Mörtsjön is a small lake in Huddinge Municipality, south of Stockholm in Sweden. Part of the Orlången Nature Reserve, Mörtsjön is one of the smaller lakes of the Tyresån Lake System, Prince Eugen painted some of his well-known romantic landscapes by the lake in the late 19th century; the homestead Charlottendal on the north-eastern corner of the lake is surrounded by old agricultural land where inorganic fertilisers and pesticides have never been used, and, as a consequence, contains many rare species, such as common rockrose, dithering-grass and scarlet waxy cap. The lush landscape around the lake makes it popular for walking, bathing and other open-air activities; the shallow lake is eutrophic. Levels of phosphorus are high, while levels of nitrogen are normal. There are few human structures in the catchment area, why most of nutrients reaching the lake stems from the surrounding forests. Clearfelling in the end of the 1970s caused increased levels of nitrogen in the lake over the following years and ensuing fish kill caused by algal bloom.
The shallowness of the lake still tends to cause a shortage of oxygen, which during winters can suffocate fishes. An inventory of aquatic plants in 1998 resulted in the following list: reed, club-rush, narrow-leafed cattail, water horsetail, wood club-rush, greater spearwort, yellow iris, water hemlock, water-plantain, marsh cinquefoil, marsh-bedstraw, bog-bean, yellow water-lily, white water-lily, broad-leaved pondweed, curled pondweed and Fontinalis moss; the lake is a natural habitat for northern pike, roach, rudd and crucian carp. More than 100 individual mirror carps and scale carps were introduced in 1993. Crayfish plague struck the lake in 1979, but since the signal crayfish has been introduced. Common birds are mallard and gull, while heron and osprey seek food by the lake among grey willow and goat willow. Aspen, alder are standing by the shores of the lake, long-tailed tit and lesser spotted woodpecker are present. Other rare species visit the lake, for example the black-throated diver.
Mammals found by the lake include: mink, several bats such as northern bat, common noctule, soprano pipistrelle, whiskered bat. Additionally, some of the species of amphibians and dragonflies common in the Stockholm area are present by the lake. Geography of Stockholm "Mörtsjön". Huddinge Municipality. Retrieved 2008-02-23. "Mörtsjön". Huddinge Municipality. Retrieved 2008-02-23. "Våren, 1891". Waldemarsudde. Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-23. "Regnväder, Balingsta 1891". Waldemarsudde. Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-23. "Map of Mörtsjön and the surrounding area". Huddinge Municipality. Retrieved 2008-02-23
Sundsvall is a city and the seat of Sundsvall Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden. It has a population of 51,354 as of 2010; the town was chartered in 1621, a first urban plan for Sundsvall was created by Olof Bure in 1642, less in 1623. It has a port by the Gulf of Bothnia, is located 395 km north of Stockholm; the city has been rebuilt four times. The first time, in 1721, it was set on fire by the Russian army during the Russian Pillage of 1719-1721. According to one historian, Swedish industrialism started in Sundsvall when the Tunadal sawmill bought a steam-engine driven saw in 1849. In the early 20th century Sundsvall was an greater centre of forestry industry in Sweden than it is today; the first large Swedish strike was the "Sundsvall strike" in 1879. The industrial heritage makes social democrat and socialist sympathies more prevalent in the Sundsvall region than in Sweden as a whole. In 1888 on the 25 June, strong wind and dry conditions contributed to two city fires in Sweden on the same day.
On this day both Umeå and Sundsvall caught fire. The Sundsvall fire was the largest in Sweden's history, it is presumed. After the fire, unlike Umeå, the decision was to rebuild using stone. Sundsvall's centre was nicknamed Stenstaden. One advantage of the new construction was that within three years the town was arguing that it should be allowed reduced insurance as new rules had been brought in that applied to wooden towns. One disadvantage was. Today Sundsvall is not only dominated by the pulp and paper industry, the aluminium production but there are banks, insurance companies, telecommunications administration and a number of large public data-processing centres such as the national social insurance board; the main campus of the newly established Mid Sweden University is located in the city. The university is a collaboration between Sundsvall and Härnösand. During 1987-2013, there was a summer music festival called Gatufesten. Starting in 2014 there´s a new one called Hamnyran. There are various musical venues.
There is a small guitar festival and a larger heavy metal festival every autumn called Nordfest. Sundsvall is home to the unique festival Musikschlaget, a song contest for groups around Sweden with disabilities, its airport is Sundsvall-Timrå Airport called Midlanda. Alnö IF, association football GIF Sundsvall, association football IF Sundsvall Hockey, ice hockey IFK Sundsvall, association football Sundsvalls DFF, association football Kovlands IF, multi-sport alliance club Kovlands Ishockeyförening, ice hockey Selånger SK, multi-sport alliance club Selånger FK, association football Selånger SK Bandy, bandy Sidsjö-Böle IF, association football Sund IF, association football Sundsvall Dragons, basketball Sundsvall Flames, American football Garmarna, folk band The Same, punk band Sigrid Hjertén, painter Harry Ahlin, actor Per Arne Collinder, astronomer Gina Dirawi, television presenter, host of Melodifestivalen 2012 and 2013 Elin Ek, TV and radio personality, singer Fredrik Ericsson, extreme skier Jessica Falk, singer-songwriter and musician Anders Abraham Grafström, poet Anders Graneheim, bodybuilder Stan Hasselgård, musician Bengt Lindström, artist Kjell Lönnå, musician Fredrik Modin, ice hockey player Max Magnus Norman, artist Erik Ringmar, political scientist and author Helen Sjöholm, singer and musical theater performer Carl Strandlund, Swedish-American inventor and entrepreneur Henrik Zetterberg, ice hockey player Yohio and guitarist Kevin Walker football player for Djurgårdens IF and winner of Idol 2013 Charlotte Kalla cross-country skier Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Swedish folklorist Emil Forsberg, Swedish footballer Elias Pettersson, ice hockey player/ Son of God Sundsvall has a climate, on the border between subarctic and cold continental, leaning towards the latter in recent years.
Temperatures are made milder and regulated by the influence from the Gulf Stream. The weather station is located 20 kilometres to the north and somewhat further inland, which renders that Sundsvall's urban centre is milder in terms of low temperatures by some degree; because of the availability of snow, the Sundsvall Regional Hospital, covering 190 000m2, is cooled down year-round by stored snow, bringing down energy consumption for hospital cooling by 90%. Sundsvall - Official site article Sundsvall from Nordisk Familjebok sundsvallturism.com - Sundsvalls tourist information bureau. Sundsvalltown.se - The alternative guide to Sundsvall. Sundsvallsbilder.com - Blog with photos from Sundsvall
Orlången Nature Reserve
Orlången Nature Reserve is a nature reserve surrounding Lake Orlången in central Huddinge Municipality, south of Stockholm, Sweden. There are four lakes within the reserve: Trehörningen, Ågestasjön, Orlången, Mörtsjön; the reserve, founded in 1998, encompasses a total area of 15 square kilometres, of which 12 km² is land dominated by a system of rift valleys characteristic for South Stockholm. The central part of the reserve is dominated by old agricultural lands and pastures, with preserved mansions and homesteads dating back to the 18th century. Lake Ågestasjön in the north-eastern end of the reserve is one of the most important bird resting locales and breeding grounds in Stockholm County. Throughout the reserve there are a multitude of rare flora and fauna, making it important for regional biodiversity. "Orlångens naturreservat". Huddinge Municipality. Retrieved 2008-02-23
Magelungen is one of the biggest lakes in Stockholm, located between the municipalities of Stockholm and Huddinge. It is considered as of great recreational value and is popular for bathing and fishing in summers, tour skating in winters, it is bordering two nature reserves: Rågsved Open-Air Area. Less than half of the catchment area is composed of forest and open grasslands; some 10 per cent is wetlands and parks, the remaining area is covered by one-family houses and blocks of flats. Two bridges cross the lake. South of the lake is a larger continuous forest, a golf course, an open-air centre. Besides the nature reserve, areas on the northern side are used for riding and Allotment-gardens; the primary catchment area is small and composed of three ditches — Magelungsdiket, Kräppladiket, Djupån — together contributing about 3 million cubic metres annually. Stormwater is brought to the lake via a great number of pipes together bringing about 10 million cubic metre; the remaining catchment area brings less than 1 million cubic metres annually.
Most of the phosphorus discharged into the lake, totalling 1,800 kg/year, is brought from the lake Ågestasjön through the Norrån river, while the primary catchment area brings some 500 kg. Of the 25 tons of nitrogen brought annually to the lake, about 18 tons comes from Norrån and some 6 tons from the primary catchment area; the deepest south-eastern part of the lake suffers from oxygen deficiency and hydrogen sulphide which causes high levels of phosphorus. Most of the zinc and copper comes from roofs, while high levels of metals have been reported in stormwater from a local industrial area. In the south-eastern part of the lake, phytoplanktons are dominated by various species of cyanobacterias, some of which are nitrogen-binding and poisonous, exceptionally other nutrient-demanding algae and dinoflagellates. Zooplankton are only found in small quantities. Variations in quantity appears between the southern and northern parts of the lake, with more an abundant presence of green algae in the northern end where dinoflagellates are substituted by diatoms.
Striking when it comes to aquatic plants is the abundance of spiked water-milfoil and rigid hornswort in the north-western part of the lake. An inventory in 1998 documented Chara globularis, common waterweed, white water-lily, yellow water-lily, branched bur-reed, flowering rush, Stratiotes aloides. An inventory of the fauna in 1997 documented some 55 species, considered a high diversity. Most prevalent was freshwater gastropods, caddisflies and beetles. Common fishes are perch, silver bream and zander. Zander, grass carp, trout have been introduced. Angling is thus popular in the lake. Crayfish plague struck the lake in 1978 but signal crayfish were reintroduced in 1984. A number of birds breed along the north-western shore, including Eurasian coot, common moorhen and great crested grebe. Lesser spotted woodpecker have been reported in the surrounding forest and the lake is the home of a rare couple of marsh harriers. Black-headed gull, common gull, herring gull, common tern, heron, Canada goose, mute swan, greylag goose have been sighted.
Breeding species include great crested grebe, common teal, common snipe, reed bunting. Only seen are garganey, common kingfisher and gadwall. Frog fry was reported in 2001 near the inflow of the lake, an indication amphibians are resettling the area. Several species of bats have been sighted around the lake. Geography of Stockholm Lakes in Sweden "Magelungen". Stockholm vatten. 2007-03-01. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-27. "Vattenprogram för Stockholm 2000 - Magelungen". Stockholm vatten. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-27. "Huddinges sjöar - Välkommen till Magelungen". Huddinge Municipality. Retrieved 2007-05-27. "Bathymetric map of Magelungen". Huddinge Municipality. Retrieved 2007-05-27. "Magelungens vänner". Retrieved 2007-05-27
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Botkyrka Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, not far from the capital Stockholm. Its seat is located in the town of Tumba. In 1971 Grödinge was merged with Botkyrka and in 1974 Salem was added; the Salem part was in 1983 split off again and a new Salem Municipality was formed. Botkyrka has an estimated population of 91,925; the municipality is named after a Christian missionary during the 12th century. Saint Botvid is shown on the seal and coat of arms of Botkyrka Municipality, where he carries an axe and a fish. Another remnant of Botkyrka's Christian medieval history is the Botkyrka church, made of stone. Politically the municipality is Social Democratic, that has governed Botkyrka for a long period except 3 years in the early 1990s. However, with fewer seats the party now governs together with The Green Party, The Left Party. There have been several local parties. For a long period a local party called. A party was active from mid 1980s to mid 1990s with only one purpose - to prevent the exploitation of the small airfield, F18, in Tullinge to become a commercial airport in the 1980s.
In the election 2010 a local party for the area of Tullinge got 6 seats on the agenda of separating Tullinge from Botkyrka as a separate municipality. Botkyrka has two local, newspapers called "Mitt i Botkyrka" and "Södra Sidan", they are delivered free of charge to all households. The Swedish hip hop group The Latin Kings raps about life in Botkyrka in several of their songs. In its December 2015 report, Police in Sweden placed the Hallunda and Norsborg districts in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates. In its 2017 report, Police in Sweden added the Fittja districts to the category; the northern and eastern parts of the municipality are in the contiguous Stockholm urban area. Tumba forms a locality of its own. Vårsta is in the central part; the southern half of the municipality is rural. Botkyrka Northern Botkyrka, has one of the highest percentages of first and second generation immigrants in Sweden. 56.4% the population has at least one parent born in another country. This makes the municipality a multi-cultural community with for example a big Syriac Orthodox Church in Hallunda and a mosque in Fittja.
In 2017, Botkyrka is one of three municipalities in Sweden with a population majority of foreign background. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 53 827, or 58.56% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 35 384, or 47.04% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 91 925 residents in Botkyrka, of which 38 130 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden. Botkyrka is served by the Stockholm public transport system. Stockholm metro has four and Stockholm commuter rail two stations within the municipality. There is an extensive SL bus network. Botkyrka is a municipality with several world-famous companies. Alfa Laval The company is a leading producer of specialized products and solutions used to heat, cool and transport such products as oil, chemicals, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals.
The company owns significant land in Botkyrka used for development of its agricultural division. DeLaval The company is a leading producer of farming machinery. Tumba Bruk The company produces banknotes. Notably, Lars Magnus Ericsson who founded the LM Ericsson company had properties in Botkyrka, including Hågelby gård which today is used for conferences and as an excursion place with gardens, stone age village and more. Fittja Alby Hallunda Norsborg Eriksberg Tumba Tullinge Vårsta The following sports clubs are located in Botkyrka: Arameiska-Syrianska Botkyrka IF Konyaspor KIF Assyriska Botkyrka FF IFK Tumba FK Botkyrka Municipality - Official site in English Botkyrka Municipality Facts - Official facts
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. It is made up of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas designated under the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive; the network includes both marine sites. In May 1992, the governments of the European Communities adopted legislation designed to protect the most threatened habitats and species across Europe; the Habitats Directive complements the Birds Directive adopted earlier in 1979 and together they make up the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. The Birds Directive requires the establishment of Special Protection Areas for birds; the Habitats Directive requires Sites of Community Importance which upon the agreement of the European Commission become Special Areas of Conservation to be designated for species other than birds, for habitat types. Together, SPAs and SACs form the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Furthermore, the Natura 2000 network is the EU contribution to the "Emerald network" of Areas of Special Conservation Interest set up under the Bern Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats.
Natura 2000 is a key contribution to the Program of Work of Protected Areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity. As prerequisite for becoming EU Member, accession states have to submit proposals for Natura 2000 sites meeting the same criteria as EU Member States; some new member states have large areas which qualify to be protected under the directives and implementation has not always been simple. The Natura 2000 sites are selected by Member States and the European Commission following scientific criteria according to the two directives mentioned above; the SPAs are designated directly by each EU Member State, while the SACs follow a more elaborated process: each EU Member State must compile a list of the best wildlife areas containing the habitats and species listed in the Habitats Directive. The Habitats Directive divides the EU territory into nine biogeographic regions each with its own ecological coherence. Natura 2000 sites are selected according to the conditions in each biogeographical region, thus selected sites represent species and habitat types under similar natural conditions across a suite of countries.
Each Natura 2000 site has a unique identification form called Standard Data Form. This form is used as a legal reference when assessing the management of the species and habitats through the concept of favourable conservation status; the Natura 2000 Viewer is a tool to explore the network and gives access to every SDF. Natura 2000 protects 27,312 sites with terrestrial area 787,606 km2 and marine area 360,350 km2 in 2017, is considered complete in the EU terrestrial environment; the process of designation has not always been smooth as the infringement procedures against Member States show. While designation of sites may be near complete, the management and enforcement of protection on sites is less advanced and many sites lack management plans. Natura 2000 faced criticism from developers and politicians who fear that the conservation of habitats and species places a brake on development.251,564 km squared had been designated as Natura 2000 in the marine environment in 2013. The network in marine areas is not considered complete and acknowledged by the Commission as a “key challenge for EU biodiversity policy in the coming years”.
Natura 2000 sites can vary in character. They are not protected in terms of how they are allowed to be used by people. Many sites are farmed and some are in urban areas. Other areas are much wilder; the European Commission developed guidelines on the relation between Natura 2000 and wild areas which are thought to make up around 13% of the network. This was in response to a report by Members of the European Parliament in 2009 which called for further protection of Europe's wilderness; the Natura 2000 network is not well known among European Union citizens. As part of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, the European Commission committed to raise awareness about the network and biodiversity in general with the public. In general, Natura 2000 Sites are seen like an interdiction for developing for most of the citizens. Since appeared in some area, the citizens saw only limitations and interdictions without any local advantages for the specific area; the confusion is greater since in the designation process as a Natura 2000 Site, the local communities were not involved.
The documentations for different areas were done by different NGO not belonging to specific areas without out knowing the areas, with limited studies and ignoring the local communities interests. Due to this lack of awareness, most citizens do not know the consequence of belonging to a Natura 2000 Site. In order to raise awareness about the Natura 2000 network, 21 May has been designated “Natura 2000 Day”; this precedes “International Day for Biological Diversity” on 22 May. The initiative came from SEO/BirdLife who sought and received funding from the EU LIFE+ programme in order to improve the knowledge of this network. In 2013, the first Natura 2000 day took place with the aim to raise awareness of citizens about the importance of Natura 2000 network in their lives. Since every May 21 and the weeks before, awareness actions take place all over Europe. For example, in 2014, school children and pol