In Germanic mythology, Frija and Frige is a goddess. In nearly all sources, she is described as the wife of the god Odin. In Old High German and Old Norse sources, she is connected with the goddess Fulla; the English weekday name Friday bears her name. Frigg is described as a goddess associated with foresight and wisdom in Norse mythology, the northernmost branch of Germanic mythology and most extensively attested. Frigg is the wife of the major god Odin and dwells in the wetland halls of Fensalir, is famous for her foreknowledge, is associated with the goddesses Fulla, Lofn, Hlín, Gná, is ambiguously associated with the Earth, otherwise personified as an separate entity Jörð; the children of Frigg and Odin include the gleaming god Baldr. Due to the significant thematic overlap, scholars have proposed a particular connection to the goddess Freyja. After Christianization, the mention of Frigg continued to occur in Scandinavian folklore. During modern times, Frigg has appeared in popular culture, has been the subject of art and receives veneration in Germanic Neopaganism.
The theonyms Frigg and Frija are cognate forms—linguistic siblings of the same origin—that descend from a substantivized feminine of Proto-Germanic *frijaz. *frijaz descends from the same source as the feminine Sanskrit noun priyā and the feminine Avestan noun fryā. In the modern period, an -a suffix is sometimes applied to denote femininity, resulting in the form Frigga; this spelling serves the purpose of distancing the goddess from the English word frig. The connection with and possible earlier identification of the goddess Freyja with Frigg in the Proto-Germanic period is a matter of scholarly debate. Like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia; this is in contrast to the name of the goddess Frigg, attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Evidence does not exist for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Old Norse Freyja descends, but scholars have commented that this may be due to the scarcity of surviving sources.
Regarding a Freyja–Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that "the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, to see how well each can be supported."The English weekday name Friday comes from Old English Frīġedæġ, meaning'day of Frig'. It is cognate with Old High German frîatac. Several place names refer to Frigg in what are now Norway and Sweden, although her name is altogether absent in recorded place names in Denmark; the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum, Paul the Deacon's 8th-century Historia Langobardorum derived from it, recount a founding myth of the Langobards, a Germanic people who ruled a region of what is now Italy. According to this legend, a "small people" known as the Winnili were ruled by a woman named Gambara who had two sons and Agio.
The Vandals, ruled by Ambri and Assi, came to the Winnili with their army and demanded that they pay them tribute or prepare for war. Ybor and their mother Gambara rejected their demands for tribute. Ambra and Assi asked the god Godan for victory over the Winnili, to which Godan responded: "Whom I shall first see when at sunrise, to them will I give the victory."Meanwhile and Agio called upon Frea, Godan's wife. Frea counseled them that "at sunrise the Winnil should come, that their women, with their hair let down around the face in the likeness of a beard should come with their husbands". At sunrise, Frea woke him. Godan saw the Winnili, including their whiskered women, asked "who are those Long-beards?" Frea responded to Godan, "As you have given them a name, give them the victory". Godan did so, "so that they should defend themselves according to his counsel and obtain the victory". Thenceforth the Winnili were known as the Langobards. A 10th-century manuscript found in what is now Merseburg, features an invocation known as the Second Merseburg Incantation.
The incantation calls upon various continental Germanic gods, including Old High German Frija and a goddess associated with her—Volla, to assist in healing a horse: In the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material, Frigg is mentioned in the poems Völuspá, Vafþrúðnismál, the prose of Grímnismál, Oddrúnargrátr. Frigg receives three mentions in the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá. In the first mention, the poem recounts. In the poem, when the future death of Odin is foretold, Odin himself is referred to as the "beloved of Frigg" and his future death is referred to as the "second grief of Frigg". Like the reference to Frigg weeping in Fensalir earlier in the poem, the implied "first grief" is a reference to the grief she felt upon the death of her son, Baldr. In the prose introduction to the poem Grímnismál, Frigg plays a prominent role; the prose introduction recounts that two sons of king Hrauðungr and Geirröðr, once sailed out with a trailing line to catch small fish.
However, wind drove them out into the ocean and, d
Loki is a god in Norse mythology. Loki is in some sources the son of Fárbauti and Laufey, the brother of Helblindi and Býleistr. By the jötunn Angrboða, Loki is the father of Hel, the wolf Fenrir, the world serpent Jörmungandr. By his wife Sigyn, Loki is the father of Narfi and/or Nari. By the stallion Svaðilfari, Loki is the mother—giving birth in the form of a mare—to the eight-legged horse Sleipnir. In addition, Loki is referred to as the father of Váli in Prose Edda, though this source refers to Odin as the father of Váli twice, Váli is found mentioned as a Son of Loki only once. Loki's relation with the gods varies by source. Loki is a shape shifter and in separate incidents he appears in the form of a salmon, a mare, a fly, an elderly woman named Þökk. Loki's positive relations with the gods end with his role in engineering the death of the god Baldr and Loki is bound by Váli with the entrails of one of his sons. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, the goddess Skaði is responsible for placing a serpent above him while he is bound.
The serpent drips venom from above him. With the onset of Ragnarök, Loki is foretold to slip free from his bonds and to fight against the gods among the forces of the jötnar, at which time he will encounter the god Heimdallr and the two will slay each other. Loki is referred to in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Loki may be depicted on the Snaptun Stone, the Kirkby Stephen Stone, the Gosforth Cross. Loki's origins and role in Norse mythology, which some scholars have described as that of a trickster god, have been much debated by scholars. Loki is referenced in a variety of media in modern popular culture; the etymology of the name Loki has been extensively debated. The name has at times been associated with the Old Norse word logi, but there seems not to be a sound linguistic basis for this. Rather, the Scandinavian variants of the name point to an origin in the Germanic root *luk-, which denoted things to do with loops; this corresponds with usages such as the Swedish lokkanät and Faroese Lokkanet and Faroese lokki~grindalokki~grindalokkur.
Some Eastern Swedish traditions referring to the same figure use forms in n- like Nokk, but this corresponds to the *luk- etymology insofar as those dialects used a different root, Germanic *hnuk-, in contexts where western varieties used *luk-: "nokke corresponds to nøkkel" "as loki~lokke to lykil". While it has been suggested that this association with closing could point to Loki's apocalyptic role at Ragnarök, "there is quite a bit of evidence that Loki in premodern society was thought to be the causer of knots/tangles/loops, or himself a knot/tangle/loop. Hence, it is natural that Loki is the inventor of the fishnet, which consists of loops and knots, that the word loki is a term for makers of cobwebs: spiders and the like." Though not prominent in the oldest sources, this identity as a "tangler" may be the etymological meaning of Loki's name. In various poems from the Poetic Edda, sections of the Prose Edda Loki is alternatively referred to as Loptr, considered derived from Old Norse lopt meaning "air", therefore points to an association with the air.
The name Hveðrungr is used in reference to Loki, occurring in names for Hel and in reference to Fenrir. In the Poetic Edda, Loki appears in the poems Völuspá, Lokasenna, Þrymskviða, Reginsmál, Baldrs draumar, Hyndluljóð. In stanza 35 of the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, a völva tells Odin that, among many other things, she sees Sigyn sitting unhappily with her bound husband, under a "grove of hot springs". In stanza 51, during the events of Ragnarök, Loki appears free from his bonds and is referred to as the "brother of Býleistr": A ship journeys from the east, Muspell's people are coming, over the waves, Loki steers There are the monstrous brood with all the raveners, The brother of Byleist is in company with them. In stanza 54, after consuming Odin and being killed by Odin's son Víðarr, Fenrir is described as "Loki's kinsman"; the poem Lokasenna centers around Loki flyting with other gods. The poem begins with a prose introduction detailing that Ægir, a figure associated with the sea, is hosting a feast in his hall for a number of the gods and elves.
There, the gods praise Ægir's servers Eldir. Loki "could not bear to hear that," and kills the servant Fimafeng. In response, the gods grab their shields, shrieking at Loki, chase
In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is an eight-legged horse ridden by Odin. Sleipnir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Sleipnir is Odin's steed, is the child of Loki and Svaðilfari, is described as the best of all horses, is sometimes ridden to the location of Hel; the Prose Edda contains extended information regarding the circumstances of Sleipnir's birth, details that he is grey in color. Sleipnir is mentioned in a riddle found in the 13th century legendary saga Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks, in the 13th-century legendary saga Völsunga saga as the ancestor of the horse Grani, book I of Gesta Danorum, written in the 12th century by Saxo Grammaticus, contains an episode considered by many scholars to involve Sleipnir. Sleipnir is accepted as depicted on two 8th century Gotlandic image stones: the Tjängvide image stone and the Ardre VIII image stone. Scholarly theories have been proposed regarding Sleipnir's potential connection to shamanic practices among the Norse pagans.
In modern times, Sleipnir appears in Icelandic folklore as the creator of Ásbyrgi, in works of art, software, in the names of ships. In the Poetic Edda, Sleipnir appears or is mentioned in the poems Grímnismál, Sigrdrífumál, Baldrs draumar, Hyndluljóð. In Grímnismál, Grimnir tells the boy Agnar in verse. In Sigrdrífumál, the valkyrie Sigrdrífa tells the hero Sigurðr that runes should be cut "on Sleipnir's teeth and on the sledge's strap-bands." In Baldrs draumar, after the Æsir convene about the god Baldr's bad dreams, Odin places a saddle on Sleipnir and the two ride to the location of Hel. The Völuspá hin skamma section of Hyndluljóð says that Loki produced "the wolf" with Angrboða, produced Sleipnir with Svaðilfari, thirdly "one monster, thought the most baleful, descended from Býleistr's brother." In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, Sleipnir is first mentioned in chapter 15 where the enthroned figure of High says that every day the Æsir ride across the bridge Bifröst, provides a list of the Æsir's horses.
The list begins with Sleipnir: "best is Sleipnir, he is Odin's, he has eight legs." In chapter 41, High quotes the Grímnismál stanza. In chapter 43, Sleipnir's origins are described. Gangleri asks High what there is to tell about it. High expresses surprise in Gangleri's lack of knowledge about its origin. High tells a story set "right at the beginning of the gods' settlement, when the gods established Midgard and built Val-Hall" about an unnamed builder who has offered to build a fortification for the gods in three seasons that will keep out invaders in exchange for the goddess Freyja, the sun, the moon. After some debate, the gods agree to this, but place a number of restrictions on the builder, including that he must complete the work within three seasons with the help of no man; the builder makes a single request. The stallion Svaðilfari performs twice the deeds of strength as the builder, hauls enormous rocks to the surprise of the gods; the builder, with Svaðilfari, makes fast progress on the wall, three days before the deadline of summer, the builder was nearly at the entrance to the fortification.
The gods convene, figured out, responsible, resulting in a unanimous agreement that, along with most trouble, Loki was to blame. The gods declare that Loki would deserve a horrible death if he could not find a scheme that would cause the builder to forfeit his payment, threatened to attack him. Loki, swore oaths that he would devise a scheme to cause the builder to forfeit the payment, whatever it would cost himself; that night, the builder drove out to fetch stone with his stallion Svaðilfari, out from a wood ran a mare. The mare neighed at Svaðilfari, "realizing what kind of horse it was," Svaðilfari became frantic, tore apart his tackle, ran towards the mare; the mare ran to the wood, Svaðilfari followed, the builder chased after. The two horses ran around all night, causing the building work to be held up for the night, the previous momentum of building work that the builder had been able to maintain was not continued; when the Æsir realize that the builder is a hrimthurs, they disregard their previous oaths with the builder, call for Thor.
Thor arrives, kills the builder by smashing the builder's skull into shards with the hammer Mjöllnir. However, Loki had "such dealings" with Svaðilfari that "somewhat later" Loki gave birth to a grey foal with eight legs. Hermóðr agrees to ride to Hel to offer a ransom for Baldr's return, so "then Odin's horse Sleipnir was fetched and led forward." Hermóðr mounts rides away. Hermóðr rides for nine nights in deep, dark valleys where Hermóðr can see nothing; the two arrive at the river Gjöll and continue to Gjöll bridge, encountering a maiden guarding the bridge named Móðguðr. Some dialogue occurs between Hermóðr and Móðguðr, including that Móðguðr notes that there had ridden five battalions of dead men across the bridge that made less sound than he. Sleipnir and Hermóðr continue "downwards and northwards" on the road to Hel, until the two arrive at Hel's gates. Hermóðr dismounts from Sleipnir, tightens Sleipnir's girth, mounts him, spurs Sleipnir
Gullfaxi is a horse in Norse mythology. Its name means Golden mane, it was owned by Hrungnir, was given to Magni by Thor as a reward for lifting off the leg of Hrungnir, which lay over the unconscious Thor and strangled him:'And I will give thee,' he said,'the horse Gold-Mane, which Hrungnir possessed.'Then Odin spake and said that Thor did wrong to give the good horse to the son of a giantess, not to his father. —Skáldskaparmál Guldfaxe is fast on land, in the air and on the water, but not quite as fast as Sleipnir, Odin's horse. Gullfaxi is the name of a horse in the modern Icelandic folk-tale The Horse Gullfaxi and the Sword Gunnfoder collected by Jón Árnason, translated into German by Josef Poestion rendered into English and included in the Crimson Fairy Book compiled by Andrew Lang
In Old Norse, ǫ́ss is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion. This pantheon includes Odin, Thor, Baldr and Týr; the second pantheon is known as the Vanir. In Norse mythology, the two pantheons wage war against each other, which results in a unified pantheon; the cognate term in Old English is ōs denoting a deity in Anglo-Saxon paganism. The Old High German is ans, plural ensî; the Gothic language had ans-. The reconstructed Proto-Germanic form is *ansuz; the ansuz rune, ᚫ, was named after the Æsir. Unlike the Old English word god, the term ōs was never adopted into Christian use. Æsir is the plural of áss, óss "god", attested in other Germanic languages, e.g. Old English ōs, Old Dutch ans and Gothic anses "half-gods"; these all stem from Proto-Germanic *ansuz, which itself comes from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énsus "life force" (cf. Avestan aŋhū "lord, it is accepted that this word is further related to *h₂ens- "to engender". Old Norse áss has the accusative æsi and ásu. In genitival compounds, it takes the form ása-, e.g. in Ása-Þórr, besides ás- found in ás-brú "gods' bridge", ás-garðr, ás-kunnigr "gods' kin", ás-liðar "gods' leader", ás-mogin "gods' might", ás-móðr "divine wrath" etc.
Landâs "national god" is a title of Thor, as is allmáttki ás "almighty god", while it is Odin, "the" ás. The feminine suffix -ynja is known from a few other nouns denoting female animals, such as apynja "female monkey", vargynja "she-wolf"; the word for "goddess" is not attested outside Old Norse. The latinization of Danish Aslak as Ansleicus, the name of a Danish Viking converted to Christianity in 864 according to the Miracles de St. Riquier, indicates that the nasalization in the first syllable persisted into the 9th century; the cognate Old English form to áss is ōs, preserved only as a prefix Ōs- in personal names and some place-names, as the genitive plural ēsa. In Old High German, Old Dutch and Old Saxon, the word is only attested in personal and place names, e.g. Ansebert, Ansfrid, Vihans. Jordanes has anses for the gods of the Goths; the interaction between the Æsir and the Vanir has provoked an amount of scholarly theory and speculation. While other cultures have had "elder" and "younger" families of gods, as with the Titans versus the Olympians of ancient Greece, the Æsir and Vanir were portrayed as contemporaries.
The two clans of gods fought battles, concluded treaties, exchanged hostages. An áss like Ullr is unknown in the myths, but his name is seen in a lot of geographical names in Sweden, may appear on the 3rd century Thorsberg chape, suggesting that his cult was widespread in prehistoric times; the names of the first three Æsir in Norse mythology, Vili, Vé and Odin all refer to spiritual or mental state, vili to conscious will or desire, vé to the sacred or numinous and óðr to the manic or ecstatic. A second clan of gods, the Vanir, is mentioned in Norse mythology: the god Njörðr and his children and Freyja, are the most prominent Vanir gods who join the Æsir as hostages after a war between Æsir and Vanir; the Vanir appear to have been connected with cultivation and fertility and the Æsir were connected with power and war. In the Eddas, the word Æsir is used for gods in general, while Asynjur is used for the goddesses in general. For example, in the poem Skírnismál, Freyr was called "Prince of the Æsir".
In the Prose Edda, Njörðr was introduced as "the third among the Æsir", among the Asynjur, Freyja is always listed second only to Frigg. In surviving tales, the origins of many of the Æsir are unexplained. There are just three: Odin and his brothers Vili and Vé. Odin's sons by giantesses are counted as Æsir. Heimdallr and Ullr's connection with the Æsir is not mentioned. Loki is a jötunn, Njörðr is a Vanir hostage, but they are ranked among the Æsir. Given the difference between their roles and emphases, some scholars have speculated that the interactions between the Æsir and the Vanir reflect the types of interaction that were occurring between social classes within Norse society at the time. According to another theory, the Vanir may be more archaic than that of the more warlike Æsir, such that the mythical war may mirror a half-remembered religious conflict; this argument was first suggested by Wilhelm Mannhardt in 1877. On a similar note, Marija Gimbutas argues that the Æsir and the Vanir represent the displacement of an indigenous Indo-European group by a tribe of warlike invaders as part of her Kurgan hypothesis.
See her case in The Living Goddess for more details. Another historical theory is that the inter-pantheon interaction may be an apotheosisation of the conflict between the Roman Kingdom and the Sabines; the noted comparative religion scholar Mircea Eliade speculated that this conflict is a version of an Indo-European myth concerning the conflict between and eventual integration of a pantheon
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology, Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, folk tradition; the source texts mention numerous gods, such as the hammer-wielding, humanity-protecting thunder-god Thor, who relentlessly fights his foes. Most of the surviving mythology centres on the plights of the gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as humanity and the jötnar, beings who may be friends, foes or family members of the gods; the cosmos in Norse mythology consists of Nine Worlds that flank Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is created from the flesh of the primordial being Ymir, the first two humans are Ask and Embla.
These worlds are foretold to be reborn after the events of Ragnarök when an immense battle occurs between the gods and their enemies, the world is enveloped in flames, only to be reborn anew. There the surviving gods will meet, the land will be fertile and green, two humans will repopulate the world. Norse mythology has been the subject of scholarly discourse since the 17th century, when key texts were brought to the attention of the intellectual circles of Europe. By way of comparative mythology and historical linguistics, scholars have identified elements of Germanic mythology reaching as far back as Proto-Indo-European mythology. During the modern period, the Romanticist Viking revival re-awoke an interest in the subject matter, references to Norse mythology may now be found throughout modern popular culture; the myths have further been revived in a religious context among adherents of Germanic Neopaganism. The historical religion of the Norse people is referred to as Norse mythology. In certain literature the terms Scandinavian mythology or Nordic mythology have been used.
Norse mythology is attested in dialects of Old Norse, a North Germanic language spoken by the Scandinavian people during the European Middle Ages, the ancestor of modern Scandinavian languages. The majority of these Old Norse texts were created in Iceland, where the oral tradition stemming from the pre-Christian inhabitants of the island was collected and recorded in manuscripts; this occurred in the 13th century. These texts include the Prose Edda, composed in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, the Poetic Edda, a collection of poems from earlier traditional material anonymously compiled in the 13th century; the Prose Edda was composed as a prose manual for producing skaldic poetry—traditional Old Norse poetry composed by skalds. Composed and transmitted orally, skaldic poetry utilizes alliterative verse and various metrical forms; the Prose Edda presents numerous examples of works by various skalds from before and after the Christianization process and frequently refers back to the poems found in the Poetic Edda.
The Poetic Edda consists entirely of poems, with some prose narrative added, this poetry—Eddic poetry—utilizes fewer kennings. In comparison to skaldic poetry, Eddic poetry is unadorned; the Prose Edda features layers of euhemerization, a process in which deities and supernatural beings are presented as having been either actual, magic-wielding human beings who have been deified in time or beings demonized by way of Christian mythology. Texts such as Heimskringla, composed in the 13th century by Snorri and Gesta Danorum, composed in Latin by Saxo Grammaticus in Denmark in the 12th century, are the results of heavy amounts of euhemerization. Numerous further texts, such as the sagas, provide further information; the saga corpus consists of thousands of tales recorded in Old Norse ranging from Icelandic family histories to Migration period tales mentioning historic figures such as Attila the Hun. Objects and monuments such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet feature runic inscriptions—texts written in the runic alphabet, the indigenous alphabet of the Germanic peoples—that mention figures and events from Norse mythology.
Objects from the archaeological record may be interpreted as depictions of subjects from Norse mythology, such as amulets of the god Thor's hammer Mjölnir found among pagan burials and small silver female figures interpreted as valkyries or dísir, beings associated with war, fate or ancestor cults. By way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, comparisons to other attested branches of Germanic mythology may lend insight. Wider comparisons to the
Bragi is the skaldic god of poetry in Norse mythology. Bragi is associated with bragr, the Norse word for poetry; the name of the god may have been derived from bragr, or the term bragr may have been formed to describe'what Bragi does'. A connection between the name Bragi and Old English brego'chieftain' has been suggested but is now discounted. A connection between Bragi and the bragarfull'promise cup' is sometimes suggested, as bragafull, an alternate form of the word, might be translated as'Bragi's cup'. See Bragarfull. Snorri Sturluson writes in the Gylfaginning after describing Odin and Baldr: One is called Bragi: he is renowned for wisdom, most of all for fluency of speech and skill with words, he knows most of skaldship, after him skaldship is called bragr, from his name that one is called bragr-man or -woman, who possesses eloquence surpassing others, of women or of men. His wife is Iðunn. In Skáldskaparmál Snorri writes: How should one periphrase Bragi? By calling him husband of Iðunn, first maker of poetry, the long-bearded god, son of Odin.
That Bragi is Odin's son is mentioned only here and in some versions of a list of the sons of Odin. But "wish-son" in stanza 16 of the Lokasenna could mean "Odin's son" and is translated by Hollander as Odin's kin. Bragi's mother is the giantess Gunnlod. If Bragi's mother is Frigg Frigg is somewhat dismissive of Bragi in the Lokasenna in stanza 27 when Frigg complains that if she had a son in Ægir's hall as brave as Baldr Loki would have to fight for his life. In that poem Bragi at first is overruled by Odin. Loki gives a greeting to all gods and goddesses who are in the hall save to Bragi. Bragi generously offers his sword, an arm ring as peace gift but Loki only responds by accusing Bragi of cowardice, of being the most afraid to fight of any of the Æsir and Elves within the hall. Bragi responds that if they were outside the hall, he would have Loki's head, but Loki only repeats the accusation; when Bragi's wife Iðunn attempts to calm Bragi, Loki accuses her of embracing her brother's slayer, a reference to matters that have not survived.
It may be. A passage in the Poetic Edda poem Sigrdrífumál describes runes being graven on the sun, on the ear of one of the sun-horses and on the hoofs of the other, on Sleipnir's teeth, on bear's paw, on eagle's beak, on wolf's claw, on several other things including on Bragi's tongue; the runes are shaved off and the shavings are mixed with mead and sent abroad so that Æsir have some, Elves have some, Vanir have some, Men have some, these being speech runes and birth runes, ale runes, magic runes. The meaning of this is obscure; the first part of Snorri Sturluson's Skáldskaparmál is a dialogue between Ægir and Bragi about the nature of poetry skaldic poetry. Bragi tells the origin of the mead of poetry from the blood of Kvasir and how Odin obtained this mead, he goes on to discuss various poetic metaphors known as kennings. Snorri Sturluson distinguishes the god Bragi from the mortal skald Bragi Boddason, whom he mentions separately; the appearance of Bragi in the Lokasenna indicates that if these two Bragis were the same, they have become separated for that author or that chronology has become muddled and Bragi Boddason has been relocated to mythological time.
Compare the appearance of the Welsh Taliesin in the second branch of the Mabinogi. Legendary chronology sometimes does become muddled. Whether Bragi the god arose as a deified version of Bragi Boddason was much debated in the 19th century by the scholars Eugen Mogk and Sophus Bugge; the debate remains undecided. In the poem Eiríksmál Odin, in Valhalla, hears the coming of the dead Norwegian king Eric Bloodaxe and his host, bids the heroes Sigmund and Sinfjötli rise to greet him. Bragi is mentioned, questioning how Odin knows that it is Eric and why Odin has let such a king die. In the poem Hákonarmál, Hákon the Good is taken to Valhalla by the valkyrie Göndul and Odin sends Hermóðr and Bragi to greet him. In these poems Bragi could be either a dead hero in Valhalla. Attempting to decide is further confused because Hermóðr seems to be sometimes the name of a god and sometimes the name of a hero; that Bragi was the first to speak to Loki in the Lokasenna as Loki attempted to enter the hall might be a parallel.
It might have been useful and customary that a man of great eloquence and versed in poetry should greet those entering a hall. He is depicted in tenth-century court poetry of helping to prepare Valhalla for new arrivals and welcoming the kings who have been slain in battle to the hall of Odin. In the Prose Edda Snorri Sturluson quotes many stanzas attributed to Bragi Boddason the old, a Norwegian court poet who served several Swedish kings, Ragnar Lodbrok, Östen Beli and Björn at Hauge who reigned in the first half of the 9th century; this Bragi was reckoned as the first skaldic poet, was the earliest skaldic poet remembered by name whose verse survived in memory. Snorri quotes passages from Bragi's Ragnarsdrápa, a poem composed in honor of the famous legendary Viking Ragnar Lodbrók describing the images on a decorated shield which Ragnar had given to Bragi; the images included Thor's fishing for Jörmungandr, Gefjun's ploughing of Zealand from the soil of Sweden, the attack of Hamdir and Sorli against King Jörmunrekk, the never-ending battle between Hedin and Högni.
Bragi son of Hálfdan the Old is mentioned only in the Skjáldskaparmál. This Bragi is the sixth of the second of