Grand River to I-96. That construction was projected to begin in 2012; the 2005 SAFETEA-LU transportation bill provided funding earmarked for the project by US Representative Pete Hoekstra from Holland as well as matching funds from the state's Michigan Jobs Today program. The total cost of the project was expected to be near $150 million. In late 2009, the five-year plan for 2010–14 was released with a much different construction schedule.

The bridge over the Grand River was to be built starting in 2010 following the final approvals from the Federal Highway Administration in late 2009 or early 2010. Only the bridge substructure and approaches were being constructed, with the remainder of M-231 to be deferred until future five-year plans. On April 23, 2010, FHWA approved the M-231 project with a record of decision; this document allowed MDOT to begin the final engineering, land acquisitions and construction of the project. MDOT announced plans at that time to start the Grand River Bridge construction in late 2010 or early 2011, with the remaining project plans deferred until funding issues were resolved; the ROD encompassed planned improvements to the US 31 corridor north of Holland and in Grand Haven. Construction on the roadway started on March 28, 2011, with the demolition of three homes in Robinson Township. At least one other home was moved from the path of the road as well. By January 4, 2013, MDOT had completed work on a bridge over North Cedar Drive, additional ramps at the I-96 and M-104 interchange, reconstruction and widening of M-104 near I-96.

The department had completed a reconfiguration of the intersection between M-104 and Cleveland Drive and widening the bridge that carries M-104 over I-96. The expected date of completion for M-231 was set for sometime in 2016 pending funding availability. MDOT planned to build 1.4 miles of the new highway in 2013, including the bridges over the Grand River a

Duminda Dissanayake

Duminda Dissanayake, MP, is the current Sri Lankan Cabinet Minister of the Ministry of Irrigation, former Minister of Agriculture, deputy minister of Youth Affairs and Skills Development and a Member of Parliament from the Anuradhapura District. Born at Anuradapura General Hospital, he is the eldest child of the family of four boys, his father was the late Berty Premalal Dissanayake, a farmer and businessman by profession, the former Chief Minister of the North Central Province, a former Member of Parliament in the Anuradhapura District and the Minister of Social Services. His mother is a trained teacher. Dissanayake was educated at Hatharaswela Government School, Walisinghe Harischandra Vidyalaya, Central College Anuradhapura and Royal College Colombo, he gained a Diploma in Information Technology from the Holmesglane TAFE. In 2000, contested the General Election as a candidate from the Sri Lanka Freedom Party in the People's Alliance, he became the youngest person to be elected to parliament at the age of 21 polling the highest majority of votes from the Anuradhapura district.

He retained his seat in parliament in the General Election the following year in 2001, polling the highest number of votes in Anuradapura though his party lost the election. From 2001 to 2004 he served as a backbencher in the opposition. During this time he was active in the Youth Wing of SLFP and became its Vice President. In the General Election of 2004 he retained his seat in parliament and was appointed Deputy Minister of Skills Development, Vocational Training and Technical Education Ministry a post he held till 2005. At the start of his first term, President Mahinda Rajapaksa appointed Dissanayake as the Deputy Minister of Port and Aviation in 2007. During this time he sat in the cabinet as the acting minister on several occasions. In 2006 he was appointed as the Non- Cabinet Minister of Petroleum Resources. During this time, the Ministry started to explore for oil around Sri Lankan sea and decided to excavate the Mannar basin, his attempts to introduce Bio Fuel, was not a success. In 2010, he contested the General Election and obtained 10,1384 votes, retaining his seat and was appointed as the Deputy Minister of Posts and Telecommunications before being appointed as Deputy Minister of Youth Affairs and Skills Development in the reshuffle that followed.

At the moment he is the Hon. Cabinet Minister of Education Services and recorded as the youngest Cabinet Minister of the Cabinet/Parliament of Sri Lanka. Govigama List of political families in Sri Lanka Biographies of Member of Parliament'True love is great'

Jean-Claude Valla

Jean-Claude Valla was a french journalist and essayist. Prominent figure of the Nouvelle Droite, he was a managing director at the Figaro Magazine until 1979. Valla was in his youth a journalist at Cahiers Universitaires, the magazine of the Federation of Nationalist Students, he was a founding member and secretary-general of GRECE, an ethno-nationalist think tank launched on 17 January 1969. He co-founded in 1973 the scouting organization Europe-Jeunesse. In the 1990s, he was appointed editorial director of the far-right magazine Minute, he stood up for Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson in an issue of Figaro-Magazine, for the editor of negationist thesis Jean Plantin in the Nouvelle Droite magazine Eléments in 2002. Valla supported the thesis of the colonization of Peru by the Vikings in his book La Civilisation des Incas, he died on 25 February 2010 in Arthez-d'Asson. La Civilisation des Incas. Famot, 1976. Les Seigneurs de la guerre. Famot, 1978. Les Grandes découvertes archéologiques du XXe siècle.

Famot, 1979. Affaire Touvier: la contre-enquête. Ed. du Camelot, 1996. La Cagoule: 1936-1937. Ed. de la Librairie Nationale, 2000. La France sous les bombes américaines: 1942-1945. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2001. L'Extrême droite dans la Résistance, 2 vol.. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2000. La Gauche pétainiste. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2001. Le Pacte germano-sioniste, 7 août 1933. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2001. Ces Juifs de France qui ont collaboré. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2002. La Milice: Lyon, 1943-1944. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2002. Ledesma Ramos et la Phalange espagnole: 1931-1936. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2002. Georges Valois: de l'anarcho-syndicalisme au fascisme. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2003. La Nostalgie de l'Empire: une relecture de l'histoire napoléonienne. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2004. Les Socialistes dans la Collaboration: de Jaurès à Hitler. Ed. de la Librairie nationale, 2006. Doriot. Pardès, 2008

Battle of Ligny

The Battle of Ligny was the last victory in the military career of Napoleon I. In this battle, French troops of the Armée du Nord under Napoleon's command defeated part of a Prussian army under Field Marshal Blücher, near Ligny in present-day Belgium; this battle, while a tactical victory, was a strategic loss in that the bulk of the Prussian army survived the battle and played a pivotal role two days at the Battle of Waterloo, having been reinforced by the Prussian IV corps that had not participated in the battle at Ligny. Had the French army succeeded in keeping the Prussian army from joining the Anglo-allied Army under Wellington at Waterloo, Napoleon might have won the Waterloo Campaign. On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw. Napoleon knew that once his attempts at dissuading one or more of the Seventh Coalition Allies from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the Coalition could put together an overwhelming force.

If he could destroy the existing Coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. The Duke of Wellington expected Napoleon to try to envelop the Coalition armies, a maneuver that he had used many times before, by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels; the roads to Mons were paved. This would have cut Wellington's communications with his base at Ostend, but would have pushed his army closer to Blücher's. In fact, Napoleon planned instead to divide the two Coalition armies and defeat them separately, he encouraged Wellington's misapprehension with false intelligence. Moving up to the frontier without alerting the Coalition, Napoleon divided his army into a left-wing, commanded by Marshal Ney, a right-wing commanded by Marshal Grouchy, a reserve, which he commanded personally. Crossing the frontier at Thuin near Charleroi before dawn on 15 June, the French overran Coalition outposts and secured Napoleon's favored "central position" – at the junction between the area where Wellington's allied army was dispersed to his north-west, Blücher's Prussian army to the north-east.

Only late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust, he duly ordered his army to deploy near Nivelles and Quatre Bras. Early on the morning of 16 June, at the Duchess of Richmond's ball, on receiving a dispatch from the Prince of Orange, he was shocked by the speed of Napoleon's advance, hastily sent his army in the direction of Quatre Bras, where the Prince of Orange, with the brigade of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, was holding a tenuous position against the French left, commanded by Marshal Ney.} Ney's orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Bras so that if necessary, he could swing east and reinforce Napoleon. As Napoleon considered the concentrated Prussian army the greater threat, he moved against them first. Lieutenant-General Zieten's I Corps rearguard action on 15 June held up the French advance, allowing Blücher to concentrate his forces in the Sombreffe position, selected earlier for its good defensive attributes.

Napoleon's original plan for 16 June was based on the assumption that the Coalition forces, caught napping, would not attempt a risky forward concentration. To assist this operation the reserve would move at first to Fleurus to reinforce Grouchy, should he need assistance in driving back Blücher's troops. In pursuance of this object Ney, to whom III Cavalry Corps was now attached, was to mass at Quatre Bras and push an advanced guard 10 kilometres northward of that place, with a connecting division at Marbais to link him with Grouchy; the centre and left-wing together would make a night-march to Brussels. The Coalition forces would thus be irremediably sundered, all that remained would be to destroy them in detail. Napoleon now awaited further information from his wing commanders at Charleroi, where he massed the VI Corps, to save it, if possible, from a harassing countermarch, as it appeared that it would only be wanted for the march to Brussels. Ney spent the morning in massing his I and II corps, in reconnoitring the enemy at Quatre Bras, who, as he was informed, had been reinforced.

But up till noon, he took no serious step to capture the cross-roads, which lay at his mercy. Grouchy meantime reported from Fleurus that Prussians were coming up from Namur, but Napoleon does not appear to have attached much importance to this report, he was still at Charleroi when, between 09:00 and 10:00, further news reached him from the left that considerable hostile forces were visible at Quatre Bras. He at once wrote to Ney saying that these could only be some of Wellington's troops and that Ney was to concentrate his force and crush what was in front of him, adding that he was to send all reports to Fleurus. Keeping Lobau provisionally at Charleroi, Napoleon hastened to Fleurus, arriving about 11:00; the French Armee du Nord was commanded by veteran officers and headed by Napoleon himself, who had won dozens of battles. Directly under him were three Marshals, Ney, S

Checkpoint (journal)

Checkpoint was a journal published in Melbourne Australia at quarterly intervals, by a group of organisations associated loosely with the Liberal Party side of politics. It appeared from August 1969 until June 1974; the journal was published by the Checkpoint Council, comprising representatives from the Deakin Group, the Melbourne University Liberal Club, Monash University liberals, the Young Liberal Movement of Australia. Its objective was inter alia "to stimulate party members and the public and give an intellectual base for formulating policies". Many of its activists were young and went on to achieve parliamentary office or who were in State or Federal Parliament; such individuals listed in various Checkpoint issues as being Council Members, Editors or members of the Editorial Board include: Haddon Storey, Alan Missen, Prue Sibree, Julian Doyle Peter Falconer, Senator Ivor Greenwood, Tony Staley, Alan Stockdale, David Kemp, Peter Block and Andrew Peacock. Others were active in the Liberal Party's organisation.

A small number chose another party. Initial funding came from advertising and modest subscription revenue. Publication ceased when revenue declined and the Checkpoint Council disbanded