Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
American Sportsman's Library
The American Sportsman's Library is a series of 16 uniformly-bound volumes on sporting subjects, from an American perspective, published by the Macmillan Company in the period 1902-1905. Caspar Whitney, the owner/editor of Outing magazine and a well-known outdoorsman and sporting journalist, edited the series. Authors, including Theodore Roosevelt, were noted experts in their fields. M. L. Biscotti, in American Sporting Book Series, states that "he authors of these titles were a "Who's Who of American sportsmen of the era.... Macmillan designed a premium series.... The sixteen titles produced in this series represent that era's best sporting literature." The trade edition of each volume was 7⅞" by 5½" with green cloth covers with gilt titles and decorations. The books cost $2 or $3 each high prices for the time, they included extensive black-and-white illustrations from photographs. Macmillan issued a "large paper" edition limited to one hundred numbered copies of each work; these were 9" x 6¼" and bound in three-quarter olive green leather.
They cost $7.50 in 1902. A 1924 reprinting of the trade edition introduced dust jackets and a reduced size. Macmillan advertised advance notice of, but did not publish, four additional volumes; these include Skating and Kite Sailing. Two useful series for comparison purposes are the earlier British Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes and the British Lonsdale Library of Sports and Pastimes; the Derrydale Press published a series of high-quality American sporting books in the late 1920s and 1930s that, to some extent, supplanted the American Sportsman's Library. Whitney testified in a lawsuit against him that he earned a salary of $1,500 for editing the American Sportsman's Library. Anderson, E. L. and P. Collier and Driving Brownell, L. W. Photography for the Sportsman Naturalist Busby, The Trotting and Pacing Horse in America Crowther, Samuel and A. Ruhl and Track Athletics Graham, Joseph A; the Sporting Dog Henshall, James A. Bass, Pike and other Game Fishes of America Holder, Charles F; the Big Game Fishes of the United States Money, A.
W. et al. Guns and Tackle Paret, J. P. and W. H. Maddren, Lawn Tennis: Its Past and Future, by J. Parmly Paret; the Deer Family Sage, Dean et al. Salmon and Trout Sandys, Edwyn and T. S. Van Dyke, Upland Game Birds Sanford, L. C. et al. The Waterfowl Family Stephens, William P. American Yachting Trevathan, Charles E; the American Thoroughbred Whitney, Caspar et al. Musk Ox, Bison and Goat
Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
United States Fish Commission
The United States Fish Commission, formally known as the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, was an agency of the United States government created in 1871 to investigate and preserve the fisheries of the United States. In 1903, it was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries, which operated until 1940. In 1940, the Commission became part of the newly created United States Fish and Wildlife Service, under the United States Department of the Interior. Robert Barnwell Roosevelt, a Democratic congressmen from New York's 4th Congressional District, originated the bill to create the U. S. Fish Commission in the United States House of Representatives, it was established by a joint resolution of the United States Congress on February 9, 1871, as an independent commission with a mandate to investigate the causes for the decrease of commercial fish and other aquatic animals in the coastal and inland waters of the United States, to recommend remedies to the U. S. Congress and the states, to oversee restoration efforts.
The Commission was organized into three divisions: the Division of Inquiry respecting Food-Fishes and Fishing Grounds, the Division of Fisheries, the Division of Fish-Culture. By an Act of Congress of February 14, 1903, the U. S. Fish Commission became part of the newly created United States Department of Commerce and Labor and was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries, with both the transfer and the name change effective on July 1, 1903. In 1913, the Department of Commerce and Labor was divided into the United States Department of Commerce and the United States Department of Labor, the Bureau of Fisheries became part of the new Department of Commerce. In 1939, the Bureau of Fisheries was transferred to the United States Department of the Interior, on June 30, 1940, it was merged with the Interior Department's Division of Biological Survey to form the new Fish and Wildlife Service, an element of the Interior Department. In 1956, the Fish and Wildlife Service was reorganized as the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and divided its operations into two bureaus, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, with the latter inheriting the history and heritage of the old U.
S. Fish Commission and U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. Upon the formation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration within the Department of Commerce on October 3, 1970, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries merged with the saltwater laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife to form today's National Marine Fisheries Service, an element of NOAA, the former Bureau of Commercial Fisheries' research ships were resubordinated to NOAA's fleet; the NMFS is considered the modern-day successor to the U. S. Fish Commission and U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, the NOAA fleet of today traces its history in part to them; the Commission was led first by Spencer F. Baird Marshall McDonald, George Brown Goode, George Bowers; the U. S. Fish Commission carried out extensive investigations of the fishes, marine mammals, other life in the rivers and marine waters of the United States and its territories; the Commission′s research stations and surveys collected significant data on U. S. fish and fishing grounds, with considerable material going to the Smithsonian Institution.
Three ships were built for the Commission: the 157-foot-long schooner-rigged steamer USFC Fish Hawk served as a floating fish hatchery and fisheries research ship from 1880 to 1926. The Edenton Station hatchery was established in 1899. From 1871 to 1903, the Commission's Annual Report to Congress detailed its efforts and findings in all of these areas. From 1881 to 1903, the Commission published an annual Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission summarizing the commission's Annual Report to Congress and correspondence. Beginning in 1884, the Commission published the seminal work The Fisheries and Fisheries Industries of the United States
Ichthyology known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes bony fish, cartilaginous fish, jawless fish. While a large number of species have been discovered, around 250 new species are described each year. According to FishBase, 33,400 species of fish had been described as of October 2016; the study of fish dates from the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. The science of ichthyology was developed in several interconnecting epochs, each with various significant advancements; the study of fish receives its origins from humans' desire to feed and equip themselves with useful implements. According to Michael Barton, a prominent ichthyologist and professor at Centre College, "the earliest ichthyologists were hunters and gatherers who had learned how to obtain the most useful fish, where to obtain them in abundance, at what times they might be the most available". Early cultures manifested these insights in identifiable artistic expressions. Informal, scientific descriptions of fish are represented within the Judeo-Christian tradition.
The Old Testament laws of kashrut forbade the consumption of fish without appendages. Theologians and ichthyologists believe that the apostle Peter and his contemporaries harvested the fish that are today sold in modern industry along the Sea of Galilee, presently known as Lake Kinneret; these fish include cyprinids of the genera Barbus and Mirogrex, cichlids of the genus Sarotherodon, Mugil cephalus of the family Mugilidae. Aristotle incorporated ichthyology into formal scientific study. Between 333 and 322 BC, he provided the earliest taxonomic classification of fish describing 117 species of Mediterranean fish. Furthermore, Aristotle documented anatomical and behavioral differences between fish and marine mammals. After his death, some of his pupils continued his ichthyological research. Theophrastus, for example, composed a treatise on amphibious fish; the Romans, although less devoted to science, wrote extensively about fish. Pliny the Elder, a notable Roman naturalist, compiled the ichthyological works of indigenous Greeks, including verifiable and ambiguous peculiarities such as the sawfish and mermaid, respectively.
Pliny's documentation was the last significant contribution to ichthyology until the European Renaissance. The writings of three 16th-century scholars, Hippolito Salviani, Pierre Belon, Guillaume Rondelet, signify the conception of modern ichthyology; the investigations of these individuals were based upon actual research in comparison to ancient recitations. This property emphasized these discoveries. Despite their prominence, Rondelet's De Piscibus Marinis is regarded as the most influential, identifying 244 species of fish; the incremental alterations in navigation and shipbuilding throughout the Renaissance marked the commencement of a new epoch in ichthyology. The Renaissance culminated with the era of exploration and colonization, upon the cosmopolitan interest in navigation came the specialization in naturalism. Georg Marcgrave of Saxony composed the Naturalis Brasilae in 1648; this document contained a description of 100 species of fish indigenous to the Brazilian coastline. In 1686, John Ray and Francis Willughby collaboratively published Historia Piscium, a scientific manuscript containing 420 species of fish, 178 of these newly discovered.
The fish contained within this informative literature were arranged in a provisional system of classification. The classification used within the Historia Piscium was further developed by Carl Linnaeus, the "father of modern taxonomy", his taxonomic approach became the systematic approach including fish. Linnaeus was a professor at an eminent botanist. Artedi contributed to Linnaeus's refinement of the principles of taxonomy. Furthermore, he recognized five additional orders of fish: Malacopterygii, Branchiostegi and Plagiuri. Artedi developed standard methods for making counts and measurements of anatomical features that are modernly exploited. Another associate of Linnaeus, Albertus Seba, was a prosperous pharmacist from Amsterdam. Seba assembled a collection, of fish, he invited Artedi to use this assortment of fish. Linnaeus posthumously published Artedi's manuscripts as Ichthyologia, sive Opera Omnia de Piscibus, his refinement of taxonomy culminated in the development of the binomial nomenclature, in use by contemporary ichthyologists.
Furthermore, he revised. Fish lacking this appendage were placed within the order Apodes. However, these alterations were not grounded within evolutionary theory. Therefore, over a century was needed for Charles Darwin to provide the intellectual foundation needed to perceive that the degree of similarity in taxonomic features was a consequence of phylogenetic relationships. Close to the dawn of the 19th century, Marcus Elieser Bloch of Berlin and Georges Cuvier of Paris made attempts to consolidate the knowledge of ichthyology. Cuvier summarized all of the available information in his monumental Histoire Naturelle des Poissons; this manuscript was published between 1849 in a 22-volume series. This document describes 4,514 species of fish, 2,311 of thes
A curator is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution is a content specialist charged with an institution's collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material. A traditional curator's concern involves tangible objects of some sort — artwork, historic items, or scientific collections. More new kinds of curators have started to emerge: curators of digital data objects and biocurators. In smaller organizations, a curator may have sole responsibility for acquisitions and for collections care; the curator makes decisions regarding what objects to select, oversees their potential and documentation, conducts research based on the collection and its history, provides proper packaging of art for transportation, shares research with the public and community through exhibitions and publications. In small, volunteer-based museums such as those of local historical societies, a curator may be the only paid staff-member. In larger institutions, the curator's primary function is that of a subject specialist, with the expectation that he or she will conduct original research on objects and guide the organization in its collecting.
Such institutions can have multiple curators, each assigned to a specific collecting area and operating under the direction of a head curator. In such organizations, the physical care of the collection may be overseen by museum collections-managers or by museum conservators, with documentation and administrative matters handled by a museum registrar. In the United Kingdom, the term "curator" applies to government employees who monitor the quality of contract archaeological work under Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning and manage the cultural resource of a region. In the museum setting, a curator in the United Kingdom may be called a "keeper". In Scotland, the term "curator" is used to mean the guardian of a child, known as curator ad litem. In the US, curators have multifaceted tasks dependent on its mission, but in recent years the role of the curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums. As US museums have become more digitized, curators find themselves constructing narratives in both the material and digital worlds.
Historian Elaine Gurian has called for museums in which "visitors could comfortably search for answers to their own questions regardless of the importance placed on such questions by others". This would change the role of curator from teacher to "facilitator and assistor". In this sense, the role of curator in the United States is precarious, as digital and interactive exhibits allow members of the public to become their own curators, to choose their own information. Citizens are able to educate themselves on the specific subject they are interested in, rather than spending time listening to information they have no desire to learn. More advances in new technologies have led to a further widening of the role of curator; this has been a focus in major art institutions internationally and has become an object of academic study and research. In contemporary art, the title "curator" identifies a person who selects and interprets works of art. In addition to selecting works, the curator is responsible for writing labels, catalog essays, other content supporting exhibitions.
Such curators may be permanent staff members, "guest curators" from an affiliated organization or university, or "freelance curators" working on a consultancy basis. The late-20th century saw an explosion of artists organizing exhibitions; the artist-curator has a long tradition of influence, notably featuring Sir Joshua Reynolds, inaugural president of the Royal Academy of Arts, founded in 1768. In some US cultural organizations, the term "curator" may designate the head of any given division; this has led to the proliferation of titles such as "Curator of Education" and "Curator of Exhibitions". The term "literary curator" has been used to describe persons who work in the field of poetry, such as former 92nd Street Y poetry-director Karl Kirchwey; this trend has been mirrored in the United Kingdom in such institutions as Ikon, Birmingham, UK and Baltic, Gateshead, UK. In Australia and New Zealand, the term applies to a person who prepares a sports ground for use; this job is equivalent to that of groundsman in some other cricketing nations.
In France, the term curator is translated as conservateur. There are two kinds of curators: heritage curators with five specialities, librarian curators; these curators are selected by competitive examination and attend the INP. The "conservateurs du patrimoine" are civil servants or work in the public service. Curators hold a high academic degree in their subject a Doctor of Philosophy or a master's degree in subjects such as history, history of art, archaeology, anthropology, or classics. Curators are expected to have contributed to their academic field, for example, by delivering public talks, publishing articles, or presenting at specialist academic conferences, it is important that curators have knowledge of the current collecting market for their area of expertise, are aware of current ethical practices and laws that may impact their organisation's collecting. The increa