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Hugh Capet

Hugh Capet was the King of the Franks from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the House of Capet; the son of the powerful duke Hugh the Great and his wife Hedwige of Saxony, he was elected as the successor of the last Carolingian king, Louis V. Hugh was descended from Charlemagne's sons Louis the Pious and Pepin of Italy through his mother and paternal grandmother and was a nephew of Otto the Great; the son of Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks, Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born sometime between 938 and 941. He was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the royal houses of France and Germany. Through his mother, Hugh was the nephew of Holy Roman Emperor. Gerberga was the wife of Louis IV, King of France and mother of Lothair of France and Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine, his paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I. King Odo was his granduncle and Emma of France, the wife of King Rudolph, was his aunt.

Hugh's paternal grandmother Beatrice of Vermandois was a patrilineal descendant of Charlemagne. After the end of the ninth century, the descendants of Robert the Strong became indispensable in carrying out royal policies; as Carolingian power failed, the great nobles of West Francia began to assert that the monarchy was elective, not hereditary, twice chose Robertians as kings, instead of Carolingians. Robert I, Hugh the Great's father, was succeeded as King of the Franks by his son-in-law, Rudolph of Burgundy; when Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great had to decide whether he ought to claim the throne for himself. To claim the throne would require him to risk an election, which he would have to contest with the powerful Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, father of Hugh, Archbishop of Reims, allied to Henry the Fowler, King of Germany. To block his rivals, Hugh the Great brought Louis d'Outremer, the dispossessed son of Charles the Simple, from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England to become king as Louis IV.

This maneuver allowed Hugh to become the most powerful person in France in the first half of the tenth century. Once in power, Louis IV granted him the title of dux Francorum. Louis officially declared Hugh "the second after us in all our kingdoms". Hugh gained power when Herbert II of Vermandois died in 943, because Herbert's powerful principality was divided among his four sons. Hugh the Great came to dominate a wide swath of central France, from Orléans and Senlis to Auxerre and Sens, while the king was rather confined to the area northeast of Paris; the realm in which Hugh grew up, of which he would one day be king, bore little resemblance to modern France. Hugh's predecessors did not call themselves kings of France, that title was not used by his successors until the time of his descendant Philip II. Kings ruled as rex Francorum, the title remaining in use until 1190 The lands they ruled comprised only a small part of the former Carolingian Empire; the eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hugh's first cousin Otto II and by Otto's son, Otto III.

The lands south of the river Loire had ceased to be part of the West Francia kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. Both the Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were independent, Brittany so—although from 956 Burgundy was ruled by Hugh's brothers Otto and Henry. In 956, when his father Hugh the Great died, the eldest son, was about fifteen years old and had two younger brothers. Otto I, King of Germany, intended to bring western Francia under his control, possible since he was the maternal uncle of Hugh Capet and Lothair of France, the new king of the Franks, who succeeded Louis IV in 954, at the age of 13. In 954, Otto I appointed his brother Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lorraine, as guardian of Lothair and regent of the kingdom of France. In 956, Otto gave him the same role over the Robertian principality. With these young princes under his control, Otto aimed to maintain the balance between Robertians and Ottonians. In 960, Lothair agreed to grant to Hugh the legacy of his father, the margraviate of Neustria and the title of Duke of the Franks.

But in return, Hugh had to accept the new independence gained by the counts of Neustria during Hugh's minority. Hugh's brother, Otto received only the duchy of Burgundy. Andrew W. Lewis has sought to show that Hugh the Great had prepared a succession policy to ensure his eldest son much of his legacy, as did all the great families of that time; the West was dominated by Otto I, who had defeated the Magyars in 955, in 962 assumed the restored imperial title. The new emperor increased his power over Western Francia with special attention to certain bishoprics on his border. Disappointed, King Lothair relied on Arnulf I, Count of Flanders. In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates, in theory making him one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced kingdom of West Francia; as he was not yet an adult, his mother acted as his guardian

Kyōwa, Hokkaido

Kyōwa is a town located in Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Japan. As of September 2016, the town has an estimated population of 6,136, a density of 20 persons per km²; the total area is 304.96 km². Kyōwa is located on the southern of the Shakotan Peninsula and the northern of Niseko Volcanic Group. Iwanai Niki Kutchan Rankoshi Furubira Tomari 1880: The village of Hattari was founded. 1897: The village of Maeda was founded. 1901: The village of Kozawa was founded. 1906: Hattari Village and Maeda Village became Second Class Villages. 1909: Kozawa Village became a Second Class Village. 1923: Hattari Village and Maeda Village became First Class Villages. 1955: Hattari Village, Maeda Village, Kozawa Village were merged to form the new village of Kyōwa. 1971: Kyōwa Village became Kyōwa Town. Kyōwa's main economic activity is farming, with watermelon, Japanese melon, sweet corn as major crops. In line with the agricultural theme, the town's mascot is the kakashi, or scarecrow, images of which adorn features of the town including brickwork and light posts.

High school Hokkaido Kyōwa High School Junior high school Kyōwa Junior High School Elementary school Toyo Elementary School Seiryo Elementary School Hokushin Elementary School Iwanai Line used to run through the town from Kozawa Station to Iwanai Station. Hakodate Main Line: Kozawa Station Route 5 Media related to Kyōwa, Hokkaidō at Wikimedia Commons Official Website

James Brown Humphrey

James Brown Humphrey known as "Professor Jim" Humphrey was a musician and music instructor in New Orleans, United States and central figure in the formation of jazz as a contemporary musical art form. Humphrey predates the jazz genre as an active performer and is not himself considered a jazz musician. However, his involvement in the formal training of large numbers of musicians along the southern plantation belt of the Mississippi River delta during the immediate years following the reconstruction era resulted in many virtuoso performers who would go on to originate jazz as a distinct musical genre, he is regarded by some in the jazz aficionado community to be "the grandfather of jazz". Humphrey was born on the Cornland plantation in Sellers, Louisiana, a former town northwest of New Orleans in St. Charles Parish, now part of Norco, Louisiana; the son of a slaveholder and a slave, he was sent away by his father to live with a free black family. Although exiled from his original birthplace, his father continued to support him financially.

This support included a monetary allocation for music lessons. Due to this exposure, Humphrey became a proficient classically trained musician. In adulthood, Humphrey would go on to find work as classical musician, playing cornet in the Bloom Philharmonic Orchestra in New Orleans, he performed in the Pelican Brass Band, most playing trumpet. As a music teacher, he would travel the plantation belt by train, organizing brass bands on the plantations along the Mississippi River. Visiting weekly, he would schedule brass band rehearsals at each location sleeping overnight before moving on to the next location. Humphrey taught at New Orleans University on Saturdays. Humphrey's clientele on the plantations was composed of field laborers. From the 1880s to around 1915, many large slave-era plantations along the Mississippi River delta still existed. There was heavy labor competition at the time. At many of the plantations on which Humphrey offered his services as a music instructor, he was contracted by plantation owners to do so as an added incentive to lure the most eligible laborers.

One such arrangement was with Henry C. Warmoth, a former reconstruction era carpetbagger governor of Louisiana and one of the foremost sugar planters and manufacturers of his day. At the close of reconstruction, an advocate for black rights and a former Union Army officer, remained in the south and acquired the Magnolia Plantation, a large sugar producing farm about thirty miles down the Mississippi River from New Orleans. Warmoth maintained a number of brass bands populated with African-American musicians and was a benefactor to many local performers. A key element of this involvement was the contracting of Professor Humphrey’s services in training these musicians. Humphrey taught at other plantations including Deer Range, St. Sophie, Belair, Jesuits Bend, Oakville, all within 25 miles of land along both banks of the Mississippi River. Humphrey not only had influence on the individual musicians in New Orleans, but the dance orchestras of the city. Many of his pupils went on to become the core group of working musicians of the city.

In many cases Humphrey was paid directly by individual students. Although the majority of these students were African-American, he trained a number of white clients as well. Humphrey was adept at playing all brass band and string instruments and taught classical music to his students. However, the brass band movement was at its height of popularity during the turn of the century and the bands of such prolific bandleaders as John Philip Sousa and Patrick Gilmore were enjoying great popularity in performing marches and the craze of the day, ragtime. New Orleans, was becoming a haven for brass bands having more per capita than any other city in the United States. Professor Humphrey is acclaimed to be instrumental in training the large field of skilled musicians that would fill the ensuing boom. In addition to his work on the plantations, which continued for decades, he taught in various towns in Louisiana and the neighboring state of Mississippi. At his home in New Orleans he organized several prominent bands such as The Onward Band and the Pickwick.

Humphrey lead, taught music within, performed in brass bands, dance bands, classical orchestras. He composed and arranged music for his bands and created melodies for his pupils. One key element to his early involvement in jazz lay in his teaching curriculum. Humphrey, known as a tough taskmaster, would write syncopated rhythms as exercises for his students; the nature of these rhythms became characteristic of early jazz phrasing, as his young students were fond of the rhythmic style they reflected. This training developed in many early jazz musicians a concept of syncopated phrasing—something that did not appear in the music of the march or ragtime, but when added to ragtime, the associated style of syncopation was an early manifestation of what was termed ‘swinging’ a piece of music. The list of his notable students includes such prominent early jazz greats as Chris Kelly, Sam Morgan, Sunny Henry, Harrison Barnes, Jimmy “Kid” Clayton, Tubby Hall, Kid Ory, Jim Robinson, John Casimir. Humphrey’s musical abilities indirectly influenced many of the New Orleans jazz greats that he did not teach directly.

One such musician was Louis Armstrong. John Casimir, one of Humphrey’s longtime students, eventual band mate of Louis Armstrong’s, recalled in an interview: On Tulane Avenue, Louis Armstrong used to come around all the time, and Professor Humphrey used to show me how to make C#. Louis sne