Last Glacial Period
The Last Glacial Period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, in the mid-Cenozoic; the term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier retreat. Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent. 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began.
The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat. From the point of view of human archaeology, the last glacial period falls in the Paleolithic and early Mesolithic periods; when the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens were confined to lower latitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens migrated into Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover; the last glacial period is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "last ice age", though this use is incorrect because an ice age is a longer period of cold temperature in which year-round ice sheets are present near one or both poles.
Glacials are colder phases within an ice age. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, about 11,700 years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been "paced" by periodic variations in the Earth's orbit via Milankovitch cycles; the last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere, they have different names developed and depending on their geographic distributions: Fraser, Wisconsinan or Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Mérida, Weichselian or Vistulian, Valdai in Russia and Zyryanka in Siberia, Llanquihue in Chile, Otira in New Zealand. The geochronological Late Pleistocene includes the late glacial and the preceding penultimate interglacial period.
Canada was nearly covered by ice, as well as the northern part of the United States, both blanketed by the huge Laurentide Ice Sheet. Alaska remained ice free due to arid climate conditions. Local glaciations existed in the Rocky Mountains and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and as ice fields and ice caps in the Sierra Nevada in northern California. In Britain, mainland Europe, northwestern Asia, the Scandinavian ice sheet once again reached the northern parts of the British Isles, Germany and Russia, extending as far east as the Taymyr Peninsula in western Siberia; the maximum extent of western Siberian glaciation was reached by 16,000–15,000 BC and thus than in Europe. Northeastern Siberia was not covered by a continental-scale ice sheet. Instead, but restricted, icefield complexes covered mountain ranges within northeast Siberia, including the Kamchatka-Koryak Mountains; the Arctic Ocean between the huge ice sheets of America and Eurasia was not frozen throughout, but like today was only covered by shallow ice, subject to seasonal changes and riddled with icebergs calving from the surrounding ice sheets.
According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must have been times of seasonally open waters. Outside the main ice sheets, widespread glaciation occurred on the highest mountains of the Alps−Himalaya mountain chain. In contrast to the earlier glacial stages, the Würm glaciation was composed of smaller ice caps and confined to valley glaciers, sending glacial lobes into the Alpine foreland; the [, the highest massifs of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkanic peninsula mountains and to the east the Caucasus and the mountains of Turkey and Iran were capped by local ice fields or small ice sheets. In the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers advanced particularly between 45,000 and 25,000 BC, but these datings are controversial; the formation of a contiguous ice sheet on the Tibetan Plateau is controversial. Other areas of the Northern Hemisphere did not bear extensive ice sheets, but local glaciers in high areas. Parts of Taiwan, for example, were glaciated between 42,250 and 8,680 BCE as well as the Japanese Alps
Tyresö Palace is a 17th century palace in Tyresö, Stockholm County, about 25 km south-east of central Stockholm. The construction of the palace began in the 1620s and completed in 1636 by the Lord High Steward Gabriel Oxenstierna, he constructed the nearby Tyresö Church, inaugurated with his own burial in 1641. The palace was inherited in 1648 by Maria Sofia De la Gardie, who had married Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna, nephew of Swedish Regent and Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. Both she and her husband's family were wealthy. Maria Sofia resided in Tyresö Palace, from where she managed her estates around the Baltic Sea, until 1694. Between 1699 and 1737, the writer Maria Gustava Gyllenstierna lived at the palace. During the 1770s the palace was modernized and the first English garden in Sweden was created. Planned by the garden architect Fredrik Magnus Piper, it is a mixture of an English park, a Swedish floral meadow and images from a fairy tale - with the ancient forest as its ultimate source of inspiration.
The extensive natural landscape gardens still exist today. Today Tyresö Palace is a museum. Marquis Claes Lagergren purchased Tyresö Palace in 1892. Assisted by architect Isak Gustaf Clason, the Marquis rebuilt the palace in a national romantic style, inspired by original drawings from the 17th century; the Marquis wanted the palace kept as a living document of Swedish history, after he died in 1930, he left Tyresö Palace to a museum foundation, the Nordic Museum. Today the Nordic Museum owns the palace, open for guided tours during the summer. Nordiska Museet – Tyresö slott Nordiskamuseet Tyresö Palace Video
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace where such a hearth is located. The forge is used by the smith to heat a piece of metal to a temperature where it becomes easier to shape by forging, or to the point where work hardening no longer occurs; the metal is transported to and from the forge using tongs, which are used to hold the workpiece on the smithy's anvil while the smith works it with a hammer. Sometimes, such as when hardening steel or cooling the work so that it may be handled with bare hands, the workpiece is transported to the slack tub, which cools the workpiece in a large body of water. However, depending on the metal type, it may require a salt brine instead; the slack tub provides water to control the fire in the forge. A forge uses bituminous coal, industrial coke or charcoal as the fuel to heat metal; the designs of these forges have varied over time, but whether the fuel is coal, coke or charcoal the basic design has remained the same. A forge of this type is a hearth or fireplace designed to allow a fire to be controlled such that metal introduced to the fire may be brought to a malleable state or to bring about other metallurgical effects.
The forge fire in this type of forge is controlled in three ways: amount of air, volume of fuel, shape of the fuel/fire. Over thousands of years of forging, these devices have evolved in one form or another as the essential features of this type of forge: Tuyere—a pipe through which air can be forced into the fire Bellows or blower—a means for forcing air into the tuyere Hearth—a place where the burning fuel can be contained over or against the tuyere opening. Traditionally hearths have been constructed of mud brick, fired brick, stone, or constructed of iron. During operation, fuel is ignited. A source of moving air, such as a fan or bellows, introduces additional air into the fire through the tuyere. With additional air, the fire consumes more fuel and burns hotter (and cleaner - smoke can be thought of as escaped potential fuel. A blacksmith balances the air in the fire to suit particular kinds of work; this involves adjusting and maintaining the shape of the fire. In a typical coal forge, a firepot will be centered in a flat hearth.
The tuyere will enter the firepot at the bottom. In operation, the hot core of the fire will be a ball of burning coke above the firepot; the heart of the fire will be surrounded by a layer of hot but not burning coke. Around the unburnt coke will be a transitional layer of coal being transformed into coke by the heat of the fire. Surrounding all is a ring or horseshoe-shaped layer of raw coal kept damp and packed to maintain the shape of the fire's heart and to keep the coal from burning directly so that it "cooks" into coke first. If a larger fire is necessary, the smith increases the air flowing into the fire as well as feeding and deepening the coke heart; the smith can adjust the length and width of the fire in such a forge to accommodate different shapes of work. The major variation from the forge and fire just described is a'back draft' where there is no fire pot, the tuyere enters the hearth horizontally from the back wall. Coke and charcoal may be burned in the same forges that use coal, but since there is no need to convert the raw fuel at the heart of the fire, the fire is handled differently.
Individual smiths and specialized applications have fostered development of a variety of forges of this type, from the coal forge described above, to simpler constructions amounting to a hole in the ground with a pipe leading into it. A gas forge uses propane or natural gas as the fuel. One common, efficient design uses a cylindrical forge chamber and a burner tube mounted at a right angle to the body; the chamber is lined with refractory materials such as a hard castable refractory ceramic or a soft ceramic thermal blanket. The burner mixes fuel and air which are ignited at the tip, which protrudes a short way into the chamber lining; the air pressure, therefore heat, can be increased with a mechanical blower or by taking advantage of the Venturi effect. Gas forges vary in size and construction, from large forges using a big burner with a blower or several atmospheric burners to forges built out of a coffee can utilizing a cheap, simple propane torch. A small forge can be carved out of a single soft firebrick.
The primary advantage of a gas forge is ease of use for a novice. A gas forge is simple to operate compared to coal forges, the fire produced is clean and consistent, they are less versatile, as the fire cannot be reshaped to accommodate large or unusually shaped pieces. It is difficult to heat a small section of a piece. A common misconception is that gas forges cannot produce enough heat to enable forge-welding, but a well designed gas forge is hot enough for any task. A finery forge is a water-powered mill; the anvil serves. Anvils may seem clunky and heavy, but they are a refined tool shaped to suit a blacksmith's needs. Anvils are made of cast or wrought iron with a tool steel face welded on or of a single piece of cast or forged tool steel; some anvils are made of only cast iron, have no tool steel face. These are not real anvils, will not serve a blacksmith as such because they are too soft. A common term for a cast iron anvil is "ASO" or "Anvil Shaped Object"; the purpose of a tool steel face on an anvil is to provide what some call "Rebound" as we
Provinces of Sweden
The provinces of Sweden are historical and cultural regions. Sweden has 25 provinces and they have no administrative function, but remain historical legacies and the means of cultural identification. Dialects and folklore rather follows the provincial borders than the borders of the counties. Several of them were subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden; some were conquered on from Denmark–Norway. Others, like the provinces of Finland, were lost. Lapland is the only province acquired through colonization. In some cases, the administrative counties correspond exactly to the provinces, as is Blekinge to Blekinge County and Gotland, a province, county and a municipality. While not corresponding with the province, Härjedalen Municipality is beside Gotland the only municipality named after a province. In other cases, they do not, which enhances the cultural importance of the provinces. In addition, the administrative units are subject to continuous changes–several new counties were for instance created in the 1990s–while the provinces have had their historical borders outlined for centuries.
Since 1884 all the provinces are ceremonial duchies, but as such have no administrative or political functions. The provinces of Sweden are still used in colloquial speech and cultural references, can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept; the main exception is Lapland where the population see themselves as a part of Västerbotten or Norrbotten, based on the counties. Two other exceptions are Stockholm and Gothenburg, where the population see themselves as living in the city, not in a province, since both cities have province borders through them. English and other languages use Latin names as alternatives to the Swedish names; the name Scania for Skåne predominates in English. Some purely English exonyms, such as the Dales for Dalarna, East Gothland for Östergötland, Swedish Lapland for Lappland and West Bothnia for Västerbotten are common in English literature. Swedes writing in English have long used Swedish-language name forms only; the origins of the provincial divisions lay in the petty kingdoms that became more and more subjected to the rule of the Kings of Sweden during the consolidation of Sweden.
Until the country law of Magnus Ericson in 1350, each of these lands still had its own laws with its own assembly, in effect governed themselves. The historical provinces were considered duchies, but newly conquered provinces added to the kingdom either received the status of a duchy or a county, depending on their individual importance. After the separation from the Kalmar Union in 1523 the Kingdom incorporated only some of its new conquests as provinces; the most permanent acquisitions stemmed from the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, in which the former Danish Scanian lands – the provinces of Skåne, Blekinge and Gotland – along with the Norwegian Bohuslän, Jämtland and Härjedalen, became Swedish and integrated. Other foreign territories were ruled as Swedish Dominions under the Swedish monarch, in some cases for two or three centuries. Norway, in personal union with Sweden from 1814 to 1905, never became an integral part of Sweden; the division of Västerbotten that took place with the cession of Finland caused Norrbotten to emerge as a county, to be recognized as a province in its own right.
It was granted a coat of arms as late as in 1995. Some scholars suggest. Sweden was seen as containing four "lands": Götaland Svealand Österland Norrland In the Viking age and earlier, Götaland and Svealand consisted of a number of petty kingdoms that were more or less independent; the leading tribe of Götaland in the Iron Age was the Geats. "Norrland" was the overall denomination for all of the unexplored northern parts, the outward boundaries of which and control by the Swedish king were weakly defined into the early modern age. Österland in southern and central Finland formed an integral part of Sweden. In 1809 Finland was annexed by Russia, reunited with some frontier counties annexed several decades earlier to form the Grand Duchy of Finland, becoming in 1917 the independent country of Finland; the borders of these regions have changed several times throughout history, adapting to changes in national borders, Norrland, Svealand and Götaland are only parts of Sweden and have never superseded the concept of the provinces.
At the funeral of King Gustav Vasa in 1560 some early versions of coats of arms for 23 of the provinces listed below were displayed together for the first time, most of them having been created for that particular occasion. Erik XIV of Sweden modeled the funeral processions for Gustav Vasa on the continental renaissance funerals of influential German dukes, who in turn may have styled their display of power on Charles V's funeral procession, where flags were used to represent each entry in the long list of titles of the dead. Having only three flags as a representation of the entities Svealand, Götaland and Wends mentioned in Vasa's title, "King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends", would have been diminutive in comparison with the pompous displays of ducal power on the continent, so flags were promptly created to represent each of the provinces. At the funer
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower. It is a structure that uses a water wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling, rolling, or hammering; such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, paper and many metal products. These watermills may comprise gristmills, paper mills, textile mills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills. One major way to classify watermills is by wheel orientation, one powered by a vertical waterwheel through a gear mechanism, the other equipped with a horizontal waterwheel without such a mechanism; the former type can be further divided, depending on where the water hits the wheel paddles, into undershot, overshot and pitchback waterwheel mills. Another way to classify water mills is by an essential trait about their location: tide mills use the movement of the tide. According to Terry S. Reynolds and R. J. Forbes, the water wheel may have originated from the ancient Near East in the 3rd century BC for use in moving millstones and small-scale grain grinding.
Reynolds suggests that the first water wheels were norias and, by the 2nd century BC, evolved into the vertical watermill in Syria and Asia Minor, from where it spread to ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. S. Avitsur supports a Near-Eastern origin for the watermill. Engineers in the Hellenistic world used the two main components of watermills, the waterwheel and toothed gearing, along with the Roman Empire, operated undershot and breastshot waterwheel mills. Early evidence of a water-driven wheel is the Perachora wheel, in Greece. An early written reference is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium; the British historian of technology M. J. T. Lewis has shown that those portions of Philo of Byzantium's mechanical treatise which describe water wheels and which have been regarded as Arabic interpolations date back to the Greek 3rd-century BC original; the sakia gear is fully developed, attested in a 2nd-century BC Hellenistic wall painting in Ptolemaic Egypt.
Lewis assigns the date of the invention of the horizontal-wheeled mill to the Greek colony of Byzantium in the first half of the 3rd century BC, that of the vertical-wheeled mill to Ptolemaic Alexandria around 240 BC. The Greek geographer Strabon reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC; the Roman engineer Vitruvius has the first technical description of a watermill, dated to 40/10 BC. He seems to indicate the existence of water-powered kneading machines; the Greek epigrammatist Antipater of Thessalonica tells of an advanced overshot wheel mill around 20 BC/10 AD. He praised for its use in grinding grain and the reduction of human labour: Hold back your hand from the mill, you grinding girls. For Demeter has imposed the labours of your hands on the nymphs, who leaping down upon the topmost part of the wheel, rotate its axle. If we learn to feast toil-free on the fruits of the earth, we taste again the golden age.
The Roman encyclopedist Pliny mentions in his Naturalis Historia of around 70 AD water-powered trip hammers operating in the greater part of Italy. There is evidence of a fulling mill in 73/4 AD in Roman Syria. Another Roman author Ausonius mentions a lot of watermills in the walley of Rhine and its tributaries in the 4th century, it is that a water-powered stamp mill was used at Dolaucothi to crush gold-bearing quartz, with a possible date of the late 1st century to the early 2nd century. The stamps were operated as a batch of four working against a large conglomerate block, now known as Carreg Pumpsaint. Similar anvil stones have been found at other Roman mines across Europe in Spain and Portugal; the 1st-century AD multiple mill complex of Barbegal in southern France has been described as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world". It featured 16 overshot waterwheels to power an equal number of flour mills; the capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for the 12,500 inhabitants occupying the town of Arelate at that time.
A similar mill complex existed on the Janiculum hill, whose supply of flour for Rome's population was judged by emperor Aurelian important enough to be included in the Aurelian walls in the late 3rd century. A breastshot wheel mill dating to the late 2nd century AD was excavated at Les Martres-de-Veyre, France; the 3rd-century AD Hierapolis water-powered stone sawmill is the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Further sawmills powered by crank and connecting rod mechanisms, are archaeologically attested for the 6th-century water-powered stone sawmills at Gerasa and Ephesus. Literary references to water-powered marble saws in what is now Germany can be found in Ausonius 4th-century poem Mosella, they seem to be indicated about the same time by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in many parts of the Roman Empire. The earliest turbine mill was
Tyresta National Park
Tyresta National Park is a national park with a surrounding nature reserve in Sweden, located in Haninge and Tyresö municipalities in Stockholm County. About 20 km from central Stockholm are Nature Reserve; the area is characterised by a rift valley landscape, typical for central Sweden but unique in an international perspective. The national park has an area of 19.7 km2, the surrounding nature reserve 27 km2, making the total protected area about 47 km2. It has been protected to preserve its noted natural values, e.g. one of the largest sections of untouched forest in southern Sweden, to safeguard its importance for recreation. The following lakes and dams are located within Tyresta National Park: Bylsjön Lanan Långsjön Mörtsjön Nedre dammen Stensjön Trehörningen Årsjön The park and reserve are notable for containing one of the largest coniferous old-growth forests in southern Sweden, with some parts of the forest containing pine trees up to 400 years old; the park has deciduous broadleaf forests, open arable land and historical buildings of cultural interest.
A typical feature of primeval forest is the great number of animal species. Up to 8,000 species of animals can be found here, four times as many as in managed forests. Many species are completely dependent on primeval forest as their habitats and can not survive under other conditions. In August 1999, about 10% of the national park area was consumed in a fire; the hot and dry conditions in the area at the time were optimal for a forest fire to start. Sweden's National Parks: Tyresta National Park from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Tyresta National Park and Nature Reserve
Huddinge Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden. Its seat is located in Huddinge, a part of Stockholm urban area; the municipality is, with its 110,000 inhabitants, the second most populated in Stockholm County. The municipality covers the entire central part of the Södertörn peninsula. More than half of the land area consists of agriculture, hills, or lakes, it contains 13 nature reserves. Huddinge borders the following municipalities: Stockholm Municipality, Ekerö Municipality, Botkyrka Municipality, Haninge Municipality and Tyresö Municipality. Björksättra Peninsula Nature Reserve Drevviken Nature Reserve Flemingsbergsskogen Nature Reserve Gladö Kvarnsjön Nature Reserve Gladöskogen Nature Reserve Gömmaren Nature Reserve, including the Fullersta kvarn Natura 2000 area. Gömsta Äng Nature Reserve Korpberget Nature Reserve Lissmadalen Nature Reserve Lännaskogen Nature Reserve, including Lissma-Kvarnsjö and Lännaskogen Natura 2000 areas. Orlången Nature Reserve Paradiset Nature Reserve, including Granby and Hanveden Natura 2000 areas.
Trångsundsskogen Nature Reserve Vårbyfjärden Albysjön Gömmaren Långsjön Trehörningen Mörtsjön Orlången Kvarnsjön-Gladö Kärrsjön Holmträsket Rudträsket Ådran Trehörningen-Paradiset Långsjön-Paradiset Ormputten Öran Lissmasjön Trylen Kvarnsjön-Lissma Ågestasjön Magelungen Drevviken Huddinge has a total population of 110,000, or 4.5% of the population of Stockholm County. The average age is 36.7 years. This means that Huddinge has a younger population than both Stockholm County and the whole country; the population density of the municipality is increasing significantly. Since the 1960s, the population has doubled in size and is among the 14 largest municipalities in Sweden; the population of Huddinge passed the one of Gävle in 2008, the ones of Eskilstuna and Sundsvall as well in 2009. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 43 699, or 39.73% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 24 319, or 28.13% of the population.
On 31 December 2017 there were 110 003 residents in Huddinge, of which 32 190 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden. Stockholm urban area 86,802 inh. Vidja 633 inh. Rural areas 2,465 inh, it is believed that the history of Huddinge goes back at least 1,000 years, to before the Viking Age. When hostile ships approached the community, the inhabitants of Huddinge would climb to high locations and light beacons. Beacons were located around the entirety of Lake Mälaren. Huddinge's coat of arms has its origins in this tradition; the name Huddinge is believed to come from the Uddung's - the first inhabitants in this area, which during the Iron Age lived on the shores of Lake Mälaren nearby Vårby. Huddinge is served by the Stockholm public transport system.
There are two stations on the Stockholm Metro and five on the Stockholm commuter rail system as well as large bus network. Some main line trains call at Flemingsberg. Huddinge municipality is sub-divided into six districts: Flemingsberg Segeltorp Sjödalen-Fullersta Skogås Stuvsta-Snättringe Trångsund Vårby, including MasmoThere are four territorial parishes of the Church of Sweden within the municipality: Huddinge, Trångsund, Flemingsberg and St. Mikael. Election to Swedish municipals are held every 4th year on the 3rd Sunday in September. Election 2014 to the 61 seat council resulted in that the centre-right Alliance of 4 parties plus two local parties stayed in power without own majority; the Red-Green 3 parties are in opposition and the far right Sweden Democrats holds the balance of power but wots with the Alliance. The municipality contains six public libraries, Södertörn University College and one of the campuses for Karolinska Institutet. Kungens Kurva is one of Sweden's largest shopping areas.
It hosts, among other things, the largest IKEA store in the world, the largest cinema in the country, a large shopping centre. In total, it has 15 million visitors per year; the most known sports club in Huddinge is the ice hockey club Huddinge IK, which has fostered a long line of well-known Swedish ice hockey players, such as Michael Nylander, Mattias Norström and Kent Johansson, used to be a regular runner up in the Swedish second division and the qualifications for the Elitserien. Peter Forsberg happened to make his debut as a senior player with his original club Modo Hockey, facing Huddinge away. After years of debate a vote is planned was 2008 regarding a split of Huddinge into two different municipalities named in published documents as Huddinge and Huddinge östra; the intention with a split is to make the eastern part of Huddinge its own municipality after years of protests from inhabitants. Due to large protests it was decided in 2007 to hold a vote regarding the split; however it was proposed.
This has caused a major political split of opinions as the political opposition wants to see