Human capital is the stock of habits, knowledge and personality attributes embodied in the ability to perform labour so as to produce economic value. Human capital differs from any other capital, it is needed for companies to achieve goals and remain innovative. Companies can invest in human capital for example through education and training enabling improved levels of quality and production. Human capital theory is associated with the study of human resources management as found in the practice of business administration and macroeconomics; the original idea of human capital can be traced back at least to Adam Smith in the 18th century. The modern theory was popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, Jacob Mincer, Theodore Schultz; as a result of his conceptualization and modeling work using Human Capital as a key factor, the 2018 Nobel Prize for Economics was jointly awarded to Paul Romer, who founded the modern innovation-driven approach to understanding economic growth.
In the recent literature, the new concept of task-specific human capital was coined in 2004 by Robert Gibbon, an economist at MIT, Michael Waldman, an economist at Cornell University. The concept emphasizes that in many cases, human capital is accumulated specific to the nature of the task, the human capital accumulated for the task are valuable to many firms requiring the transferable skills; this concept can be applied to job-assignment, wage dynamics, promotion dynamics inside firms, etc. Arthur Lewis is said to have begun the field of development economics and the idea of human capital when he wrote in 1954 "Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour." The term "human capital" was not used due to its negative undertones until it was first discussed by Arthur Cecil Pigou: There is such a thing as investment in human capital as well as investment in material capital. So soon as this is recognised, the distinction between economy in consumption and economy in investment becomes blurred.
For, up to a point, consumption is investment in personal productive capacity. This is important in connection with children: to reduce unduly expenditure on their consumption may lower their efficiency in after-life. For adults, after we have descended a certain distance along the scale of wealth, so that we are beyond the region of luxuries and "unnecessary" comforts, a check to personal consumption is a check to investment; the use of the term in the modern neoclassical economic literature dates back to Jacob Mincer's article "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution" in the Journal of Political Economy in 1958. Theodore Schultz contributed to the development of the subject matter; the best-known application of the idea of "human capital" in economics is that of Mincer and Gary Becker of the "Chicago School" of economics. Becker's book entitled Human Capital, published in 1964, became a standard reference for many years. In this view, human capital is similar to "physical means of production", e.g. factories and machines: one can invest in human capital and one's outputs depend on the rate of return on the human capital one owns.
Thus, human capital is a means of production, into which additional investment yields additional output. Human capital is substitutable, but not labor, or fixed capital; some contemporary growth theories see human capital as an important economic growth factor. Further research shows the relevance of education for the economic welfare of people. Adam Smith defined four types of fixed capital; the four types were: instruments of the trade. Smith defined human capital as follows: Fourthly, of the acquired and useful abilities of all the inhabitants or members of the society; the acquisition of such talents, by the maintenance of the acquirer during his education, study, or apprenticeship, always costs a real expense, a capital fixed and realized, as it were, in his person. Those talents, as they make a part of his fortune, so do they that of the society to which he belongs; the improved dexterity of a workman may be considered in the same light as a machine or instrument of trade which facilitates and abridges labor, which, though it costs a certain expense, repays that expense with a profit.
Therefore, Smith argued, the productive power of labor are both dependent on the division of labor: The greatest improvement in the productive powers of labour, the greater part of the skill and judgement with which it is any where directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division of labour. There is a complex relationship between the division of labor and human capital. In the 1990s, the concept of human capital was extended to include natural abilities, physical fitness and healthiness, which are crucial for an individual’s success in acquiring knowledge and skills. Human capital is a collection of traits – all the knowledge, skills, experience, training and wisdom possessed individually and collectively by individuals in a population; these resources are the total capacity of the people that represents a form of wealth which can be directed to accomplish the goals of the nation or state or a portion thereof. The human capital is further distributed into three kinds.
Yabelo Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area and wildlife sanctuary in southern Ethiopia. It is located in the Borena Zone of the Oromia Region west of the town of Yabelo, having an area of 2,500 square kilometers and elevations ranging from 1430 to 2000 meters above sea level with a latitude and longitude of 4°55′N 38°25′E; the area of the sanctuary is notable for its red soils. The general vegetation-type is Acacia savanna, the major trees being A. drepanolobium on black cotton soil, A. brevispica and A. horrida on the slopes. There are patches of Balanites aegyptiaca, several species of Commiphora and Terminalia at the lower altitudes; the higher parts of the hills were covered with forest dominated by Juniperus procera and Olea europaea cuspidata. Endemic species of birds found in this protected area include Stresemann's bushcrow and white-tailed swallow. Yabelo suffers from a great deal of deforestation, illegal hunting of the spotted cats and ostrich is common; some ex-servicemen have settled within the sanctuary boundaries
Stacey Porter is an Australian professional indigenous softball first/third baseman. She represents New South Wales in Australian national competitions, where she has won several national championships on the junior and senior team, she played university softball for the University of Hawaii from 2001 to 2003 where she set several records and was named to the All-American team. She plays professional softball in Japan, she represented Australia at the junior level and continues to represent Australia at the senior level and is current Australian Captain. Stacey competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics where she won a silver medal and the 2008 Summer Olympics where she won a bronze medal and has competed in multiple world softball championships. Porter, an Indigenous Australian, was born on 29 March 1982 in New South Wales, she is 183 centimetres tall. She attended Peel High School, she attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa and was a freshman in 2001, a junior in 2003. Growing up, she wanted to be a travel agent.
Porter has moved around. From 2001 to 2003, she was in Hawaii, U. S. where she attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa. In 2006, she was living in Stanhope Gardens, New South Wales and in 2008, she was living in Glenwood, New South Wales, she moved to the Sydney area from Tamworth to gain access to better training facilities. Porter plays third base; the Eastern Reporter and Stirling Times describe her as the "woman regarded as the worlds best batter". In 2008, she played for had a scholarship with and played for the Australian Institute of Sport team. In 2012, she coached the Western Desert softball team in an exhibition match in Perth, Western Australia; the Desert team was created by Indigenous Sports Program, part of the Western Australian Department of Sport and Recreation run with Softball Western Australia and Newcrest Mining. The team she coached drew players from Parnngurr, Jigalong, Kiwirrkurra and Punmu, she plays Australian club softball for the Brisbane Panthers Softball Club. In 2008, she was playing professionally in the Japanese Softball League.
Porter was the first indigenous Australian to represent the country at softball in the Olympics, when she competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics. In March 2012, it was announced that she and Vanessa Stokes would be part of a programme funded by Softball Australia and the federal government to increase aboriginal involvement in the sport. Porter, playing third base, joined the University of Hawaii team in 2001, where she started in 49 games and played in 53 total games. While there, she had six home runs, scoring the sixth in a game against Texas Tech and in the process broke the university's freshman home run record; that season, she finished second on the team total home runs. She was honoured with being the WAC Player of the Week in the fifth on 7 May 2001, she was twice named to all-tournaments teams, once for the Malihini Tourney and the second time for the Hawai`i Invitational. Porter played with the university again for their 2002 season; this season, she hit in the clean-up position. At the end of the season, her statistics included a hitting 47 RBIs with 24 coming against conference opponents, 15 home runs overall and seven against conference opponents, having a batting average of.347 against conference opponents.
In a 30 March game against San Jose State University, she set a personal career-high four hits in a single game. That season, she had a streak of having hits nine games in a row. Porter returned for the university's 2003 season, she started every game that season. She was named to the Louisville Slugger/NFCA Division I All-America first team. At the end of the season, she broke her own school and conference record for the number of home runs in a single season having batted 17 of them and had a batting average of.479. She was named to the Western Athletic Conference first team, named the conferences player of the year and was named to a NFCA/Louisville Slugger first-team All-American, only the eighth player from her university to earn that recognition, she sat out her senior year to spend more time with the Australian national team. Porter represents New South Wales in national competitions. In 1997, she represented the state at the U16 national championships, she was with the U16 team again in 1999 at the national competition.
In all three years, she was named the Batter of the Series. She moved up to the U19 team, where at one tournament she was named the "Most Valuable Player" after having tournament stats of batting average of.607, with five doubles, five homers, 17 runs scored. Porter has represented Australia at the junior national level. In 1998, she was a member of the Australian Junior Superball Team and accompanied the team on a tour of the United States. In 1999, she represented Australia as a member of the U19 team at the Junior World Championships in Taipei. Porter made her debut as a twenty-year-old, she was a possible for the 2004 Summer Olympics team. In January 2004, she was given a scholarship; the team had 25 players and was the one that Olympic selectors would choose from to compete at the Games. She represented Australia at the 2004 Summer Olympics and 2008 Summer Olympics, winning a silver medal at the 2004 Games. In the gold medal match, she hit a double; this was the only time at the 2004 Games where an opposition hitter scored a run off an American pitcher.
Maryland Route 781 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. Known as Delancy Road, the state highway runs 1.01 miles from U. S. Route 40 north to MD 281 in Elkton close to the Delaware state line. Delancy Road was brought into the state highway system as MD 781 in 1984. MD 781 begins at an intersection with US 40 in the town of Elkton 0.23 miles west of the U. S. Highway's crossing of the Delaware state line; the highway heads north as a two-lane road to the west of the state line and to the east of Grays Hill. MD 781 leaves the town of Elkton about halfway through its course, but the route follows a finger of unincorporated area between sections of the town to its northern terminus; that terminus is at MD 281 0.34 miles west of that highway's crossing of the state line. Delancy Road long predates being a part of the state highway system, the road having existed since at least 1898; the highway was designated MD 781 in December 1984 after being transferred from county to state maintenance in a May 16, 1984, road transfer agreement.
The entire route is in Cecil County. Maryland Roads portal MDRoads: MD 781
Portland is a city in and the county seat of Jay County, United States. The population was 6,223 at the 2010 census, in 2018 the estimated population was 6,085. Portland was platted in 1837, it was named after Maine. The Jay County Courthouse, Portland Commercial Historic District, Jonas Votaw House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Portland is located in central Jay County at 40°26′2″N 84°58′48″W, along the Salamonie River. U. S. Route 27 runs through the center of the city, leading north 49 miles to Fort Wayne and south 43 miles to Richmond. Indiana State Road 26 enters Portland from the west on Votaw Street and from the east on Water Street. Indiana State Road 67 follows SR-26 west out of Portland leads southwest 29 miles to Muncie. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Portland has a total area of 4.97 square miles, of which 1.6 acres, or 0.05%, are water. The Salamonie River runs through the city just south of its center; the Salamonie is a west-flowing tributary of the Wabash River.
As of the census of 2010, there were 6,223 people, 2,607 households, 1,620 families living in the city. The population density was 1,338.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,005 housing units at an average density of 646.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.5% White, 0.4% African American, 0.5% Asian, 3.1% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.8% of the population. There were 2,607 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 14.0% single female householder, 5.4% single male householder, 37.9% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 39.4 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,437 people, 2,739 households, 1,750 families living in the city.
The population density was 1,566.8 people per square mile. There were 2,928 housing units at an average density of 712.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.49% White, 0.37% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander 1.80% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.36% of the population. There were 2,739 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,045, the median income for a family was $41,329. Males had a median income of $29,728 versus $21,134 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,375. About 5.1% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. The town has the Jay County Public Library. Leon Ames, founder of Screen Actors Guild in 1933 Stephanie Arnold, competed in women's archery in the 2004 Olympics Pete Brewster, professional football player Pete Daily, musician Kevin A. Ford, piloted NASA space shuttle mission to International Space Station in 2009 Leslie Glasgow, government administrator, conservationist, born in Portland in 1914 Elwood Haynes invented the clutch-driven automobile in 1894 Jack Imel, television producer, Lawrence Welk Show Richard T. James, Indiana lieutenant governor 1945-49 Kenneth Dollins, best known as Kenneth MacDonald.
Shanks, U. S. Representative from Indiana, Union Army major general Twyla Tharp and Tony Award-winning choreographer Greg Williams, WNBA coach, college basketball player at Rice University City of Portland official website The Commercial Review "Portland. A city and the county seat of Jay County, Ind.". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
David Brodie, was a captain in the Royal Navy. He commanded HMS Canterbury and HMS Strafford, fought at the Battle of Porto Bello, Battle of Santiago de Cuba, the Battle of Havana. Brodie was one of a collateral branch of the Brodies of Brodie, after serving for many years, both in the navy and mercantile marine, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant on 5 October 1736. In 1739 he served under Vernon at Porto Bello, in 1741 at Cartagena. On 3 May 1743 he was made commander, appointed to the sloop Merlin in the West Indies, for about four years was engaged with French and Spanish cruisers and privateers, several of which he captured and brought in. In one of these encounters he lost his right arm. Early in 1747 Rear-Admiral Knowles appointed him acting captain of HMS Canterbury. In this ship he was present at the unsuccessful attempt on Santiago, had a distinguished share in the battle of Havana on 1 October 1748, when the one prize of victory, struck to Strafford. In the courts-martial which followed, Brodie's evidence told against the admiral's accusers.
In 1750 Brodie was compelled to memorialise the admiralty, representing himself as incapacitated from further service, praying for some mark of the royal favour. In 1753 he presented another and stronger memorial to the same effect, consequent on which a pension was granted to him. In 1762, on the declaration of war with Spain, he applied to the admiralty for a command, his application was not accepted, accordingly when, in 1778, his seniority seemed to entitle him to flag rank, he was passed over as not having served "during the last war".' This was the standing rule, was in no way exceptional to Brodie, although in his case, as in many others, it fell harshly on old officers of good service. On 5 March 1787 Brodie's claims were brought up in the House of Commons, he was represented as a much-injured man, deprived of the promotion to which he was justly entitled; the house negatived the motion made in Brodie's favour. The case, led to a modification of the rule, from that time captains who were not eligible for promotion when their turn arrived were distinctly placed on a superannuated list.
Brodie died in 1787, was buried at the Abbey Church in Bath. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Brodie, David". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900