West Plains, Missouri
West Plains is a city in Howell County, United States. The population was 11,986 at the 2010 Census, it is the county seat of Howell County. The history of West Plains can be traced back to 1832, when settler Josiah Howell created the first settlement in the region known as Howell Valley. West Plains was so named because the settlement was on a prairie in a westerly direction from the nearest town, Thomasville; the Courthouse Square Historic District, Elledge Arcade Buildings, International Shoe Company Building, Mount Zion Lodge Masonic Temple, W. J. and Ed Smith Building, West Plains Bank Building are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The location of West Plains led to nearly constant conflict due to the proximity to what was the border between the Union and Confederacy. West Plains was burned to the ground, Howell County as a whole was devastated. No major battles occurred in West Plains or Howell County, but much of the devastation came from constant guerrilla warfare. Confederate Brigadier General James Haggin McBride gave residents an ultimatum to either join the Confederate army or to flee the area.
An overwhelming majority of Howell County residents chose to flee, over 90% of the population had fled by the time the war was over. Many, however chose to fight for the Confederacy, as McBride promised to protect his soldiers' property and loved ones. Men who spoke out against the Confederacy were arrested, as martial law had been declared by McBride. Though Howell County was in Union-controlled Missouri, it was within Confederate control due to its position on the Arkansas border. In 1903, African Americans were driven out of West Plains under threat of violence; as was the case with many other locations, the Great Depression hit West Plains in the 1930s. Citizens had little knowledge of what was going on with the national scene, except for what Neathery says in his book, "every place was a boom town, in some places things were going bust as well." The first bank to fail in West Plains was the Farmers Savings Bank in West Plains circa 1926, the lack of the present-day Federal Deposit Insurance Company meant that some people lost whatever wealth was deposited.
On April 13, 1928, for reasons still unknown, a violent explosion occurred in downtown West Plains. About 60 people had gathered in the Bond Dance Hall, on the second floor of a building on East Main Street; the explosion was reported to be felt for miles in Pomona, ten miles from West Plains. Windows were shattered throughout the block, cars were warped on the street; the explosion damaged the nearby Howell County Courthouse so badly that it was vacated and left until late 1933, when it was demolished by the Civil Works Administration. 37 people were killed in the explosion, 22 people were injured. 20 of those killed were never positively identified and buried in a mass grave at Oak Lawn Cemetery in the southeast part of town. They are memorialized by the Rock of Ages monument, erected on October 6, 1929; the explosion has been remembered in a folk song recorded 30 years later. The cause of the explosion is still a topic of controversy nearly a century after the blast. Numerous causes for the explosion have been offered, but a definitive story has never been proven to be true.
The most accepted theory is that the explosion somehow originated from leaking gasoline in a garage owned by J. W. Wiser, which happened to be on the floor below; because Wiser was at the garage at the time, some have speculated that the blast was intentionally caused by Wiser as a suicide attempt, which his wife refused to acknowledge. In addition, the late West Plains native Robert Neathery explained in his 1994 book, West Plains As I Knew It, that a truck containing dynamite parked in the garage may have been the cause, indirectly part of a crime in which someone shot Wiser and set a fire to cover up the crime, the dynamite exploded; the event is fictionalized in the short novel The Maid's Version by Daniel Woodrell, about a similar dance hall explosion in the fictional town of West Table. On Friday evening, April 2, 1982, a long-track F4 tornado struck the West Plains area, beginning in Ozark County and ending near what was the airport at the time. Many homes and businesses were damaged or leveled by the tornado, which killed 3 and injured at least 28 as it hit the West Plains Country Club and nearby homes, as well as businesses located on U.
S. Route 63; the downtown area of West Plains, namely Court Square, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 17, 2003. The Downtown Revitalization Economic Assistance for Missouri Act opened up funding for renovations and improvements for certain downtown buildings. West Plains is located at 36°44′14″N 91°51′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.33 square miles, of which 13.31 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. West Plains is characterized by four distinct seasons and is located near the northern border of a humid subtropical climate, as defined by the Köppen climate classification system; the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 33 °F in January to 77 °F in July. On average, there are 41 days with highs over 90 °F, three with highs over 100 °F, 13 days where the temperature does not rise above freezing, 2 nights of sub-0 °F lows; the West Plains Micropolitan Statistical Area consists of Howell County.
As of the census of 2010, there were 11,986 people, 5,001 households, 3,012 families residing in the ci
U.S. Route 60
U. S. Route 60 is an east–west United States highway, traveling 2,670 mi from southwestern Arizona to the Atlantic coast in Virginia. Despite the final "0" in its number, indicating a transcontinental designation, the 1926 route ended in Springfield, Missouri, at its intersection with the major US 66. In fact, US 66 was given the US 60 number; the highway's eastern terminus is in Virginia Beach, where it is known as Pacific Avenue, in the city's Oceanfront resort district at the intersection of 5th Street and Winston-Salem Avenue. Its original western terminus was in Los Angeles, but, moved to southwest of Brenda, Arizona to an interchange with Interstate 10 after the highway designation was removed from California in 1964; some US 60 signs can be seen at this interchange about 5 mi southwest of Brenda. I-10 replaced US 60 from Beaumont, California to Arizona, California State Route 60 replaced US 60 from Los Angeles to Beaumont. U. S. Route 60 has been decommissioned in California since 1972, when Interstate 10 was completed in California.
It was so signed. Between downtown Los Angeles it had an existence separate from U. S. Routes 70 and 99, lying to its south. US 60 passed through Pomona and Riverside, meeting US 70 and US 99 near Beaumont, east of which it coincided with US 70 and US 99 as far to the east as Indio. East of Indio, US 99 separated from US 60 and US 70, both continuing through the Mojave Desert to the Arizona state line at the Colorado River near Blythe entirely as a two-lane highway. After the Great Renumbering of 1964, US 60 remained intact east of Beaumont, but for only eight years. Meanwhile, US 70 and US 99 had disappeared in Southern California. West of Beaumont, the route, US 60 was re-signed as State Route 60. East of Beaumont, US 60 remained in existence while Interstate 10 supplanted it, with the course of US 60 being moved to Interstate 10 and some sections of the old highway being demolished. In 1972, California decommissioned whatever remained of US 60 within the state as the last segments of Interstate 10 were opened.
Parts of old US 60 remain as business loops of Interstate 10 in Blythe. The westernmost stretch of US 60 to the California border has been replaced by Interstate 10; the western terminus of US 60 is near Brenda, where it travels northeast to Wickenburg, Arizona. Once US 60 hits Surprise, it carries the name Grand Avenue through the Phoenix metropolitan area until the highway joins I-17 and I-10 in Phoenix for 14 miles before it exits I-10 onto the Superstition Freeway. Here, US 60 is a significant part of the local commuter freeway system, serving cities such as Mesa and Apache Junction. East of the Phoenix area, US 60 bears east-northeast through mountainous areas, passing through Globe, Show Low, Springerville before exiting the state at the border with New Mexico. US 60 enters New Mexico in Catron County east of Arizona; the road makes an arc through Catron County, with the apex at Quemado, avoiding Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest and Escondido Mountain. East of Pie Town, the road crosses the Continental Divide.
Between the Divide and Datil, US 60 cuts through Cibola National Forest. In Datil, US 60 serves as the eastern terminus of NM-12. East of Datil, US 60 traverses the northern end of the Plains of San Augustin crosses the county line into Socorro County; the road bisects the Very Large Array complex, a track used in rearranging the antennas that make up the Array crosses the highway. 36 mi into the county, the highway passes through Magdalena. It enters the county seat of Socorro, where it meets Interstate 25. US 60 heads north. US 60 splits off from I-25 near Bernardo, about 25 mi north of Socorro, it turns back eastward, rising through Abo Pass at the southern end of the Manzano Mountains before crossing into Torrance County and passing through Mountainair, where it intersects NM-55. After passing through Willard, it sets out across the Pedernal Hills. In Encino, it begins a concurrency with US-285. Just after crossing into Guadalupe County, US-54 joins the concurrency; the three highways pass through Vaughn and go their separate ways, with US 285 heading southeast towards the direction of Roswell, US 54 heading northeast towards both Santa Rosa and Interstate 40, US 60 heading east towards Clovis.
US 60 angles southeast toward Yeso. Curving back towards the east, the road enters the county seat, 21 mi later. Just west of town, it serves as the northern terminus of NM-20, in Fort Sumner proper, it begins a concurrency with US-84, which will persist for the remainder of the routes' miles in New Mexico. East of town the two highways encounter NM-212, a spur to Fort Sumner State Monument, NM 252 in Taiban. US 60/84 passes through Tolar near the De Baca–Roosevelt County line; the two routes do not stay in Roosevelt County for long, proceeding into Curry County west of Melrose. The highways pass through Melrose, St. Vrain, Grier before widening out to a four-lane highway as they approach Clovis, the Curry County seat. In Clovis, the home of Cannon Air Force Base, the highways meet up with US-70, which joins the concurrency; the three highways proceed through Texico, cross the state line near Farwell, Texas. For the distance of more than 300 miles between Abo Pass and Amarill
Ozark County, Missouri
Ozark County is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,723; the largest city and county seat is Gainesville. The county was organized as Ozark County, named after the Ozark Mountains, on January 29, 1841, it was renamed Decatur County, after Commodore Stephen Decatur, from 1843 to 1845, after which the name Ozark County was restored. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 755 square miles, of which 745 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. Arkansas is located to the south of Ozark County. Douglas County Howell County Fulton County, Arkansas Baxter County, Arkansas Marion County, Arkansas Taney County U. S. Route 160 Route 5 Route 95 Route 142 Route 181 Mark Twain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 9,542 people, 3,950 households, 2,855 families residing in the county; the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 5,114 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.57% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the major first ancestries reported in Ozark County were 28.6% American, 15.9% German, 12.1% English, 11.4% Irish. There were 3,950 households out of which 26.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.81. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 22.80% from 25 to 44, 28.70% from 45 to 64, 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 98.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,508, the median income for a family was $36,622. Males had a median income of $21,685 versus $17,312 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,302. About 16.10% of families and 21.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.80% of those under age 18 and 17.20% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Ozark County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion; the most predominant denominations among residents in Ozark County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, Churches of Christ, Pentecostals. Of adults 25 years of age and older in Ozark County, 73.0% possesses a high school diploma or higher while 8.3% holds a bachelor's degree or higher as their highest educational attainment. Thornfield R-I School District - Thornfield - Lutie R-VI School District - Theodosia Lutie Elementary School Lutie High School Gainesville R-V School District - Gainesville Gainesville Elementary School Gainesville High School Dora R-III School District - Dora Dora Elementary School Dora High School Bakersfield R-IV School District - Bakersfield Bakersfield Elementary School Bakersfield High School The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Ozark County.
Republicans hold all but one of the elected positions in the county. All of Ozark County is a part of Missouri’s 155th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Lyle Rowland. All of Ozark County is a part of Missouri's 33rd District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Mike Cunningham. Ozark County is included in Missouri’s 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative. Like most counties situated in Southwest Missouri, Ozark County is a Republican stronghold in presidential elections. George W. Bush carried Ozark County in 2004 by convincing two-to-one margins. Like many other rural counties throughout Missouri, Ozark County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008.
No Democratic presidential nominee has won Ozark County in over 150 years. Like most rural areas throughout the Bible Belt in Southwest Missouri, voters in Ozark County traditionally adhere to and culturally conservative principles which tend to influence their Republican leanings. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed Ozark County with 82.18 percent of the vote. The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state to ban same-sex marriage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it narrowly failed in Ozark County with 51.07 percent voting against the measure. The initiative narrowly passed the state with 51 percent of support from voters as Missouri became one of the first states in the nation to approve embryonic stem cell research. Despite Ozark County’s longstanding
Douglas County, Missouri
Douglas County is a county located in the south-central portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,684; the county seat and only incorporated community is Ava. The county was organized on October 19, 1857, is named after U. S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas and Democratic presidential candidate; the county seat was located at Arno, west of Ava. Prior to that, Vera Cruz was the county seat. Vera Cruz is located on Bryant Creek; the Civil War Battle of Clark's Mill took place near Vera Cruz on November 7, 1862 and resulted in a Confederate victory. After the American Civil War, during a period of general chaos, a group from the western part of the county broke into the Arno courthouse and removed the records back to Vera Cruz. In 1871, a new town site was selected, present-day Ava, near the location of the former U. S. Civil War military Post Office, Militia Spring; the location of this new town seemed to satisfy most of the residents of Douglas County to be their point of county government.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 815 square miles, of which 814 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water. Webster County Wright County Texas County Howell County Ozark County Taney County Christian County Route 5 Route 14 Route 76 Route 95 Route 181 Mark Twain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 13,084 people, 5,201 households, 3,671 families residing in the county; the population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 5,919 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.86% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.95% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the major first ancestries reported in Douglas County are 31.3% American, 13.2% English, 12.3% German, 9.7% Irish. There were 5,201 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families.
26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 24.50% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,335, the median income for a family was $36,648. Males had a median income of $22,706 versus $17,060 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,710. About 12.90% of families and 17.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.80% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Douglas County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion.
The most predominant denominations among residents in Douglas County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, Church of the Nazarene, Mormons. Established in 1950, a Trappist monastery, Assumption Abbey, can be found nestled on 3,000 acres in the Ozark hills. An associated Friary, Our Lady of the Angels, is located nearby. Both facilities have overnight rooms available to be utilized by the public for a small fee in order to find a place of solace and quiet reflection. Of adults 25 years of age and older in Douglas County, 69.7% possess a high school diploma or higher while 9.9% hold a bachelor's degree or higher as their highest educational attainment. Ava R-I School District - Ava Ava Elementary School Ava Middle School Ava High School Plainview R8 School District - Goodhope, Missouri Plainview Elementary School - West of Ava Skyline R2 School District - Norwood, Missouri Skyline Elementary Mt. Zion Bible Academy - Ava - - Church of God Douglas County Public Library The Republican party holds most of the elected positions in the county.
But it has not always been so. In the early 1900's Douglas County was Democratic. All of Douglas County is a part of Missouri’s 155th District and is represented in the Missouri House of Representatives by Lyle Rowland, (R-Cedar Creek. All of Douglas County is a part of Missouri’s 33rd District and is represented in the Missouri Senate by Mike Cunningham. Missouri's two U. S. Senators are Republican Roy Blunt of Strafford. All of Douglas County is included in Missouri's 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith of Salem in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to complete the remaining term of former U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson of Cape Girardeau. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative. Douglas County is, like most other counties located in the GOP bastion of Southwest Missouri, a Republican stronghold in presidential elections.
No Democratic presidential nominee has won Douglas County since William Jennings Bryan in 1896, no ot
Oregon County, Missouri
Oregon County is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,881, its county seat is Alton. The county was organized on February 14, 1845, was named for the Oregon Territory in the northwestern United States. Home to a large area of the Mark Twain National Forest, Oregon County contains more national forest acreage than any county in the state of Missouri, it contains the Irish Wilderness, the largest federally protected wilderness area in the state. Hiking and horseback riding opportunities abound on the Ozark Trail and the White's Creek Trail. Canoeing, kayaking and fishing are popular on the Eleven Point River, Missouri's only National Wild and Scenic River. Eleven Point State Park is under development east of Alton, Missouri that includes 6 miles of Eleven Point River frontage. Grand Gulf State Park is just west of Thayer. Oregon County was created at a time when the Oregon boundary dispute was a major issue; the county has a total area of 792 square miles, of which 790 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water.
Arkansas is located to the south of Oregon County. Shannon County Carter County Ripley County Randolph County, Arkansas Sharp County, Arkansas Fulton County, Arkansas Howell County U. S. Route 63 U. S. Route 160 Route 19 Route 99 Route 142 Mark Twain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 10,344 people, 4,263 households, 3,018 families residing in the county; the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 4,997 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.61% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 2.88% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 2.19% from two or more races. 1.09% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the major first ancestries reported in Oregon County were 29.7% American, 13.4% English, 13.1% Irish, 13.0% German. There were 4,263 households out of which 29.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.80% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families.
26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.40 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 92.80 men. The median income for a household in the county was $26,119, the median income for a family was $31,637. Males had a median income of $22,304 versus $16,353 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,043. About 16.30% of families and 22.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.20% of those under age 18 and 20.00% of those age 65 or over. Of the state's 115 counties, in 2010 Oregon ranked last in terms of poverty. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Oregon County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion.
The most predominant denominations among residents in Oregon County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, National Association of Free Will Baptists, Churches of Christ. Political control at the county level is divided between the Democratic and Republican parties, but the Democratic Party held the majority of positions. All of Oregon County is a part of the 143rd District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Jeffrey Pogue. All of Oregon County is a part of Missouri's 33rd District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Mike Cunningham. Oregon County is included in Missouri’s 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative.
At the presidential level, Oregon County is a independent-leaning or battleground county. While George W. Bush carried Oregon County in 2000 and 2004, the margins of victory were smaller than in many of the other rural areas. Bill Clinton carried Oregon County both times in 1992 and 1996. Like most of the other rural counties in Missouri, Oregon County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008. Like most rural areas throughout Southeast Missouri, voters in Oregon County adhere to and culturally conservative principles. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed Oregon County with 87.09 percent of the vote. The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state to ban same-sex marriage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it failed in Oregon County with 56.78 percent voting against the measure.
The initiative narrowly passed the state with 51 percent of support from voters as Misso
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use