SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ontario

Ontario is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the westerly Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these include Rainy River, Pigeon River, Lake Superior, St. Marys River, Lake Huron, St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Detroit River, Lake Erie, Niagara River, Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.

There is only about 1 km of land border, made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.

The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions: Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development.

A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment. The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario covers 87% of the province's surface area. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California. Ontario's climate varies by location. Three air sources affect it: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions: The surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter, the release of heat stored by the lakes moderates the climate near the shores.

This gives parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was hit by more than a metre of snow within 48 hours; the next climatic region is Central and Eastern Ontario, which has a moderate humid continental cli

Ninon de l'Enclos

Anne "Ninon" de l'Enclos spelled Ninon de Lenclos and Ninon de Lanclos was a French author and patron of the arts. Born Anne de l'Enclos in Paris on 10 November 1620, she was nicknamed "Ninon" at an early age by her father, Henri de l'Enclos, a lutenist and published composer, who taught her to sing and play the lute. In 1632, he was exiled from France after a duel; when Ninon's mother died ten years the unmarried Ninon entered a convent, only to leave the next year. For the remainder of her life, she was determined to remain independent. Returning to Paris, she became a popular figure in the salons, her own drawing room became a centre for the discussion and consumption of the literary arts. In her early thirties she was responsible for encouraging the young Molière, when she died she left money for the son of her notary, a nine-year-old named François Marie Arouet to become known as Voltaire, so he could buy books, it was during this period. Ninon took a succession of notable and wealthy lovers, including the king's cousin the Great Condé, Gaston de Coligny, François, duc de La Rochefoucauld.

These men did not support her, however. "Ninon always had crowds of adorers but never more than one lover at a time, when she tired of the present occupier, she said so frankly and took another. Yet such was the authority of this wanton. In 1652, Ninon took up with Louis de Mornay, the marquis de Villarceaux, by whom she had a son named Louis, she lived with the marquis until 1655. When she would not return to him, the marquis fell into a fever; this life and her opinions on organized religion caused her some trouble, she was imprisoned in the Madelonnettes Convent in 1656 at the behest of Anne of Austria, Queen of France and regent for her son Louis XIV. Not long after, she was visited by Christina, former queen of Sweden. Impressed, Christina arranged for her release. In response, as an author she defended the possibility of living a good life in the absence of religion, notably in 1659's La coquette vengée, she was noted for her wit. A picture of Ninon, under the name of Damo, was sketched in Mlle de Scudéry's Clélie.

Starting in the late 1660s she retired from her courtesan lifestyle and concentrated more on her literary friends – from 1667, she hosted her gatherings at l'hôtel Sagonne, considered "the" location of the salon of Ninon de l'Enclos despite other locales in the past. During this time she was a friend of the great French playwright, she would become a close friend with the devout Françoise d'Aubigné, better known as Madame de Maintenon, the lady-in-waiting who would become the second wife of Louis XIV. Saint-Simon wrote that "The lady did not like her to be mentioned in her presence, but dared not disown her, wrote cordial letters to her from time to time, to the day of her death". Ninon died at the age of 84, as a wealthy woman. To the end, she "was convinced that she had no soul, never abandoned that conviction, not in advanced old age, not at the hour of her death." Ninon de l'Enclos is a obscure figure in the English-speaking world, but is much better known in France where her name is synonymous with wit and beauty.

Saint-Simon noted "Ninon made friends among the great in every walk of life, had wit and intelligence enough to keep them, what is more, to keep them friendly with one another." Dorothy Parker wrote the poem "Ninon De L'Enclos On Her Last Birthday" and referred to Ninon in another of her poems, "Words Of Comfort To Be Scratched On A Mirror", writing, "Ninon was the chatter of France." L'Enclos is the eponymous heroine of Ninette. Lucy Norton, Saint-Simon at Versailles, 1958 p. 100f. Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Ninon de Lenclos, Libertine du Grand Siècle, Payot, 2014, 432 pages Works by Ninon de Lenclos at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ninon de l’Enclos at Internet Archive Works by or about Ninon de Lenclos at Internet Archive "Ninon de Lenclos". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Ninon de l'Enclos at aelliott.com "Ninon de l'Enclos". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Ninon De Lenclos, On Her Last Birthday Project Continua: Biography of Ninon de l'Enclos

Minuscule 920

Minuscule 920, α 55, is a 10th-century Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament on parchment. The manuscript has not survived in complete condition; the codex contains the text of the Book of Acts, Catholic epistles, Pauline epistles, Book of Revelation, on 239 parchment leaves. The texts of Acts 1:1-7:35; the text is written with 25 lines per page. It contains scholia at the margin. Kurt Aland placed the Greek text of the codex in Category V; this means. According to C. R. Gregory the manuscript was written in the 10th century; the manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 10th century. It was described by Montana; the manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Gregory. In 1908 Gregory gave the number 920 to it, it is housed in the Biblioteca de El Escorial in Escurial. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes. 1. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. P. 283. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research.

Retrieved 11 June 2013