click links in text for more info


The Hulk is a fictional superhero appearing in publications by the American publisher Marvel Comics. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in the debut issue of The Incredible Hulk. In his comic book appearances, the character is both the Hulk, a green-skinned and muscular humanoid possessing a vast degree of physical strength, his alter ego Dr. Robert Bruce Banner, a physically weak withdrawn, reserved physicist, the two existing as independent personalities and resenting of the other. Following his accidental exposure to gamma rays saving the life of Rick Jones during the detonation of an experimental bomb, Banner is physically transformed into the Hulk when subjected to emotional stress, at or against his will leading to destructive rampages and conflicts that complicate Banner's civilian life; the Hulk's level of strength is conveyed as proportionate to his level of anger. Portrayed as a raging savage, the Hulk has been represented with other personalities based on Banner's fractured psyche, from a mindless, destructive force, to a brilliant warrior, or genius scientist in his own right.

Despite both Hulk and Banner's desire for solitude, the character has a large supporting cast, including Banner's lover Betty Ross, his best friend Rick Jones, his cousin She-Hulk and ally Doc Samson, his co-founders of the superhero team the Avengers, etc. However, his uncontrollable power has brought him into conflict with his fellow others. Despite this he tries his best to do what's right while battling villains such as Leader, Absorbing Man and more. Lee stated that the Hulk's creation was inspired by a combination of Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Although the Hulk's coloration has varied throughout the character's publication history, the most usual color is green, he has two main catchphrases: "Hulk is strongest one there is!" and the better-known "Hulk smash!", which has founded the basis for numerous pop culture memes. One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the character has appeared on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectable items, inspired real-world structures, been referenced in a number of media.

Banner and the Hulk have been adapted in live-action and video game incarnations. The character was first played in a live-action feature film by Eric Bana. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, the character was portrayed by Edward Norton in the film The Incredible Hulk and by Mark Ruffalo in the films The Avengers, Iron Man 3 in a cameo, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel in a cameo, Avengers: Endgame; the Hulk first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #1, written by writer-editor Stan Lee, penciled and co-plotted by Jack Kirby, inked by Paul Reinman. Lee cites influence from Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the Hulk's creation: It was patently apparent that Thing was the most popular character in Fantastic Four.... For a long time I'd been aware of the fact that people were more to favor someone, less than perfect.... It's a safe bet that you remember Quasimodo, but how can you name any of the heroic, more glamorous characters in The Hunchback of Notre Dame?

And there's Frankenstein... I've always had a soft spot in my heart for the Frankenstein monster. No one could convince me that he was the bad guy.... He never wanted to hurt anyone. I decided I might as well borrow from Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as well—our protagonist would change from his normal identity to his superhuman alter ego and back again. Kirby, commenting upon his influences in drawing the character, recalled as inspiration witnessing in person the hysterical strength of a mother lifting a car off her trapped child. Lee has compared Hulk to the Golem of Jewish mythology. In The Science of Superheroes and Weinberg see the Hulk as a reaction to the Cold War and the threat of nuclear attack, an interpretation shared by Weinstein in Up, Up and Oy Vey; this interpretation corresponds with other popularized fictional media created during this time period, which took advantage of the prevailing sense among Americans that nuclear power could produce monsters and mutants. In the debut, Lee chose grey for the Hulk because he wanted a color that did not suggest any particular ethnic group.

Colorist Stan Goldberg, had problems with the grey coloring, resulting in different shades of grey, green, in the issue. After seeing the first published issue, Lee chose to change the skin color to green. Green was used in retellings of the origin, with reprints of the original story being recolored for the next two decades, until The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #302 reintroduced the grey Hulk in flashbacks set close to the origin story. An exception is the early trade paperback, Origins of Marvel Comics, from 1974, which explains the difficulties in keeping the grey color consistent in a Stan Lee written prologue, reprints the origin story keeping the grey coloration. Since December 1984, reprints of the first issue have displayed the original grey coloring, with the fictional canon specifying that the Hulk's skin had been grey. Lee gave the Hulk's alter ego the alliterative name "Bruce Banner" because he found he had less difficulty remembering alliterative names. Despite this, in stories he misremembered the character's name and re

Stochastic oscillator

In technical analysis of securities trading, the stochastic oscillator is a momentum indicator that uses support and resistance levels. Dr. George Lane developed this indicator in the late 1950s; the term stochastic refers to the point of a current price in relation to its price range over a period of time. This method attempts to predict price turning points by comparing the closing price of a security to its price range; the 5-period stochastic oscillator in a daily timeframe is defined as follows: % K = 100 ∗ / % D = where H5 and L5 are the highest and lowest prices in the last 5 days while %D is the 3-day moving average of %K. This is a simple moving average, but can be an exponential moving average for a less standardized weighting for more recent values. There is only one valid signal in working with %D alone — a divergence between %D and the analyzed security; the calculation above finds the range between an asset’s high and low price during a given period of time. The current security's price is expressed as a percentage of this range with 0% indicating the bottom of the range and 100% indicating the upper limits of the range over the time period covered.

The idea behind this indicator is that prices tend to close near the extremes of the recent range before turning points. The Stochastic oscillator is calculated: Where P r i c e is the last closing price L O W N is the lowest price over the last N periods H I G H N is the highest price over the last N periods % D is a 3-period simple moving average of %K, S M A 3. % D − S l o w is a 3-period simple moving average of %D, S M A 3. A 3-line Stochastics will give an anticipatory signal in %K, a signal in the turnaround of %D at or before a bottom, a confirmation of the turnaround in %D-Slow. Typical values for N are 9, or 14 periods. Smoothing the indicator over 3 periods is standard. Dr. George Lane, a financial analyst, is one of the first to publish on the use of stochastic oscillators to forecast prices. According to Lane, the Stochastics indicator is to be used with cycles, Elliott Wave Theory and Fibonacci retracement for timing. In low margin, calendar futures spreads, one might use Wilders parabolic as a trailing stop after a stochastics entry.

A centerpiece of his teaching is the divergence and convergence of trendlines drawn on stochastics, as diverging/converging to trendlines drawn on price cycles. Stochastics predicts bottoms; the signal to act is when there is a divergence-convergence, in an extreme area, with a crossover on the right hand side, of a cycle bottom. As plain crossovers can occur one waits for crossovers occurring together with an extreme pullback, after a peak or trough in the %D line. If price volatility is high, an exponential moving average of the %D indicator may be taken, which tends to smooth out rapid fluctuations in price. Stochastics attempts to predict turning points by comparing the closing price of a security to its price range. Prices tend to close near the extremes of the recent range just before turning points. In the case of an uptrend, prices tend to make higher highs, the settlement price tends to be in the upper end of that time period's trading range; when the momentum starts to slow, the settlement prices will start to retreat from the upper boundaries of the range, causing the stochastic indicator to turn down at or before the final price high.

An alert or set-up is present when the %D line is in an extreme area and diverging from the price action. The actual signal takes place. Divergence-convergence is an indication that the momentum in the market is waning and a reversal may be in the making; the chart below illustrates an example of where a divergence in stochastics, relative to price, forecasts a reversal in the price's direction. An event known as "stochastic pop" occurs when prices keep going; this is interpreted as a signal to increase the current position, or liquidate if the direction is against the current position. Williams %R – Equivalent of %K, mirrored around the 0%-axis Detrended price oscillator Stochastic Oscillator at Investopedia Stochastic Oscillator at Fast Stochastic vs Slow Stochastic at Diffen

Mike Kurtz

Michael "Sheeny Mike" Kurtz was an American burglar and gang leader in New York City during the mid-to late 19th century. He was one of the co-founders of the Dutch Mob, along with Little Freddie and Johnny Irving, during the 1870s. Kurtz and the others controlled the area between Houston and 5th Streets for several years until the gang was driven out by "strong-arm squads" under Captain Anthony Allaire in 1876. A year he was arrested in Boston for robbing a silk house owned by Scott & Co. and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment. It was while in prison that he discovered that eating common soap could produce the effect of ill health, his sudden and unexplainable weight loss and other symptoms baffled the prison doctors and he was able to fool officials that he was dying and received a pardon. Kurtz was sentenced to 18 and a half years imprisonment in Clinton Prison on March 30, 1880, however he was released on appeal, he would go on to have a successful career as a bank robber and jewelry thief with his former partner Johnny Irving throughout the 1880s and early 90s.

He was associated with many underworld figures in New York including Billy Porter, Frank McCoy, "Banjo" Pete Emerson and criminal fence Marm Mandelbaum. He and Porter traveled to Europe where they had considerable success as burglars before returning to the United States. On April 2, 1894, he took part in the robbery of Albert J. Knoll's Jersey Street saloon in Elizabethtown, New Jersey with "Dutch" Fred Ryder and ex-policeman Michael Malone, he and his accomplices were arrested for this robbery and all agreed to turn state's evidence. Kurtz and the others testified that they had been hired to rob the saloon by David McAdams, New Jersey sportsman and manager of the Red Jacket Hotel, in exchange for a percentage of the $800 in cash. Spending at least 17 years of his life in jail, Kurtz was estimated to have taken part in at least 150 major robberies amounting to over $7 million. At the time of his death however, his family had disowned him and he was penniless when he died of consumption in Bellevue Hospital on November 24, 1904

Andrew Duncan, the elder

Andrew Duncan, the elder FRSE FRCPE FSA was a British physician and professor at Edinburgh University. He was joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Duncan was the second son of Andrew Duncan and shipmaster, of Crail, afterwards of St. Andrews, his mother being a daughter of Professor William Vilant, related to the Drummonds of Hawthornden, he was born at Pinkerton, near St. Andrews, Fife, on 17 October 1744, was educated first by Sandy Don of Crail, celebrated in the convivial song of "Crail Town," and afterwards by Richard Dick of St. Andrews. Duncan proceeded next to University of St Andrews, where he obtained the M. A. degree in 1762. As a youth he was known as "the smiling boy", his character for good nature was retained through life. Lord Erskine and his brother Henry Erskine were among his school fellows and fast friends through life. In 1762, he entered Edinburgh University as a medical student, being the pupil of Cullen, John Gregory, Alexander Monro secundus and Black. Duncan was president of the Royal Medical Society in 1764, five times afterwards.

His attachment to the society continued through life. On the completion of his course of studies in 1768, he went a voyage to China as surgeon of the East India Company's ship Asia. Refusing an offer of five hundred guineas to undertake a second voyage, Duncan graduated M. D. at St. Andrews in October 1769, in May 1770 became a licentiate of the Edinburgh College of Physicians. In the same year he was an unsuccessful candidate for the professorship of medicine in St. Andrews University. During the absence of Dr. Drummond, professor-elect of medicine at Edinburgh, Duncan was appointed to lecture in 1774–6. Drummond failing to return, Dr. James Gregory was elected professor, Duncan started an extra-academical course, as well as a public dispensary, which afterwards became the Royal Public Dispensary, incorporated by royal charter in 1818. In 1773 he lived on Bristo Street in the south of Edinburgh. In 1773, he commenced the publication of Medical and Philosophical Commentaries, a quarterly journal of medicine, at first issued in the name of "a society in Edinburgh", Duncan being named as secretary.

It was the first medical review journal published in Great Britain. The seventh volume was entitled Medical Commentaries for the year 1780, collected and published by Andrew Duncan, reached a third edition; the series extended to twenty volumes, the last issue being in 1795, after which the publication was entitled Annals of Medicine, of which eight volumes were issued. In 1804 it was discontinued in favour of the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, edited by his son. Duncan's extra-academical lectures were continued with considerable success till 1790, when he became the president of the Edinburgh College of Physicians. On Cullen's resignation in that year he was succeeded in the professorship of medicine by Dr. James Gregory, Duncan followed the latter in the chair of the theory or institutes of medicine. In 1792, he proposed the erection of a public lunatic asylum in Edinburgh, having first conceived the idea after hearing of the miserable death of Robert Fergusson in 1774 in the common workhouse.

It was not until many difficulties had been surmounted that the project was at last accomplished, a royal charter was granted in 1807 under which a lunatic asylum was built at Morningside. Inspired by a miscarriage of justice, he delivered the first lectures on forensic medicine in Britain, at the University of Edinburgh and campaigned to establish a chair of medical jurisprudence there, filled by his son, Andrew Duncan, the younger, who followed him into the profession. In 1808, the freedom of Edinburgh was conferred upon Duncan for his services in the foundation of the dispensary and the asylum. In 1809, he founded the Caledonian Horticultural Society, being afterwards incorporated, became of great scientific and practical value. In his years, Duncan was occupied in promoting the establishment of a public experimental garden, the scheme for, progressing at his death. In 1819, his son became joint professor with him, in 1821, Dr. W. P. Alison succeeded to that post, but Duncan continued to do much of the duty to the last.

In 1821, on the death of Dr. James Gregory, Duncan became first Physician to the King in Scotland, having held the same office to the Prince of Wales for more than thirty years. In 1821, Duncan was elected president of the Edinburgh Medico-Chirurgical Society at its foundation. In 1824, he was again elected president of the Edinburgh College of Physicians. Although in his years, he failed to keep up with the progress of physiology, his zeal was unabated, he discharged many useful offices with extreme punctuality, he used to say that the business of no institution should be hindered by his absence, whether it was forwarded by his presence or not. For more than half a century he walked to the top of Arthur's Seat on May-day morning, accomplishing this for the last time on 1 May 1827, he died at Adam Square in Edinburgh on 5 July 1828, in his eighty-fourth year. He bequeathed to the Edinburgh College of Physicians seventy volumes of manuscript notes from the lectures of the founders of the Edinburgh School of Medicine, a hundred volumes of practical observations on medicine in his own handwriting.

A portrait of him by Raeburn is in the Edinburgh Royal Dispensary, as well as a bust. Duncan was industrious, a perspicuous rather than a brilliant lecturer, he was generous and hospitable to his pupi

Seghill railway station

Seghill railway station was a railway station that served the village of Seghill, England from 1841 to 1965 on the Blyth and Tyne Railway. The station opened on 28 August 1841 by the Blyth and Percy Main Railway; the station was situated on the south side of the level crossing. The Seghill Colliery was situated to the north, on the second of the third line that branched off the passenger line; the primary goods traffic handled at the station was bricks and ganister. The station was closed to passengers on 27 June 1964 and closed on 7 June 1965. There have been proposals to reintroduce passenger services to part of the former Blyth and Tyne Railway system since the 1990s; the Railway Development Society endorsed the proposal in 1998. In 2009, the Association of Train Operating Companies published a £34 million proposal to restore passenger services from Newcastle to Ashington. In the early 2010s, Northumberland County Council became interested in the reintroduction of passenger services onto remaining freight-only sections of the network.

In June 2013 NCC commissioned Network Rail to complete a GRIP 1 study to examine the best options for the scheme. The GRIP 1 study was received by NCC in March 2014 and in June 2015 they initiated a more detailed GRIP 2 Feasibility Study at a cost of £850,000; the GRIP 2 study, which NCC received in October 2016, confirmed that the reintroduction of a frequent seven-day a week passenger service between Newcastle, Ashington and a new terminus to the east, at Woodhorn, was feasible and could provide economic benefits of £70 million with more than 380,000 people using the line each year by 2034. The study suggested that due to the short distance between the former stations at Seghill and Seaton Delaval only one, rather than both, of them should be reopened. At the time it was suggested that, subject to funding being raised for the £191 million scheme, detailed design work could begin in October 2018 with construction commencing four months and the first passenger services introduced in 2021 though by October 2018 such works were yet to begin.

After receiving the GRIP 2 study, NCC announced that they were preceding with a GRIP 3 Study from Network Rail but such a report was not commissioned at the time. Despite a change in the political leadership of Northumberland County Council following the 2017 local elections the authority continued to work towards the reintroduction of a passenger service onto the line, encouraged by the Department for Transport's November 2017 report, A Strategic Vision for Rail, which named the line as a possible candidate for a future reintroduction of passenger services. Consequentially, NCC commissioned a further interim study in November 2017 to determine whether high costs and long timescales identified in the GRIP 2 Study could be reduced by reducing the initial scope of the project but the report failed to deliver on this. Despite this, the county council has continued to develop the project, announcing a further £3.46 million in funding for a further business case and detailed design study to be completed by the end of 2019.

It is envisaged that passenger trains could be introduced as early as 2022. However, the revised proposals, released in July 2019, are reduced in scope from the plan considered in the 2016 GRIP 2 study and propose 4-phase project to reduce the initial cost of the scheme. Under these plans, the reopening of Seghill station appears to have been dropped in favour of reopening Seaton Delaval station, though that option has been excluded from the initial £90 million phase and is instead proposed as part of Phase 2 of the project

Private VLAN

Private VLAN known as port isolation, is a technique in computer networking where a VLAN contains switch ports that are restricted such that they can only communicate with a given "uplink". The restricted ports are called "private ports"; each private VLAN contains many private ports, a single uplink. The uplink will be a port connected to a router, server, provider network, or similar central resource; this concept was introduced as the number of network segregation in a Network switch are restricted to a specific number and all the resources could be used up in scaled scenarios. Hence, there was a requirement to create multiple network segregation with minimum resources; the switch forwards all frames received from a private port to the uplink port, regardless of VLAN ID or destination MAC address. Frames received from an uplink port are forwarded in the normal way; as a result, direct peer-to-peer traffic between peers through the switch is blocked, any such communication must go through the uplink.

While private VLANs provide isolation between peers at the data link layer, communication at higher layers may still be possible depending on further network configuration. A typical application for a private VLAN is a hotel or Ethernet to the home network where each room or apartment has a port for Internet access. Similar port isolation is used in Ethernet-based ADSL DSLAMs. Allowing direct data link layer communication between customer nodes would expose the local network to various security attacks, such as ARP spoofing, as well as increasing the potential for damage due to misconfiguration. Another application of private VLANs is to simplify IP address assignment. Ports can be isolated from each other at the data link layer. In such a case direct communication between the IP hosts on the protected ports is only possible through the uplink connection by using MAC-Forced Forwarding or a similar Proxy ARP based solution. Private VLAN divides a VLAN into sub-VLANs while keeping existing IP subnet and layer 3 configuration.

A regular VLAN is a single broadcast domain, while private VLAN partitions one broadcast domain into multiple smaller broadcast subdomains. Primary VLAN: Simply the original VLAN; this type of VLAN is used to forward frames downstream to all Secondary VLANs. Secondary VLAN: Secondary VLAN is configured with one of the following types: Isolated: Any switch ports associated with an Isolated VLAN can reach the primary VLAN, but not any other Secondary VLAN. In addition, hosts associated with the same Isolated VLAN cannot reach each other. There can be multiple Isolated VLANs in one Private VLAN domain. Community: Any switch ports associated with a common community VLAN can communicate with each other and with the primary VLAN but not with any other secondary VLAN. There can be multiple distinct community VLANs within one Private VLAN domain. There are two types of ports in a Private VLAN: Promiscuous port and Host port. Host port further divides in two types -- Community port. Promiscuous port: The switch port connects to a router, firewall or other common gateway device.

This port can communicate with anything else connected to the primary or any secondary VLAN. In other words, it is a type of a port, allowed to send and receive frames from any other port on the VLAN. Host Ports: Isolated Port: Connects to the regular host that resides on isolated VLAN; this port communicates only with P-Ports. Community Port: Connects to the regular host that resides on community VLAN; this port communicates with P-Ports and ports on the same community VLAN. Example scenario: a switch with VLAN 100, converted into a Private VLAN with one P-Port, two I-Ports in Isolated VLAN 101 and two community VLANs 102 and 103, with 2 ports in each; the switch has one uplink port, connected to another switch. The diagram shows this configuration graphically; the following table shows the traffic. Traffic from an Uplink port to an Isolated port will be denied if it is in the Isolated VLAN. Traffic from an Uplink port to an isolated port will be permitted if it is in the primary VLAN. Private VLANs are used for network segregation when: Moving from a flat network to a segregated network without changing the IP addressing of the hosts.

A firewall can replace a router, hosts can be moved to their secondary VLAN assignment without changing their IP addresses. There is a need for a firewall with many tens, hundreds or thousands interfaces. Using Private VLANs the firewall can have only one interface for all the segregated networks. There is a need to preserve IP addressing. With Private VLANs, all Secondary VLANs can share the same IP subnet. Overcome license fees for number of supported VLANs per firewall. There is a need for more than 4095 segregated networks. With Isolated VLAN, there can be endless number of segregated networks. Private VLANs in hosting operation allows segregation between customers with the following benefits: No need for separate IP subnet for each customer. Using Isolated VLAN, there is no limit on the number of customers. No need to change firewall's interface configuration to extend the number of configured VLANs. An Isolated VLAN can be used to segregate VDI desktops from each other, a