Yunnan cuisine, alternatively known as Dian cuisine, is an amalgam of the cuisines of the Han Chinese and other ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. As the province with the largest number of ethnic minority groups, Yunnan cuisine is vastly varied, it is difficult to make generalisations. Many Yunnan dishes are quite spicy, mushrooms are featured prominently. Flowers, ferns and insects may be eaten; the cuisine of Yunnan is compared to the cuisine of Southeast Asia as the province borders the region and many of the ethnic minorities or related cultural groups have a presence in Southeast Asia. Three of the province's most famous products are the renowned Pu'er tea, traditionally grown in Ning'er. Yunnan cuisine is unique in China for its cheeses like Rubing and Rushan cheese made by the Bai people. Other influences include Mongolian influence during the Yuan dynasty, the proximity and influence of India and Tibet on Yunnan. Yunnan cuisine is gaining popularity in the west.
Yunnan cuisine portal List of Chinese dishes List of edible insects by country
Chinese Indonesian cuisine
Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine; some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan. Chinese influences are evident in Indonesian food, with several quintessential Chinese favourite has made their way into mainstream Indonesian culinary scene. Popular Chinese Indonesian foods including bakmi, mie ayam, bakso, kwetiau goreng and mie goreng. Chinese culinary culture is evident in Indonesian cuisine through the Hokkien and Cantonese loanwords used for various dishes. Words beginning with bak signify the presence of e.g. bakpau. Mi or mie signify noodle as in mi goreng. Most of these loanwords for food dishes and their ingredients are Hokkien in origin and are used throughout the Indonesian language and vernacular speech of large cities.
Because they have become an integral part of the local language, many Indonesians and ethnic Chinese do not recognize their Hokkien origins. Some of popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, mi goreng, kwetiau and bakpia can trace their origin to Chinese influence; some food and ingredients are part of the daily diet of both the indigenous and ethnic Chinese populations as side dishes to accompany rice, the staple food of most of the country. Chinese influence is so evident in cities with large Chinese settlements since colonial era in Jakarta, Semarang, Medan and Pontianak; as the result numbers of mi and tahu recipes were developed in these cities. Chinese influence is so evident in Betawi people cuisines, formed as peranakan culture, as the result Betawi people held Chinese Indonesians dishes such as asinan and rujak juhi as theirs. To a certain extent, Javanese in Semarang and Surabaya willingly absorbs Chinese culinary influences, as the result they considered Chinese-influenced dishes such as mi goreng, lumpia and tahu gunting as theirs.
Because food is so prevalent in Chinese culture as Chinese families allocate their quality time to go eating out—just like banquet customs found in Chinese communities worldwide—many Pecinan in Indonesian cities are well known as the culinary hot spots of the city, with rows of shops and restaurants. As Chinese and native Indonesians establishing their food business, many eating establishments sprung up, from humble street side cart hawker to fancy restaurants offering their specialty. Areas such as Glodok and Kelapa Gading in Jakarta, Gardu Jati in Bandung, Kya-kya Kembang Jepun in Surabaya, Pecinans in Cirebon, Semarang and Medan are teeming with lots of warungs and restaurants, not only offering Chinese Indonesians' dishes, but local and international cuisines; the Indonesian Chinese cuisine vary with locations. For example, in different parts of Java the dishes are adapted to local culture and taste, in return Chinese Indonesians residing in this region had developed a taste for local cuisine.
In central Java, the food tends to be much sweeter. In East Java, Chinese food there is more savory with a preference of petis shrimp paste. In Medan, North Sumatra and in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, a more traditional Chinese style can be found. Chinese cuisine in Indonesia have absorbed local preference of spicy food and local ingredients. For example, it is common to have sambal chili sauce, acar pickles and sprinkle of bawang goreng crispy fried shallot as condiment. Chinese cuisine influences on Indonesian cuisine is evident in Indonesian take on Chinese dishes, such as mie goreng, lumpia and siomay; however the culinary influences is taken another way around. Vice versa, Chinese Indonesian been influenced by native Indonesian cuisine, it is believed that Lontong Cap Go Meh is a Chinese Indonesian take on traditional Indonesian dishes. The dish reflect the assimilation among Chinese immigrants with local community; because Indonesia is Muslim majority country, some of ingredients were replaced to create a halal Chinese food.
Most of Chinese eating establishments with significant Muslim native Indonesian clientele would do so. However, in Chinatowns in major Indonesian cities where there is significant Chinese and non-Muslim population, Chinese restaurants that serve pork dishes such as babi kecap, char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage and sate babi are available. There are different styles of Chinese food in Indonesia: Traditional Chinese food, such as the Teochew, Hakka dishes. Chinese-Indonesian food with recipes borrowed from local Indonesian cuisine and other European cuisine. Chinese dishes adapted to the local culture and taste, such as replacing pork with chicken or beef to make it halal. New style Chinese food with chefs from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan. Most of the times, the name of Chinese Indonesian foods are preserved from its original Chinese Hokkien name. However, sometimes the name are derived from the translation of its meanings, ingredients or process
Malaysian Chinese cuisine
Malaysian Chinese cuisine is derived from the culinary traditions of Chinese Malaysian immigrants and their descendants, who have adapted or modified their culinary traditions under the influence of Malaysian culture as well as immigration patterns of Chinese to Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Chinese Malaysians are descendants of immigrants from southern China, Malaysian Chinese cuisine is predominantly based on an eclectic repertoire of dishes with roots from Fujian, Cantonese and Teochew cuisines; as these early immigrants settled in different regions throughout what was British Malaya and Borneo, they carried with them traditions of foods and recipes that were identified with their origins in China, which became infused with the characteristics of their new home locale in Malaysia while remaining distinctively Chinese. For example, Hainanese chicken rice is flavoured with tropical pandan leaves and served with chilli sauce for dipping, tastes unlike the typical chicken dishes found in Hainan Island itself.
Some of these foods and recipes became associated with a specific city, town or village developing iconic status and culminating in a proliferation of nationwide popularity in the present day. Chinese food is prominent in areas with concentrated Chinese communities, at roadside stalls, hawker centres and kopitiam, as well as smart cafes and upmarket restaurants throughout the nation. Many Chinese dishes have pork as a component ingredient, but chicken is available as a substitution for Muslim customers from the wider community, some Chinese restaurants are halal-certified. Bak Kut Teh; the root meaning for the dish, "Bak Kut" is the term for meaty ribs, at its simplest cooked with garlic, dark soy sauce and a specific combination of herbs and spices which have been boiled for many hours. Popularly regarded as a health tonic, this soup is eaten by hard working Chinese coolies working on the wharfs at Port Swettenham and clearing estates, accompaniment with strong tea on the side. There are some differences in seasoning amongst other Chinese communities.
Variations include the so-called chik kut teh, seafood bak kut teh, a "dry" version which originated from the town of Klang. Bakkwa - "dried meat", bakkwa is better understood as barbequed meat jerky. While this delicacy is popular during the Chinese New Year celebration period, it is available everywhere and eaten year round as a popular snack. Bean Sprouts Chicken - Ipoh's most well known dish, Bean Sprouts Chicken consists of poached or steamed chicken accompanied with a plate of blanched locally grown bean sprouts in a simple dressing of soy sauce and sesame oil; the crunchy and stout texture of Ipoh-grown bean sprouts is attributed to the mineral-rich properties of local water supplies. The dish is served with hor fun noodles in a chicken broth, or plain rice. Beaufort Mee is a speciality of Beaufort town. Handmade noodles are smoked wok-tossed with meat or seafood and plenty of choy sum, finished off with a thick viscous gravy. Cantonese fried noodles refers to a preparation of noodles which are shallow or deep fried to a crisp served as the base for a thick egg and cornstarch white sauce cooked with sliced lean pork and green vegetables like choy sum.
A related dish called wa tan hor uses hor fun noodles, but the noodles are not deep fried charred. Another variation called yuen yong involves mixing both crisp-fried rice vermicelli as well as hor fun to form a base for the sauce. Chai tow kway - a common dish in Malaysia made of rice flour, it known as fried radish cake, although no radish is included within the rice cakes, save the occasional addition of preserved radish during the cooking process. Seasonings and additives vary from region, may include bean sprouts and eggs. Char kway teow. Stir fried rice noodles with bean sprouts, eggs and thin slices of preserved Chinese sausages. Cockles and lardons were once standard offerings, but relegated to optional additions these days due to changing taste preferences and growing health concerns. Penang-style char kway teow is the most regarded variant both in Malaysia as well as abroad. Chee cheong fun is square rice sheets made from a viscous mixture of rice water; this liquid is poured onto a specially made flat pan in which it is steamed to produce the square rice sheets.
The steamed rice sheets is folded for ease in serving. It is served with tofu stuffed with fish paste; the dish is eaten with accompaniment of semi sweet fermented bean paste sauce, chilli paste or light vegetable curry gravy. Ipoh and Penang have different versions of the dish as well. Chun gen is beef wrapped with a thin omelette and steamed; the name is derived from the Hakka word for the spring season, pronounced as "chun". It is said to have been around since Chunqiu period with a rumor of
Beijing cuisine known as Jing cuisine, Mandarin cuisine and Peking cuisine, as Beiping cuisine, is the local cuisine of Beijing, the national capital of China. As Beijing has been the capital of China for centuries, its cuisine is influenced by culinary traditions from all over China, but the style that has the greatest influence on Beijing cuisine is that of the eastern coastal province of Shandong. Beijing cuisine has itself, in turn greatly influenced other Chinese cuisines the cuisine of Liaoning, the Chinese imperial cuisine, the Chinese aristocrat cuisine. Another tradition that influenced Beijing cuisine is the Chinese imperial cuisine that originated from the "Emperor's Kitchen", which referred to the cooking facilities inside the Forbidden City, where thousands of cooks from different parts of China showed their best culinary skills to please the imperial family and officials. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to determine the actual origin of a dish as the term "Mandarin" is generalised and refers not only to Beijing, but other provinces as well.
However, some generalisation of Beijing cuisine can be characterised as follows: Foods that originated in Beijing are snacks rather than main courses, they are sold by small shops or street vendors. There is emphasis on dark soy paste, sesame paste, sesame oil and scallions, fermented tofu is served as a condiment. In terms of cooking techniques, methods relating to different ways of frying are used. There is less emphasis on rice as an accompaniment as compared to many other regions in China, as local rice production in Beijing is limited by the dry climate. Many dishes in Beijing cuisine that are served as main courses are derived from a variety of Chinese Halal foods lamb and beef dishes, as well as from Huaiyang cuisine. Huaiyang cuisine has been praised since ancient times in China, it was a general practice for an official travelling to Beijing to take up a new post to bring along with him a chef specialising in Huaiyang cuisine; when these officials had completed their terms in the capital and returned to their native provinces, most of the chefs they brought along remained in Beijing.
They were hired by wealthy locals. The imperial clan of the Ming dynasty, the House of Zhu, who had ancestry from Jiangsu Province contributed in introducing Huaiyang cuisine to Beijing when the capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing in the 15th century, because the imperial kitchen was Huaiyang style; the element of traditional Beijing culinary and gastronomical cultures of enjoying artistic performances such as Beijing opera while dining directly developed from the similar practice in the culture of Jiangsu and Huaiyang cuisines. Chinese Islamic cuisine is another important component of Beijing cuisine, was first prominently introduced when Beijing became the capital of the Yuan dynasty. However, the most significant contribution to the formation of Beijing cuisine came from Shandong cuisine, as most chefs from Shandong Province came to Beijing en masse during the Qing dynasty. Unlike the earlier two cuisines, which were brought by the ruling class such as nobles and bureaucrats, spread to the general populace, the introduction of Shandong cuisine begun with serving the general populace, with much wider market segment, from wealthy merchants to the working class.
The Qing dynasty was a major period in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the foodservice establishments in Beijing were stratified by the foodservice guild; each category of the establishment was based on its ability to provide for a particular segment of the market. The top ranking foodservice establishments served nobles and wealthy merchants and landlords, while lower ranking foodservice establishments served the populace of lower financial and social status, it was during this period when Beijing cuisine gained fame and became recognised by the Chinese culinary society, the stratification of the foodservice was one of its most obvious characteristics as part of its culinary and gastronomic cultures during this first peak of its formation. The official stratification was an integral part of the local culture of Beijing and it was not abolished after the end of the Qing dynasty, which resulted in the second peak in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Meals offered to nobles and aristocrats were made available to anyone who could afford them instead of being restricted only to the upper class.
As chefs switched between jobs offered by different foodservice establishments, they brought their skills that further enriched and developed Beijing cuisine. Though the stratification of food services in Beijing was no longer effected by imperial laws, the structure more or less remained despite continuous weakening due to the financial background of the local clientele; the different classes are listed in the following subsections. Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character zhuang, or zhuang zihao, were the top-ranking foodservice establishments, not only in providing foods, but entertainment as well; the form of entertainment provided was Beijing opera, foodservice establishments of this class always had long-term contracts with a Beijing opera troupe to perform onsite. Moreover, foodservice establishments of this class would always have long-term contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite, though not on a daily basis.
Foodservice establishments of this category did not accept a
Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan Province. It has bold flavours the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers, as well as the unique flavour of Sichuan pepper. There are many local variations within Sichuan Province and the neighbouring Chongqing Municipality, part of Sichuan Province until 1997. Four sub-styles of Sichuan cuisine include Chongqing, Chengdu and Buddhist vegetarian style. UNESCO declared Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, to be a city of gastronomy in 2011 to recognise the sophistication of its cooking. Sichuan in the Middle Ages welcomed Middle Eastern crops, such as broad beans and walnuts. Since the 16th century, the list of major crops in Sichuan has been lengthened by New World newcomers; the characteristic chili pepper came from Mexico, but overland from India or by river from Macau, complementing the traditional Sichuan peppercorn. Other newcomers from the New World included maize, which replaced millet.
The population of Sichuan was cut by three quarters in the wars from the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty. Settlers from the adjacent Hunan Province brought their cooking styles with them. Sichuan is colloquially known as the "heavenly country" due to its abundance of food and natural resources. One ancient Chinese account declared that the "people of Sichuan uphold good flavour, they are fond of hot and spicy taste." Most Sichuan dishes are spicy. Sichuan cuisine is composed of seven basic flavours: sour, hot, bitter and salty. Sichuan food is divided into five different types: sumptuous banquet, ordinary banquet, popularised food, household-style food and snacks. Milder versions of Sichuan dishes remain a staple of American Chinese cuisine; the complex topography of Sichuan Province, including its mountains, plains and the Sichuan Basin, has shaped its food customs with versatile and distinct ingredients. Abundant rice and vegetables are produced from the fertile Sichuan Basin, whereas a wide variety of herbs and other fungi prosper in the highland regions.
Pork is overwhelmingly the most common type of meat consumed. Beef is somewhat more common in Sichuan cuisine than it is in other Chinese cuisines due to the prevalence of oxen in the region. Sichuan cuisine uses various bovine and porcine organs as ingredients, such as intestine, head, tongue and liver, in addition to other used portions of the meat. Rabbit meat is much more popular in Sichuan than elsewhere in China, it is estimated that the Sichuan Basin and Chongqing area consume about 70 percent of China's rabbit meat consumption. Yoghurt, which spread from India through Tibet in medieval times, is consumed among the Han Chinese; this is an unusual custom in other parts of the country. The salt produced from Sichuan salt springs and wells, unlike sea salt, does not contain Iodine, which lead to goiter problems before the 20th century. Sichuan cuisine contains food preserved through pickling and drying. Preserved dishes are served as spicy dishes with heavy application of chili oil; the most unique and important spice in Sichuan cuisine is the Sichuan pepper.
Sichuan peppercorn has an intense fragrant, citrus-like flavour and produces a "tingly-numbing" sensation in the mouth. Other used spices in Sichuan cuisine are garlic, chili peppers and star anise. Broad bean chili paste is one of the most important seasonings, it is an essential component to famous dishes such as double-cooked pork slices. Sichuan cuisine is the origin of several prominent sauces/flavours used in modern Chinese cuisine, including: Yuxiang Mala Guaiwei Common preparation techniques in Sichuan cuisine include stir frying and braising, but a complete list would include more than 20 distinct techniques. Although many dishes live up to their spicy reputation, there is a large percentage of recipes that use little to no hot spices at all, including dishes such as tea-smoked duck. Hunan cuisine Chen Kenmin Chen Kenichi List of Chinese dishes Fuchsia Dunlop. Land of Plenty: A Treasury of Authentic Sichuan Cooking. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003. ISBN 0393051773. Fuchsia Dunlop. Shark's Fin and Sichuan Pepper: A Sweet-Sour Memoir of Eating in China..
ISBN 9780393066579. The author's experience and observations in Sichuan. Jung-Feng Chiang, Ellen Schrecker and John E. Schrecker. Mrs. Chiang's Szechwan Cookbook: Szechwan Home Cooking. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. ISBN 006015828X. Eugene Anderson. "Sichuan Cuisine," in Solomon H. Weaver William Woys Katz. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture.. Vol I pp. 393–395. Lu Yi, Du li. China Sichuan Cuisine Bilingual. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, 2010. ISBN 9787536469649. NPR story on Sichuan cuisine and a cookbook about the cuisine
Haipai cuisine is a Western-style cooking, unique to Shanghai, China. It absorbs the traditions of several cuisines from other regions of China and of Western cooking, adapting them to suit the local taste according to the features of local ingredients, it is divided into several major types: French, Russian and German, among which the Russian-type dishes, such as the Shanghai-style borscht, receive a great welcome as they are more affordable. Today, the most famous dishes of Haipai cuisine are luó sòng tāng, fried pork chops, Shanghai salad. Apart from the above-mentioned common dishes, baked clams, baked crabs, jin bi duo soup are popular among the Haipai dishes. For a hundred years since it opened to foreign traders, Shanghai has witnessed the increasing popularity of Haipai cuisine. However, since China began to implement its economic reforms in 1978, an increasing number of authentic Western restaurants set up in Shanghai; as a result, the number of Haipai restaurants declined, only a few are left by now.
But luó sòng tāng and fried pork chops with Worcestershire sauce are still enjoyed and considered to be the flavor of "old Shanghai". After Shanghai opened to outside, Western culture was brought into Shanghai, West restaurants began to set up in the city. According to documentary records, the first Western restaurant, Xiang Fan, was founded in Fuzhou Road. At that time, Western dishes were known as "Fan dishes". Although Western food became fashionable, it was still hard for the Chinese people to adapt to some types of Western cooking, such as medium rare beefsteak; as a result, Shanghai Western cuisine absorbed the essence of different Western cooking traditions and formed different styles of food: French, Russian, German style, etc. French-style cuisine focused on exquisite food. After the October Revolution in the Soviet Union in 1917, a large wave of Russian white émigrés poured into China, in particular in Shanghai, they were named luó sòng. The Shanghai Russians opened more than 40 Russian restaurants in the Xiafei Road, in an area which at that time became known as "Little Russia".
Their two dishes: borscht and buttered bread gained a great popularity in Shanghai due to their low price. By the end of 1937, Shanghai had more than 200 Haipai restaurants, most of them were located in Xiafei Road and Fuzhou Road; the establishment of the rule of the Communist Party of China was a turning point in the development of Shanghai Western cuisine. A large number of Western-style restaurants closed down during this period, only 18 restaurants remained in the Huangpu District after adopting the pattern of public-private Joint Management. Besides, due to a shortage of supplies at the time, "going to Western restaurants" was not a common thing for ordinary people. However, the Shanghai people, whether because of love for Western food or memories of the ancient time, still tried by every means to enjoy western food in this difficult era. One way was to use a variety of local ingredients instead of importing Western ingredients, such as using Chinese mitten crabs instead of sea crabs, self-roll soda crackers instead of bread powder, so on.
Western food was removed from China after the Cultural Revolution. Back the famous Western restaurant known as the Red House was renamed to the Red Flag Restaurant, offered Chinese traditional dishes. Since the reform and opening up in China, the number of authentic Chinese restaurants in Shanghai has increased dramatically. On the contrary, the numbers of Western-style restaurants that offer Haipai dishes have been declined and a lot of Western restaurants shut off in the 1990s. Being quite different from its Russian origin, the Chinese-style borscht, originated in Harbin, close to the Russian border in northeast China, has spread as far as Shanghai and Hong Kong. A Shanghai variety appeared when the Russian emigres settled down in the former French Concession in the early 20th century; the recipe was changed by removing beetroot and using tomato paste to color the soup as well as to add to its sweetness, because Shanghai's climate was bad for planting beets and the soup's original sour taste was alien for the local people.
Cooks fried the tomato paste in oil to reduce its sour taste put white sugar in the soup to make it both sour and sweet. Alternatively, pre-sweetened ketchup can be used instead. Cream is replaced by flour to generate thickness without inducing sourness. Most recipes contain beef and its broth and leaf vegetables; as more and more people made borscht at home, its recipes changed to please the different tastes of its makers. The soup is accompanied by rice; the Shanghai-style fried pork chop is a local variety of breaded cutlet. It is popular as street food. Like in tonkatsu, the meat is flatten by beating with the back of a knife; the pork chop is coated with bread flour before being fried to avoid too much greasiness and to be crispy outside but tender inside. Back to the old days when supplies were badly needed in Shanghai, soda crackers were crushed to replace bread flour, which produced a different unique flavor. In Shanghai, the pork chop is served with the local là jiàngyóu sauce, a localized version of the British Worcestershire sauce.
Known as Shanghai
Shandong cuisine, more known in Chinese as Lu cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine and one of the Four Great Traditions. It is derived from the native cooking style of Shandong Province, a northern coastal province of China. Shandong cuisine is famous for its wide selection of use of different cooking methods; the raw materials are domestic animals and birds and vegetables. The masterly cooking techniques include bao, liu, pa, kao and using sugar to make fruit and crystallising with honey. Shandong cuisine is divided into two sub-regional styles: Jiaodong. Shandong cuisine is known for its light aroma and rich taste, it puts emphasis on two types of broths and milky. Both broths go well with the freshness of seafood. Jiaodong style, encompassing dishes from eastern Shandong: Fushan, Qingdao and the surrounding regions, it is characterised by seafood dishes with a light taste. Jinan style, made up of dishes from Jinan, Tai'an and the surrounding regions. One of its features is the use of soup.
Although less available in overseas Chinese restaurants, Shandong cuisine is considered one of the most influential schools in Chinese cuisine. Modern cuisines in North China are branches of Shandong cuisine, meals in most Northern Chinese households are prepared using simplified Shandong methods. During the Spring and Autumn period, Shandong was a territory of the Lu states. Both states, with mountains and fertile plains, were economically and culturally developed and had abundant aquatic products and sea salt; some of the earliest known descriptions of Chinese culinary methods come from the states. Yi Ya, a retainer of Duke Huan of Qi, was renowned for his culinary skill. Confucius was quoted in the Analects as saying, "One should not indulge overly in fine flour, or in kuai, sliced too thinly". About food, he recommended: "Do not consume food which looks spoiled, smells spoiled, is out of season, is improperly butchered, or is not made with its proper seasoning"; the cuisine as it is known today was created during the Yuan dynasty.
It spread to northern and northeastern China and Tianjin, where it influenced Imperial cuisine. Shandong cuisine is made up of eastern Shandong and Jinan dishes. Although modern transportation has increased the availability of ingredients China, Shandong cuisine remains rooted in tradition, it is noted for its variety of seafood, including scallop, prawn/shrimp, sea cucumber and squid. In addition to seafood, Shandong is unique for its use of maize, a local cash crop not cultivated in northern China. Unlike the sweet corn of North America, Shandong maize is chewy and has a grassy aroma, it is served as steamed cobs, or the kernels are removed from the cob and fried. Shandong is noted for its peanuts, which are fragrant and sweet. Large dishes of peanuts are common at meals, they are served raw in a number of cold dishes from the region. Shandong uses a variety of small grains. Millet, wheat and barley can be found in the local diet eaten as congee or milled and cooked into a variety of steamed and fried breads.
People in Shandong tend to prefer steamed breads rather than rice as a staple food. Despite its agricultural output, Shandong has not traditionally used the variety of vegetables seen in southern Chinese cooking. Potatoes, cabbages, onions and eggplant are staple vegetables, with grassy greens, sea grasses and bell peppers common; the large, sweet cabbages grown in central Shandong are known for their delicate flavour and hardiness. Shandong's greatest contribution to Chinese cuisine is arguably its vinegar. Hundreds of years of experience and unique local methods have led to the region's prominence in Chinese vinegar production. Unlike the lighter, sharper types of vinegar popular in the south, Shandong vinegar has a complexity which some consider fine enough to stand alone; some well-known dishes in Shandong cuisine Jinan cuisine: The cooking methods of Jinan cuisine focus on quick frying and boiling. Jinan-style food is sweet, aromatic and tender. A famous dish from Jinan is stir-fried large yellow croaker with vinegar.
Jiaodong cuisine: Jiaodong cuisine focuses more on cooking and cutting skills. The Jiaodong area is located close to the sea, so most raw materials are seafood. Sea cucumber and scallop are common in this area. A famous Jiaodong dish is stir-fried sea cucumber with green onions. Kongfu cuisine: "Kongfu" refers to the descendants of Kong Qiu; the Kong family have high standards for the quality of every dish. This is why all Kongfu dishes are beautifully prepared with excellent cutting skills. Luxinan cuisine: "Luxinan" refers to southwestern Shandong Province. People living in this area like to eat health food with raw materials. Dezhou braise