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Hudson Bay

Hudson Bay is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2. Although not geographically apparent, it is for climatic reasons considered to be a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, it drains a large area, about 3,861,400 km2, that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Quebec, all of Manitoba and indirectly through smaller passages of water parts of North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay; the Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw or Wînipâkw, meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg; the bay is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, after whom the river that he explored in 1609 is named. Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 km2, making it the second-largest water body using the term "bay" in the world; the bay is shallow and is considered an epicontinental sea, with an average depth of about 100 m.

It is 1,050 km wide. On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait. Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic Ocean. Other authorities include it in the Atlantic, in part because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean; some sources describe Hudson Bay as the Arctic Ocean. Canada has claimed it as such on historic grounds; this claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken. English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery. On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay; when the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat.

No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, but historians see no evidence that they survived for long afterwards. In 1668, Nonsuch reached the bay and traded for beaver pelts, leading to the creation of the Hudson's Bay Company which still bears the historic name; the HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land. France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht. During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers; the strategic locations were bases for inland exploration. More they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season; the HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use some of these posts well into the 20th century. The Port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner OmniTRAX.

HBC's trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, it ceded Rupert's Land to Canada, an area of 3,900,000 km2, as part of the Northwest Territories. Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation; this mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Hudson Bay as follows: A line from Nuvuk Point to Leyson Point, the Southeastern extreme of Southampton Island, through the Southern and Western shores of Southampton Island to its Northern extremity, thence a line to Beach Point on the Mainland. Northern Hudson Bay has a polar climate being one of the few places in the world where this type of climate is found south of 60 °N, going further south towards Quebec, where Inukjuak is still dominated by the tundra. From Arviat, Nunavut to the west to the south and southeast prevails the subarctic climate.

This is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance and leave the weather cool, where the average temperature of the month is above 10 °C. At the southern end in the extension known as James Bay arises the humid continental climate with a more pronounced and hot summer; the average annual temperature in the entire bay is around 0 °C or below. Except for the James Bay area the average water temperature is 7 °C to the south in January. Although the difference is small in summer in the extreme northeast, wintery temperatures are four to five degrees colder coming near −27 °C. The

A Philosopher by Lamplight

A Philosopher by lamplight is a painting by Joseph Wright of Derby. It is not known when Wright painted the picture, but it was first exhibited in 1769 in London with the Society of Artists; this was one of the earliest of many lamplight or candlelight paintings and portraits for which Wright is famed. This picture was described in the catalogue of the 1801 sale as a companion to The Alchemist Discovering Phosphorus; each has a main figure in the foreground with two subsidiary ones behind, both are night scenes and show old men engaged in scientific research. The painting shows an old man, thought to be a philosopher or a pilgrim, examining a collection of human bones in a lamp-lit cave. Two smaller men, or boys, dressed; the size of these figures is a lot smaller than the main character in the painting. Outside the cave the dark landscape is lit by the moonlight breaking through the clouds. Shells were the sign of pilgrims but they were the emblem of the Darwin family which included Erasmus Darwin, a leading member of the Lunar Society and Derby Philosophical Society which linked key men in the age of enlightenment.

Experts believe. Wright’s friend John Hamilton Mortimer was a follower of Rosa’s so it is possible that Wright would have seen Rosa's work or an engraving of it. Democritus was a Greek philosopher, remembered for making fun of the foolishness of mankind. Though the painting's subtitle is A Hermit Studying Anatomy, his attitude towards the bones he is holding does not suggest serious scrutiny, he is surrounded by symbols of the ephemeral nature of the human condition which include the skeleton, a lamp that will burn all its fuel, the moon which has to be reborn every four weeks and an hour glass. The moon was the symbol of the Lunar Society which Wright was associated with although he never became a member; the preoccupation of the philosopher and trepidation of the two pilgrims may be a reflection on concerns about the new scientific understanding and enlightenment at the time Wright lived

Jesson's Church of England Primary School

Jesson's Church of England Primary School is a 3–11 mixed, Church of England, voluntary aided primary school in Dudley, West Midlands, England. It has existed since the 19th century, but the current school building was erected in 1980 on part of the site, occupied by Park Secondary School until the 1970s; the school traditionally existed as separate infant and junior schools, but merged to form a single primary school in September 1989. Jesson’s Church of England Primary School is located in the central Dudley area and is surrounded by Edwardian housing and some light industry, it occupies part of the site once belonging to Park School. School buildings have dominated this area for a good century. “In 1885 the area was an expanse of open fields, bordered by Grange Road, to the west and Russell Street to the south. To the North were large grounds that belonged to a large building known as “The Shrubbery”, The shrubbery has long gone, but the name Jesson has remained and was appropriately used for the new school which now stands where Park School used to be, maintaining an important historical link with this area of Dudley.

1895 was the year Park School opened and the O. S Map for 1901 shows the school building dominating. Terraced housing now encloses the square on three sides with only the Shrubbery site remaining unchanged. To coincide with the establishment of the school, School Street was built to link Grange Road with another new thoroughfare, Nelson Road. Dividing Park Boys School from the girls and infants, another new road, Grange Street, was added. A field adjacent to the square occupied by the school was needed to meet the increase in population. New housing went hand in hand with the new school and both Alexander Street and Edward Street were built at this time, it is heartening to discover however that the open space the other side of Grange Road to the west of the school site, developed into The Grange Recreation Ground between 1885 and 1901, still exists today as Grange Park. Jesson’s School was founded in August 1856 by the "Will and Foresight" of John Williams Jesson ). Old directories list him as a Boot and Shoe Maker, Dudley.

Mr. Jesson died, from bronchitis, aged 75, at Victoria Terrace on 13 March 1855, he was buried in his vault in St. Edmund churchyard on the 20th of the same month, his portrait hangs in the entrance hall of the present school. Early in his will, only written 10 days before his death, John Williams Jesson named nine trustees to whom he bequeathed £10,000, to be invested: ‘towards supporting and establishing a school in Dudley for the education of boys between the age of seven and fourteen years being children of poor persons who from time to time for the time being shall at the time of their admission of their children upon the foundation of the school to be established under this my will be parishioners of and inhabitants with the Parishes of Dudley and Sedgley or within one mile of the said Parishes.’ The original Charity School opened on Monday 7 July 1856 in rented premises at nearby Shaver’s End. The boys were to be taught reading and arithmetic. Over the years the school increased its numbers to forty.

By 1880 a more suitable accommodation was purchased at Eve Hill where it continued to flourish for a further 28 years as a boys’ Charity School. In 1902 changes in Education were afoot and Jesson’s became a public elementary school and in 1906 it took in the older children from nearby St. James' School. In 1908 Regulations, drawn up by the Dudley Educational Foundation, set out the conditions under which boys could become "Free placers" at Grammar School; as a result of the Hadow Report, Jesson’s became a Junior Mixed School. At the end of 1927, after the Managers of the seven Dudley Voluntary Schools had submitted proposals for the extensions of their schools, it was decided the Jesson Charity School should be adapted: ‘as a school for children of both sexes’. Two years the extensions were seen to be: ‘such as to amount to the provision of a new school, which on completion would provide accommodation for not more than 198 Junior Mixed Children.’ During the years 1968 and 1969 there was a great deal of debate regarding the future of Church Schools in Dudley, the outcome of, to be the substitution of St Thomas’s Voluntary Aided School for a School in the former Park Primary School, to be known as Jesson’s Church of England Voluntary Aided School.

In 1970, following the re-organisation in Central Dudley, Jesson’s was re-established with separate departments - Nursery and Junior. In 1972, it became 8-12 Middle School; the oldest year group in the school were taught at the former St James's Church of England school on Salop Street. Plans for a new school had been discussed throughout the 1970s; the Foundation Trustees, supported by the endowments of St. Thomas’s and St. James’s schools, fulfilled their obligations and financed a new building for the Middle School children, opened in September 1980; this saw the building converted into a youth centre. In September 1989, Jesson’s turned full circle when the first and middle schools amalgamated to form Jesson’s Church of England Primary School. However, the newly formed school was housed in separate buildings. A further change took place a year when the leaving age across the borough was reduced from 12 to 11; the Foundation Trustees saw fit to finance an extension to the existing Junior building in order to house the Infant Department.

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