Charles Babbage was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Considered by some to be a "father of the computer", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that led to more complex electronic designs, though all the essential ideas of modern computers are to be found in Babbage's analytical engine, his varied work in other fields has led him to be described as "pre-eminent" among the many polymaths of his century. Parts of Babbage's incomplete mechanisms are on display in the Science Museum in London. In 1991, a functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Babbage's birthplace is disputed, but according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography he was most born at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, England.
A blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event. His date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792; the parish register of St. Mary's, London, shows that Babbage was baptised on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791. Babbage was one of four children of Betsy Plumleigh Teape, his father was a banking partner of William Praed in founding Praed's & Co. of Fleet Street, London, in 1801. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth. Around the age of eight, Babbage was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever. For a short time he attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, but his health forced him back to private tutors for a time. Babbage joined the 30-student Holmwood Academy, in Baker Street, Middlesex, under the Reverend Stephen Freeman; the academy had a library. He studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy.
The first was a clergyman near Cambridge. He was brought home, to study at the Totnes school: this was at age 16 or 17; the second was an Oxford tutor, under whom Babbage reached a level in Classics sufficient to be accepted by Cambridge. Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1810, he was self-taught in some parts of contemporary mathematics. As a result, he was disappointed in the standard mathematical instruction available at the university. Babbage, John Herschel, George Peacock, several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812; as a student, Babbage was a member of other societies such as The Ghost Club, concerned with investigating supernatural phenomena, the Extractors Club, dedicated to liberating its members from the madhouse, should any be committed to one. In 1812 Babbage transferred to Cambridge, he did not graduate with honours. He instead received a degree without examination in 1814, he had defended a thesis, considered blasphemous in the preliminary public disputation.
Considering his reputation, Babbage made progress. He lectured to the Royal Institution on astronomy in 1815, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816. After graduation, on the other hand, he applied for positions unsuccessfully, had little in the way of career. In 1816 he was a candidate for a teaching job at Haileybury College. In 1819, Babbage and Herschel visited Paris and the Society of Arcueil, meeting leading French mathematicians and physicists; that year Babbage applied to be professor at the University of Edinburgh, with the recommendation of Pierre Simon Laplace. With Herschel, Babbage worked on the electrodynamics of Arago's rotations, publishing in 1825, their explanations were only transitional, being broadened by Michael Faraday. The phenomena are now part of the theory of eddy currents, Babbage and Herschel missed some of the clues to unification of electromagnetic theory, staying close to Ampère's force law. Babbage purchased the actuarial tables of George Barrett, who died in 1821 leaving unpublished work, surveyed the field in 1826 in Comparative View of the Various Institutions for the Assurance of Lives.
This interest followed a project to set up an insurance company, prompted by Francis Baily and mooted in 1824, but not carried out. Babbage did calculate actuarial tables for that scheme, using Equitable Society mortality data from 1762 onwards. During this whole period Babbage depended awkwardly on his father's support, given his father's attitude to his early marriage, of 1814: he and Edward Ryan wedded the Whitmore sisters, he made a home in Marylebone in London, founded a large family. On his father's death in 1827, Babbage inherited a large estate. After his wife's death in the same year he spent time travelling. In Italy he met Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, foreshadowing a visit to Piedmont. In April 1828 he was in Rome, relying on Herschel to manage the difference engine project, when he heard that he had become professor at Cambridge, a positio
Anthony "Tony" Gervin Oettinger is a linguist and computer scientist best known for his work on information resources policy. Oettinger coined the term “compunications” in the late 1970s to describe the combination of computer and telecommunications technologies that would take place as digital technologies replaced analog forms. In 1973 he co-founded, with John LeGates, the Program on Information Resources Policy at Harvard University, he served as a consultant to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and the National Security Council and NASA’s Apollo moon-landing program. From 1966 to 1968 he was president of the Association for Computing Machinery, he was recognized for his work in the intelligence community with the naming of the Anthony G. Oettinger School of Science and Technology Intelligence of the National Intelligence University, he is Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Mathematics and Professor of Information Resources Policy, Emeritus, at Harvard. Oettinger was born in 1929 in Germany to a French mother and German father.
Nuremberg was where Hitler was the home of the Nazi party. Oettinger has said that “this saved my life, because my parents had the wit to notice what was going on.” In 1933, when he was four years old, his parents left to live with his grandparents in France. Getting caught up in the German march into France, his family arrived in New York in 1941 via Spain and Portugal. At the age of 12, English thus became his third language. Oettinger graduated from the Bronx High School of Science and entered Harvard, after his first choice, MIT, did not offer him a scholarship and Harvard did, he received his A. B. summa cum laude in 1951, having studied Spanish and French literature, Russian and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa as well as the chapter's First Marshall his junior year; as a junior he started working with Howard Aiken in the Computation Laboratory and acquired an interest in machine translation. By 1954 he had completed his Ph. D. in Applied Mathematics at Harvard, with a dissertation on "A study for the design of an automatic dictionary".
He joined the Harvard faculty two years first as an instructor an assistant professor, associate professor, as a full professor in linguistics and in applied mathematics. When he became a tenured professor in 1960 at the age of 31 he was the youngest to have achieved that status at Harvard. Oettinger's early work was on machine translation, he capsulized the challenges of machine translation with an example of syntactic ambiguity "Time flies like an arrow. Oettinger is a pioneer in the early development of computer code and artificial intelligence and wrote the first AI programs to incorporate learning. In 1951 he developed the “response learning programme” and “shopping programme” for the University of Cambridge’s EDSAC computer. Influenced by Alan Turing’s views on machine learning, Oettinger believed that the shopping program, which simulated the behavior of a small child sent to the store, could pass a version of the Turning test. In 1973 he co-founded the Program on Information Resources Policy at Harvard to work on policy issues arising from the confluence of telecommunications and digital computing.
He served as its chairman until it ceased operations in 2011. Its mission was to create useful knowledge, both competent and impartial, on controversial information industry issues. One of the Program's overarching themes was that of convergence of computing and communications, which he dubbed "compunications," a term he claims was coined by his wife. Oettinger has served in multiple capacities for the federal and state government. In 1972 he was appointed to the newly formed Massachusetts Cable Television Commission by Republican Governor Francis Sargent and from 1975-1979 served as its chairman under Democratic Governor Michael Dukakis, he served on the Research Advisory Board of the Committee for Economic Development He was appointed by the White House as a consultant to the National Security Council from 1975 to 1981. From 1981 until 1990 he was a consultant to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. Other government appointments include the Scientific Advisory Group of the Defense Communications Agency, now the Defense Information Systems Agency and on the Command, Control Communications and Intelligence Panel of the Naval Research Advisory Committee.
From 1963 to 1967 he was an adviser to NASA’s Apollo moon landing program. Oettinger founded the Computer Science and Engineering Board of the National Academy of Sciences and chaired it for six years starting in 1967. From 1966 to 1968 he was president of the Association for Computing Machinery. From 1994 until 2010 Oettinger was chairman of the Board of Visitors of the U. S. National Defense Intelligence College, having first joined that Board in 1986. Oettinger was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences, he was named a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers “for pioneering contributions to machine language translation, to information retrieval, to the use of computers in education.” He was named a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery for leadership "in the establishment of the national communications and information resources policy." He was presented with a commendation from President Gerald Ford for his service as a consultant to the National Security Council.
The Anthony G. Oettinger Science and Technology Intelligence School of the National Intelligence University was named in his honor upon his retirement from that Board
Kenneth E. Iverson
Kenneth Eugene Iverson was a Canadian computer scientist noted for the development of the programming language APL. He was honored with the Turing Award in 1979 "for his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL. Ken Iverson was born on 17 December 1920 near a town in central Alberta, Canada, his parents were farmers. During World War II, he served first in the Canadian Army and in the Royal Canadian Air Force, he received a B. A. degree from Queen's University and the M. Sc. and Ph. D. degrees from Harvard University. In his career, he worked for Harvard, IBM, I. P. Sharp Associates, Jsoftware Inc.. Iverson suffered a stroke while working at the computer on a new J lab on 16 October 2004, died on 19 October 2004 at the age of 83. Iverson began school on 1 April 1926 in a one-room school in Grade 1, promoted to Grade 2 after 3 months and to Grade 4 by the end of June 1927, he left school after Grade 9 because it was the depths of the Great Depression and there was work to do on the family farm, because he thought further schooling only led to becoming a schoolteacher and he had no desire to become one.
At age 17, while still out of school, he enrolled in a correspondence course on radios with De Forest Training in Chicago, learned calculus by self-study from a textbook. During World War II, while serving in the Royal Canadian Air Force, he took correspondence courses toward a high school diploma. After the war, Iverson enrolled in Queen's University in Kingston, taking advantage of government support for ex-servicemen and under threat from an Air Force buddy who said he would "beat his brains out if he did not grasp the opportunity", he graduated in 1950 as the top student with a Bachelor's degree in physics. Continuing his education at Harvard University, he began in the Department of Mathematics and received a Master's degree in 1951, he switched to the Department of Engineering and Applied Physics, working with Howard Aiken and Wassily Leontief. Kenneth Iverson has recalled graduate study under Aiken as "like an apprenticeship" in which the student "learned the tools of the scholarship trade".
Every topic was "used more as a focus for the development of skills such as clarity of thought and expression than as an end in itself". Once admitted to the program, a graduate student underwent a rite of "adoption into the fold", he was given a desk among a group of other graduate students, the permanent staff, or visiting scholars, "most of whom were engaged in some aspect of the design and building of computers". A student was thus "made to feel part of a scholarly enterprise" and was provided, "often for the first time, with easy and intimate access to others more experienced in his chosen field"; when interviewing Aiken, I had asked him. Howard Aiken had developed the Harvard Mark I, one of the first large-scale digital computers, while Wassily Leontief was an economist, developing the input-output model of economic analysis, work for which he would receive the Nobel prize. Leontief's model required large matrices and Iverson worked on programs that could evaluate these matrices on the Harvard Mark IV computer.
Iverson received a Ph. D. in Applied Mathematics in 1954 with a dissertation based on this work. At Harvard, Iverson met Eoin Whitney, a 2-time Putnam Fellow and fellow graduate student from Alberta; this had future ramifications. Iverson stayed on at Harvard as an assistant professor to implement the world's first graduate program in "automatic data processing". Many people think; this was not so. During one coffee hour, Aiken turned to Ken Iverson, who had just finished his Ph. D. and said: "These machines are going to be immensely important for business, I want you to prepare and teach a course in business data processing next fall." There had never been such a course anywhere in the world. Ken was qualified. I was so excited by the prospect that I volunteered to be Ken's graduate teaching assistant, it was in this period that Iverson developed notation for describing and analyzing various topics in data processing, for teaching classes, for writing Automatic Data Processing. He was "appalled" to find that conventional mathematical notation failed to fill his needs, began work on extensions to the notation that were more suitable.
In particular, he adopted the matrix algebra used in his thesis work, the systematic use of matrices and higher-dimensional arrays in tensor analysis, operators in the sense of Heaviside in his treatment of Maxwell's equations, higher-order functions on function argument with a function result. The notation was field-tested in the business world in 1957 during a 6-month sabbatical spent at McKinsey & Company; the first published paper using the notation was The Description of Finite Sequential Processes Report Number 23 to Bell Labs and revised and presented at the Fourth London Symposium on Information Theory in August 1960. Iverson stayed at Harvard for five years but failed to get tenure, because " published anything but the one little book". Iverson joined IBM Research in 1960, he was preceded to
Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,005, having grown by 11,428 from 38,577 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,180 from the 33,397 in the 1990 Census. Hoboken is part of the New York metropolitan area and is the site of Hoboken Terminal, a major transportation hub for the tri-state region. Hoboken was first settled as part of the New Netherland colony in the 17th century. During the early 19th century the city was developed by Colonel John Stevens, first as a resort and as a residential neighborhood. Part of Bergen Township and North Bergen Township, it became a separate township in 1849 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Hoboken is the location of the first recorded game of baseball and of the Stevens Institute of Technology, one of the oldest technological universities in the United States. Located on the Hudson Waterfront, the city was an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey and home to major industries for most of the 20th century.
It is well known for being the birthplace and hometown of American singer Frank Sinatra, one of the most popular and most influential musical artists of the 20th century, there are parks and streets located in the city that are named for him. The character of the city has changed from a blue collar town to one of upscale shops and condominiums. On October 29, 2012, Hoboken was devastated by the storm surge and high winds associated with Hurricane Sandy, leaving 1,700 homes flooded and causing $100 million in damage after the storm "filled up Hoboken like a bathtub". In June 2014, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development allocated $230 million to Hoboken as part of its Rebuild by Design initiative, adding levees, green roofs, retention basins and other infrastructure to help the low-lying riverfront city protect itself from ordinary flooding and build a network of features to help Hoboken survive storms that arrive once every 500 years; the name "Hoboken" was chosen by Colonel John Stevens when he bought land, on a part of which the city still sits.
The Lenape tribe of Native Americans referred to the area as the "land of the tobacco pipe", most to refer to the soapstone collected there to carve tobacco pipes, used a phrase that became "Hopoghan Hackingh". Like Weehawken, its neighbor to the north and Harsimus to the south, Hoboken had many variations in the folks-tongue. Hoebuck, old Dutch for high bluff and referring to Castle Point, was used during the colonial era and spelled as Hobuck, Hobock and Hoboocken. However, in the nineteenth century, the name was changed to Hoboken, influenced by Flemish Dutch immigrants and a folk etymology had emerged linking the town of Hoboken to the similarly-named Hoboken district of Antwerp. Today, Hoboken's unofficial nickname is the "Mile Square City", but it covers about 1.25 square miles of land and an area of 2 square miles when including the under-water parts in the Hudson River. During the late 19th/early 20th century the population and culture of Hoboken was dominated by German language speakers who sometimes called it "Little Bremen", many of whom are buried in Hoboken Cemetery, North Bergen.
Hoboken was an island, surrounded by the Hudson River on the east and tidal lands at the foot of the New Jersey Palisades on the west. It was a seasonal campsite in the territory of the Hackensack, a phratry of the Lenni Lenape, who used the serpentine rock found there to carve pipes; the first recorded European to lay claim to the area was Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who anchored his ship the Halve Maen at Weehawken Cove on October 2, 1609. Soon after it became part of the province of New Netherland. In 1630, Michael Reyniersz Pauw, a burgemeester of Amsterdam and a director of the Dutch West India Company, received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would plant a colony of not fewer than fifty persons within four years on the west bank of what had been named the North River. Three Lenape sold the land, to become Hoboken for 80 fathoms of wampum, 20 fathoms of cloth, 12 kettles, six guns, two blankets, one double kettle and half a barrel of beer.
These transactions, variously dated as July 12, 1630 and November 22, 1630, represent the earliest known conveyance for the area. Pauw failed to settle the land, he was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633, it was acquired by Hendrick Van Vorst, who leased part of the land to Aert Van Putten, a farmer. In 1643, north of what would be known as Castle Point, Van Putten built a house and a brewery, North America's first. In series of Indian and Dutch raids and reprisals, Van Putten was killed and his buildings destroyed, all residents of Pavonia were ordered back to New Amsterdam. Deteriorating relations with the Lenape, its isolation as an island, or long distance from New Amsterdam may have discouraged more settlement. In 1664, the English took possession of New Amsterdam with little or no resistance, in 1668 they confirmed a previous land patent by Nicolas Verlett. In 1674–75 the area became part of East Jersey, the province was divided into four administrative districts, Hoboken becoming part of Bergen County, where it remained until the creation of Hudson County on February 22, 1840.
English-speaking settlers interspersed with the Dutch, but it remained scarcely populated and agrarian. Event
Computing is any activity that uses computers. It includes developing hardware and software, using computers to manage and process information and entertain. Computing is a critically important, integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, information technology; the ACM Computing Curricula 2005 defined "computing" as follows: "In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; the list is endless, the possibilities are vast." and it defines five sub-disciplines of the computing field: computer science, computer engineering, information systems, information technology, software engineering. However, Computing Curricula 2005 recognizes that the meaning of "computing" depends on the context: Computing has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used.
For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult; because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but as a discipline. The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, design, efficiency and application; the fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be automated?" The term "computing" is synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, before that, to human computers; the history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization; these concepts include one-to-one correspondence, comparison to a standard, the 3-4-5 right triangle. The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BC, its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today; this was the first known calculation aid - preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. The first recorded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper "The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program.
The program has an executable form. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm; because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type. The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express, they trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions. Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware. In contrast to hardware, software is intangible. Software is sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Application software known as an "application" or an "app", is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be published separately; some users need never install one. Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Fort Lauderdale is a city in the U. S. state of Florida, 28 miles north of Miami. It is the county seat of Broward County; as of the 2017 census, the city has an estimated population of 180,072. Fort Lauderdale is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the city is a popular tourist destination, with an average year-round temperature of 75.5 °F and 3,000 hours of sunshine per year. Greater Fort Lauderdale, encompassing all of Broward County, hosted 12 million visitors in 2012, including 2.8 million international visitors. In 2012, the county collected $43.9 million from the 5% hotel tax it charges, after hotels in the area recorded an occupancy rate for the year of 72.7 percent and an average daily rate of $114.48. The district has 561 motels comprising nearly 35,000 rooms. Forty-six cruise ships sailed from Port Everglades in 2012. Greater Fort Lauderdale has over 4,000 restaurants, 63 golf courses, 12 shopping malls, 16 museums, 132 nightclubs, 278 parkland campsites, 100 marinas housing 45,000 resident yachts.
Fort Lauderdale is named after a series of forts built by the United States during the Second Seminole War. The forts took their name from Major William Lauderdale, younger brother of Lieutenant Colonel James Lauderdale. William Lauderdale was the commander of the detachment of soldiers. However, development of the city did not begin until 50 years after the forts were abandoned at the end of the conflict. Three forts named "Fort Lauderdale" were constructed: the first was at the fork of the New River, the second was at Tarpon Bend on the New River between the present-day Colee Hammock and Rio Vista neighborhoods, the third was near the site of the Bahia Mar Marina; the area in which the city of Fort Lauderdale would be founded was inhabited for more than two thousand years by the Tequesta Indians. Contact with Spanish explorers in the 16th century proved disastrous for the Tequesta, as the Europeans unwittingly brought with them diseases, such as smallpox, to which the native populations possessed no resistance.
For the Tequesta, coupled with continuing conflict with their Calusa neighbors, contributed to their decline over the next two centuries. By 1763, there were only a few Tequesta left in Florida, most of them were evacuated to Cuba when the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Although control of the area changed between Spain, United Kingdom, the United States, the Confederate States of America, it remained undeveloped until the 20th century; the Fort Lauderdale area was known as the "New River Settlement" before the 20th century. In the 1830s there were 70 settlers living along the New River. William Cooley, the local Justice of the Peace, was a farmer and wrecker, who traded with the Seminole Indians. On January 6, 1836, while Cooley was leading an attempt to salvage a wrecked ship, a band of Seminoles attacked his farm, killing his wife and children, the children's tutor; the other farms in the settlement were not attacked, but all the white residents in the area abandoned the settlement, fleeing first to the Cape Florida Lighthouse on Key Biscayne, to Key West.
The first United States stockade named Fort Lauderdale was built in 1838, subsequently was a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. The fort was abandoned in 1842, after the end of the war, the area remained unpopulated until the 1890s, it was not until Frank Stranahan arrived in the area in 1893 to operate a ferry across the New River, the Florida East Coast Railroad's completion of a route through the area in 1896, that any organized development began. The city was incorporated in 1911, in 1915 was designated the county seat of newly formed Broward County. Fort Lauderdale's first major development began during the Florida land boom; the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a great deal of economic dislocation. In July 1935, an African-American man named Rubin Stacy was accused of robbing a white woman at knife point, he was being transported to a Miami jail when police were run off the road by a mob. A group of 100 white men proceeded to hang Stacy from a tree near the scene of his alleged robbery.
His body was riddled with some twenty bullets. The murder was subsequently used by the press in Nazi Germany to discredit US critiques of its own persecution of Jews and Catholics; when World War II began, Fort Lauderdale became a major US base, with a Naval Air Station to train pilots, radar operators, fire control operators. A Coast Guard base at Port Everglades was established. On July 4, 1961 African Americans started a series of protests, wade-ins, at beaches that were off-limits to them, to protest "the failure of the county to build a road to the Negro beach". On July 11, 1962 a verdict by Ted Cabot went against the city's policy of racial segregation of public beaches. Today, Fort Lauderdale is a major yachting center, one of the nation's largest tourist destinations, the center of a metropolitan division with 1.8 million people. After the war ended, service members returned to the area, spurring an enormous population explosion which dwarfed the 1920s boom; the 1960 Census counted 83,648 people in about 230 % of the 1950 figure.
A 1967 report estimated that the city was 85% developed, the 1970 population figure was 139,590. After 1970, as Fort Lauderdale became built out, growth in the area shifted to suburbs to the west; as cities such as Coral Springs and Pembroke Pines experienced explosive growth, Fort Lauderdale's population stagnated, the ci
Technische Universität Darmstadt
The Technische Universität Darmstadt referred to as TU Darmstadt, is a research university in the city of Darmstadt, Germany. It was founded in 1877 and received the right to award doctorates in 1899. In 1882 it was the first university in the world to set up a chair in electrical engineering, founded the first faculty for it in 1883. Nobel laureate Albert Einstein once recommended this university. TU Darmstadt's alumni include 2 Nobel laureates and 2 Leibniz Prize winners. TU Darmstadt is a member of a network of the most notable German Technische Universitäten. On 10 October 1877 Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, elevated the Polytechnische Schule to Technische Hochschule zu Darmstadt and thereby raised the status of this educational institution to that of a university so that the Abitur became a requirement for admissions. In 1899 the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt was granted the right to award doctorates; the University's history is varied: its early phases began with the Höhere Gewerbschule, founded in 1836 and received its own building near the'Altes Pädagog' on Kapellplatz in 1844, followed by the Technische Schule in 1864 and the Großherzoglich Hessische Polytechnische Schule in 1868.
At that time, heated discussions were continually held in political circles on the issue as to whether such a poor state as the Grand Duchy of Hessen could afford a technically oriented higher educational institution, or a polytechnic. After the foundation of Technische Hochschule Darmstadt in 1877, student numbers kept on being so low that in the years from 1881 to 1882 there were long debates in public about closing down the University. In this difficult situation, the local government and the University made the courageous decision to set up the first chair of electrical engineering worldwide, thus the Faculty of Electrical Engineering came into being as the sixth faculty of the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, a novelty in academia, because until no other university had had such a faculty. This forward-looking higher education policy paved the way for Darmstadt to take up a leading position in the developing field of electrical engineering, which in turn led to a continuously rising number of students, so that the closure of the university never was demanded again.
In 1895 new buildings were opened in Hochschulstrasse: the Altes Hauptgebäude and an institute building directly opposite. During the two decades before the World War I, all disciplines of the university underwent diversification and expansion. New disciplines such as paper making and cellulose chemistry were introduced, as early as 1913 a Chair of Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics was set up. Meanwhile, the political climate had become stormier, a growing political polarization exploded in Darmstadt over the question of foreign students; the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt had an extraordinarily large number of foreign students. In 1906, for instance, as many as three quarters of the electrical engineering students were from abroad from states of eastern Europe. After the World War I there was an urgent need for reform of the education system at Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, seen as a prerequisite for meeting the requirements of a modern industrial society. Intense discussions were held on the aim of extending the curriculum beyond the purely technical education in order to prepare the engineer for his leading role in society.
A concrete step in this direction was taken in 1924, when the'General Faculty', which until had combined all the non-technical subjects, was divided into a Department of Mathematics and Natural Science and a Department of Cultural Studies and Political Science. Moreover, the measures taken to provide students with knowledge outside their own field of study included the upgrading of Economics and the creation of professorships in political science, history of technology and sociology. On the night of 11/12 September 1944, eighty per cent of the city, including many of the university's buildings, were destroyed during a bomb attack. For a short period in 1945 parts of the TH Darmstadt may have been closed by decree of the Allies before it was reopened in 1946; the electrical engineering department remained continuously functional, doing work under contract with the U. S. Army to build components of the V-2 guidance system. "But we have to be careful how we word this production order because we don't want the Russians to know that we are cranking up the V-2 system."
In spite of the difficult post-war situation, university staff and students alike managed to settle down to university work in the damaged buildings, which had to be used as a makeshift solution. As early as 1947, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt hosted the first Internationaler Kongress für Ingenieurausbildung, at which the participants discussed the moral responsibility of the technical intelligentsia and of the scientific elite in politics and society. In view of the disastrous consequences of the war, the participants, committed themselves henceforth to do research and teaching in engineering and scientific disciplines for the peaceful development of mankind. 1. Technical Science as Ethical and Cultural Task. 2. Present State and Tendencies of Development in Engineering Education Throughout the World. 3. Selection of Students