SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone to acts with another person in varying patterns of frequency, for a wide variety of reasons. Sexual activity results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced while others are more subtle. Sexual activity may include conduct and activities which are intended to arouse the sexual interest of another or enhance the sex life of another, such as strategies to find or attract partners, or personal interactions between individuals. Sexual activity may follow sexual arousal. Human sexual activity has sociological, emotional and biological aspects. In some cultures, sexual activity is considered acceptable only within marriage, while premarital and extramarital sex are taboo; some sexual activities are illegal either universally or in some countries or subnational jurisdictions, while some are considered contrary to the norms of certain societies or cultures.

Two examples that are criminal offences in most jurisdictions are sexual assault and sexual activity with a person below the local age of consent. Sexual activity can be classified in a number of ways: acts which involve one person such as masturbation, or two or more people such as vaginal sex, anal sex, oral sex or mutual masturbation. Penetrative sex between two people may be described as sexual intercourse. If there are more than two participants in a sex act, it may be referred to as group sex. Autoerotic sexual activity can involve use of dildos, butt plugs, other sex toys, though these devices can be used with a partner. Sexual activity can be classified into the gender and sexual orientation of the participants, as well as by the relationship of the participants. For example, the relationships can be ones of marriage, intimate partners, casual sex partners or anonymous. Sexual activity can be regarded as conventional or as alternative, for example, paraphilia, or BDSM activities. Fetishism can take many forms ranging from the desire for certain body parts, for example large breasts, navels or foot worship.

The object of desire can be shoes, lingerie, leather or rubber items. Some non-conventional autoerotic practices can be dangerous; these include erotic self-bondage. The potential for injury or death that exists while engaging in the partnered versions of these fetishes becomes drastically increased in the autoerotic case due to the isolation and lack of assistance in the event of a problem. Sexual activity can be consensual, which means that both or all participants agree to take part and are of the age that they can consent, or it may take place under force or duress, called sexual assault or rape. In different cultures and countries, various sexual activities may be lawful or illegal in regards to the age, marital status or other factors of the participants, or otherwise contrary to social norms or accepted sexual morals. In evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology, human mating strategies are a set of behaviors used by individuals to attract and retain mates. Mating strategies overlap with reproductive strategies, which encompass a broader set of behaviors involving the timing of reproduction and the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring.

Relative to other animals, human mating strategies are unique in their relationship with cultural variables such as the institution of marriage. Humans may seek out individuals with the intention of forming a long-term intimate relationship, casual relationship, or friendship; the human desire for companionship is one of the strongest human drives. It is an innate feature of human nature, may be related to the sex drive; the human mating process encompasses the social and cultural processes whereby one person may meet another to assess suitability, the courtship process and the process of forming an interpersonal relationship. Commonalities, can be found between humans and nonhuman animals in mating behavior; the physiological responses during sexual stimulation are similar for both men and women and there are four phases. During the excitement phase, muscle tension and blood flow increase in and around the sexual organs and respiration increase and blood pressure rises. Men and women experience a "sex flush" on the skin of the upper face.

A woman's vagina becomes lubricated and her clitoris becomes swollen. A man's penis will become erect. During the plateau phase, heart rate and muscle tension increase further. A man's urinary bladder closes to prevent urine from mixing with semen. A woman's clitoris may withdraw and there is more lubrication, outer swelling and muscles tighten and reduction of diameter. During the orgasm phase, breathing becomes rapid and the pelvic muscles begin a series of rhythmic contractions. Both men and women experience quick cycles of muscle contraction of lower pelvic muscles and women experience uterine and vaginal contractions. A large genetic

Distance education librarian

A Distance education librarian or distance learning librarian is a specialized academic librarian whose primary duties involve serving the information needs of distance education students and staff. This position involves coordinating the duties of many librarians and library staff to ensure adequate access to library resources for those who enroll in and teach distance education courses. Recognizing that distance education offerings were growing in post-secondary educational institutions, the Association of College and Research Libraries published ‘’Guidelines for Distance Learning Libraries in 2000’’; these guidelines asserted that, “members of the distance learning community are entitled to library resources equivalent to those provided for students and faculty in traditional campus settings". July 1, 2008, the ACRL Board of Directors approved the ‘’Standards for Distance Learning Library Services’’; the Standards are divided into two parts, Part I Foundations, provides an executive summary of the Access Entitlement Principle, outlines the parameters by which the Standards will serve as a living document, offers definitions of terms associated with both distance education and academic librarianship, formalizes the Standards’ philosophy as ‘’A Bill of Rights for the Distance Learning Community’’.

Part II, Specific Requirements, dictates the fiscal responsibilities, library education, management and equipment, resources and documentation necessary for each institution to provide equivalent services to distance education students and faculty. Traditionally, academic librarians provide reference services to students and staff. Most institutions were providing support to distance education students and staff; the ACRL’s ‘’Standards for Distance Learning Library Services’’ made it necessary to formalize the function and duties of academic librarians who support distance education students and led to the creation of the job title distance education librarian. Distance education librarians work to ensure that distance education students and faculty have the same access as on-campus students to essential services including: reference assistance, library materials, bibliographic instruction, interlibrary loan and document delivery, access to reserve materials. There are duties specific to DE Librarians as well.

Distance education librarians serve as primary contacts at the library for distance education students and faculty. DE librarians may provide technical support or reference service over the phone, using instant messaging, replying to emails and reference service request forms, or through videoconferencing. DE librarians design and assess library DE web-pages and user interfaces. DE websites provide general information to DE students such as how to obtain a library card, hours of operation for reference services. DE librarians create specialized online tutorials covering topics such as information literacy education and using of remotely accessible library databases. DE librarians assist faculty with designing course-specific web-pages and provide copyright advisement; the ACRL acknowledges that distance education library service delivery methods will vary from institution to institution, but should be developed using the same professional standards and guidelines used by other academic libraries.

At minimum, they suggest consulting the following standards and guidelines: ‘’Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education’’. Association of College & Research Libraries, American Library Association, 2000. ‘’Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers’’. Reference and User Services Association, American Library Association, 2004. ‘’Guidelines for Implementing and Maintaining Virtual Reference Services’’. Reference and User Services Association, American Library Association, 2004. ‘’Professional Competencies for Reference and User Services Librarians’’. Reference and User Services Association, American Library Association, 2003

JaCorian Duffield

JaCorian Kevon Duffield is an American track and field athlete who competes in the high jump. His personal record for the event is 2.34 m, set as he was the 2015 runner-up at the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships. Duffield competed for Texas Tech University collegiately and won both the indoor and outdoor NCAA titles in 2015. Born in Wichita, his family moved to Texas and he grew up in the state in Schertz, attending Randolph High School. While at high school he competed in basketball and the high jump, becoming state champion in the latter. After graduation he went on to study business management at Texas Tech University, he began to compete for the school's Texas Tech Red Raiders college athletics team. In his freshman year he took fifth place at the Big 12 Conference Championships and ranked seventeenth at the NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championships, being one of five freshmen athletes to have qualified for the top level meet. Though he was only eighth at the 2013 Big 12 indoor meet, he managed runner-up at the conference outdoor event.

He again qualified for the NCAA Outdoor Championships and improved to seventh place with a personal record equalling mark of 2.20 m. A new best of 2.23 m followed at the Big 12 indoors and on his debut at the NCAA Men's Indoor Track and Field Championships he placed fifth. Outdoors, he cleared 2.23 m to place third at the Texas Relays before setting an outright best of 2.27 m in Lubbock, Texas in May. He was somewhat short of that height at the Big 12 Outdoor Championships, repeating his runner-up finish, was down to tenth place at that year's NCAA Outdoor Championships. Better results came at the 2014 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships, where he achieved a height of 2.25 m and ranked sixth in the top level national competition. He gained his first international selection for the 2014 NACAC Under-23 Championships in Athletics, but failed to record a height. Duffield showed marked improvement in the 2015 season, setting a new best of 2.28 m indoors in February. He added a further centimeter to that at the NCAA Indoor Championships to win his first collegiate title.

He and fellow Texas Tech alumnus Bradley Adkins made it the first time in over forty years since a school had provided the top two athletes in the NCAA high jump. Two weeks he jumped higher again, clearing 2.31 m to win at the Texas Relays. This performance raised him to the top of the global rankings at that point of the season, he extended his winning streak to include the Drake Relays and the Big 12 Conference outdoor championship. At the 2015 NCAA Outdoor Championships Duffield and Adkins repeated their 1–2 placings, with the former achieving an NCAA indoor/outdoor double to match the feat of Derek Drouin in 2013; this was the peak performance of his career as a Texas Tech athlete, his last for the school. At the 2015 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships he improved his personal best to 2.34 m and was beaten only by Erik Kynard. This earned Duffield the right to represent the United States at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics, he was failed to reach the final. High jump outdoor: 2.34 m High jump indoor: 2.29 m NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championships High jump: 2015 NCAA Men's Indoor Track and Field Championships High jump: 2015 JaCorian Duffield at World Athletics