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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft. Spacecraft carrying people may be operated directly, by human crew, or it may be either remotely operated from ground stations on Earth or be autonomous, able to carry out a specific mission with no human involvement; the first human in space was Yuri Gagarin, who flew the Vostok 1 spacecraft, launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as part of the Vostok program. Humans have flown to the Moon nine times from 1968 to 1972 in the United States Apollo program, have been continuously present in space for 19 years and 120 days on the International Space Station. All human spaceflight has so far been human-piloted, with the first autonomous human-carrying spacecraft under design starting in 2015. Russia and China have human spaceflight capability with Shenzhou program. In the United States, SpaceShipTwo reached the edge of space in 2018. All expeditions to the International Space Station use Soyuz vehicles, which remain attached to the station to allow quick return if needed.

The United States is developing commercial crew transportation to facilitate domestic access to ISS and low Earth orbit, as well as the Orion vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit applications. While spaceflight has been a government-directed activity, commercial spaceflight has been taking on a greater role; the first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight, a number of non-governmental companies have been working to develop a space tourism industry. NASA has played a role to stimulate private spaceflight through programs such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services and Commercial Crew Development. With its 2011 budget proposals released in 2010, the Obama administration moved towards a model where commercial companies would supply NASA with transportation services of both people and cargo transport to low Earth orbit; the vehicles used for these services could serve both NASA and potential commercial customers. Commercial resupply of ISS began two years after the retirement of the Shuttle, commercial crew launches could begin by 2020.

Human spaceflight capability was first developed during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, which developed the first intercontinental ballistic missile rockets to deliver nuclear weapons. These rockets were large enough to be adapted to carry the first artificial satellites into low Earth orbit. After the first satellites were launched in 1957 and 1958, the US worked on Project Mercury to launch men singly into orbit, while the USSR secretly pursued the Vostok program to accomplish the same thing; the USSR launched the first human in space, Yuri Gagarin, into a single orbit in Vostok 1 on a Vostok 3KA rocket, on 12 April 1961. The US launched its first astronaut, Alan Shepard, on a suborbital flight aboard Freedom 7 on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, on 5 May 1961. Unlike Gagarin, Shepard manually controlled his spacecraft's attitude, landed inside it; the first American in orbit was John Glenn aboard Friendship 7, launched 20 February 1962 on a Mercury-Atlas rocket. The USSR launched five more cosmonauts in Vostok capsules, including the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963.

The US launched a total of two astronauts in suborbital flight and four into orbit through 1963. The US made two flights in the North American X-15 piloted by Joseph A. Walker that exceeded the Kármán line, the internationally recognized 100 km altitude used by the FAI to denote the edge of space. US President John F. Kennedy raised the stakes of the Space Race by setting the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely by the end of the 1960s; the US started the three-man Apollo program in 1961 to accomplish this, launched by the Saturn family of launch vehicles, the interim two-man Project Gemini in 1962, which flew 10 missions launched by Titan II rockets in 1965 and 1966. Gemini's objective was to support Apollo by developing American orbital spaceflight experience and techniques to be used in the Moon mission. Meanwhile, the USSR remained silent about their intentions to send humans to the Moon, proceeded to stretch the limits of their single-pilot Vostok capsule into a two- or three-person Voskhod capsule to compete with Gemini.

They were able to launch two orbital flights in 1964 and 1965 and achieved the first spacewalk, made by Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2 on 8 March 1965. But Voskhod did not have Gemini's capability to maneuver in orbit, the program was terminated; the US Gemini flights did not accomplish the first spacewalk, but overcame the early Soviet lead by performing several spacewalks and solving the problem of astronaut fatigue caused by overcoming the lack of gravity, demonstrating up to two weeks endurance in a human spaceflight, the first space rendezvous and dockings of spacecraft. The US succeeded in developing the Saturn V rocket necessary to send the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon, sent Frank Borman, James Lovell, William Anders into 10 orbits around the Moon in Apollo 8 in December 1968. In July 1969, Apollo 11 accomplished Kennedy's goal by landing Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon 21 July and returning them safely on 24 July along with Command Module pilot Michael Collins. A total of six Apollo missions landed 12 men to walk on the Moon through 1972, half of which drove electric powered vehicles on the surface.

The crew of Apollo 13, Jack Swigert, Fred Haise, survived a catastrophic in-flight spacecraft failure and returned to Earth safely without landing on the Moon. Meanwhile, th

University of Technology Sydney

The University of Technology Sydney is a public research university located in Sydney, Australia. Although its origins are said to trace back to the 1870s, the university was founded in its current form in 1988; as of 2018, UTS enrolls 45,930 students, including 33,070 undergraduate and 12,860 postgraduate students through its 9 faculties and schools. The university is regarded as one of the world's leading young universities, ranked 1st in Australia and 10th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings. UTS is a member of the Australian Technology Network, the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning and the Association of Commonwealth Universities; the University of Technology Sydney originates from the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts, established in 1833. In the 1870s, the School formed the Workingman's College, taken over by the NSW government to form, in 1882, the Sydney Technical College. In 1940 the NSW Parliament passed an Act to establish an Institute of Technology, which in 1964 led to the establishment of the New South Wales Institute of Technology.

In 1968, the NSW Institute of Technology amalgamated with the NSW Institute of Business Studies. In 1976 NSWIT established the first law school in NSW outside the university sector; the Haymarket campus opened in 1985. On 8 October 1987 university status was granted to NSWIT, followed by the passing of the University of Technology, Act 1987, it was reconstituted as the University of Technology Sydney in 1988, along with the incorporation of the School of Design of the former Sydney College of the Arts. In 1989, the University of Technology, Act 1989 formed UTS by absorbing the Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education and the Institute of Technical and Adult Teacher Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. An academic Structure of nine faculties and 25 schools was established in 1991; the School of Design was housed at a campus in Balmain, which closed at the end of 1994, with the school moved to a new building at the city campus. The environmental and biomedical science schools were located on a campus at St Leonards, closed in 2006, which relocated to the city campus following a redevelopment.

The Kuring-Gai campus closed at the end of 2015, with classes and facilities moved into the main Haymarket campus. This marked the consolidation of UTS into a single unified campus in the Sydney CBD; the UTS city campus is located at the southern border of Sydney's central business district, close to Central Station and Railway Square. The UTS Tower is the nucleus of the city campus, fronting on to Broadway; the campus consists of five distinct precincts. Broadway and Blackfriars are located at the city campus, while precincts at Moore Park and Botany integrate specialist facilities with surrounding industry organisations. Broadway is home to the faculties of Science, Health and Social Sciences, Engineering and IT, Design and Building. Haymarket includes the faculties of Business and Transdisciplinary Innovation, as well as the UTS Library, two lecture theatres in the Powerhouse Museum; the Blackfriars precinct in Chippendale contains the Blackfriars Children's Centre and research and innovation teams while the Moore Park precinct features sports facilities within the Rugby Australia Building and the Botany precinct consists of the specialist research facility UTS Tech Lab.

The campus has been transformed since 2008 by the university's City Campus Master Plan, a $1 billion-plus investment in new buildings and facilities, major upgrades and refurbishments. The UTS Tower on Broadway is an example of brutalist architecture with square and block concrete designs. Completed and opened in 1979 by then-Premier Neville Wran, the Tower housed the NSW Institute of Technology, which transformed to become UTS in the late 1980s. In October 2006, the UTS Tower was voted the ugliest building in Sydney in a poll hosted by The Sydney Morning Herald, receiving 22% of the total vote; the Tower is the largest campus building, in terms of both floor space. Other notable buildings in the Broadway precinct include: Building 2, UTS Central, is intended as a central hub for the campus. Opened in August 2019, the 17-storey building is encased in glass and includes the new UTS Library, the Faculty of Law, the Hive Super Lab, three collaborative theatres, student spaces and a food court; the new food court includes outlets such as Mad Mex and Uni Bros.

It was designed by Australian architectural firm Francis-Jones Morehan Thorp. Building 3, the Bon Marche Building, which dates to the 1890s and was named after the Parisian department store Le Bon Marché. A department store operated by Marcus Clark & Co, the building now accommodates specialist facilities for the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Building 7, or the Vicki Sara Building, home to Faculty of Science administration and specialist facilities, the Graduate School of Health. Designed by architects Durbach Block Jaggers, in association with BVN Architecture, it has been awarded a 6 Star Green Star Design and As-Built rating, certified by the Green Building Council of Australia, includes many sustainable features including a rooftop garden with stormwater collection and recycled building materials. Building 10 on Jones St colloquially known as'the Fairfax Building' as it accommodated the printing facilities for the Fairfax-owned Sydney Morning Herald, it was home to the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games, before being incorporated within the UTS campus in th

Adel Sedra

Adel S. Sedra is an Egyptian Canadian electrical engineer and professor. Born in Egypt in 1943, Sedra received his B. Sc. from Cairo University in 1964 and his M. A. Sc. and Ph. D. from the University of Toronto, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. All three of his degrees are in electrical engineering. Sedra joined the faculty of the University of Toronto in 1969 and became associate professor in 1972 and professor in 1978, he served as chair of the Department of Electrical Engineering from 1986 to 1993, was vice president and chief academic officer from July 1, 1993, to 2002. In his nine years as provost Sedra led the university through two major long-range planning cycles in 1994 and 1998. On July 1, 2003, Sedra joined the University of Waterloo as dean of its Faculty of Engineering and as professor of electrical and computer engineering. In 2004 he initiated the University of Waterloo Engineering Planning Exercise, VISION 2010, he served as Dean of Engineering until June 2012. A specialist in microelectronics, Sedra's research focuses on applications in communication and instrumentation systems, including theory and design of circuits.

Sedra has co-authored three textbooks, including Microelectronic Circuits, now in its seventh edition. The text is published in ten languages, has over one million copies in print, is one of the most used texts on the subject to date, he is co-author with Gordon W. Roberts of the text book SPICE for Microelectronic Circuits published in 1995, his first text book titled Filter Theory and Design: Active and Passive was published in 1978. Sedra has published about 150 scholarly papers, has guided the research of about 65 graduate students, has served as a consultant to industry and governments in Canada and the United States. Sedra was a founding member and a member of the board of directors of the Information Technology Research Centre, a designated centre-of-excellence funded by the Government of Ontario. From 1990 to 1994, Sedra was a member of the Scientific Assessment Panel for the Industry Research Program of Technology Ontario, is a member of the Research Council of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

Sedra served as a delegate to Oxford University Press and is editing the Oxford Electrical and Computer Engineering Series. More Sedra chaired a committee that reviewed the Structure of NSERC Grant Selection Committees. Sedra is the recipient of several honorary degrees, including a Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Toronto, Doctor of Science degrees from Queen's University and McGill University, a Doctor of Engineering degree from Ryerson University Sedra was elected fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Canadian Academy of Engineering, the Royal Society of Canada. Sedra is the recipient of several awards, including the 1988 Frederick Emmons Terman Award from the American Society for Engineering Education, the 1996 IEEE Education Medal, the 2000 "IEEE Third Millennium Medal", the 2002 "Engineering Medal for Excellence" from Professional Engineers Ontario, the 2002 "Engineering Alumni Medal" of the University of Toronto Engineering Alumni Association, the 2010 "Outstanding Service Award to the Canadian Microelectronics Industry" from the Information Technology Association of Canada.

In 2002, the "Adel S. Sedra Distinguished Graduate Award" was created by the University of Toronto Alumni Association, to honor Sedra for his accomplishments during his nine years as vice-president and provost of the University of Toronto. For every year since 2003, it has been awarded "to a graduate student who demonstrates outstanding academic and extracurricular leadership". In 2013, the University of Waterloo's 20,000-square-foot student design centre located in Engineering 5 was named the "Sedra Student Design Centre" to honour Sedra as a former Dean of Waterloo Engineering. In 2014, he was made a Member of the Order of Ontario in recognition for his " seminal work which has resulted in major developments in fields ranging from medical technology to wireless communications"

Sino-Vietnamese War

The Sino-Vietnamese War known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979. China launched an offensive in response to Vietnam's invasion and occupation of Cambodia in 1978. Chinese forces captured several cities near the border. On March 6, 1979, China declared that the gate to Hanoi was open and that their punitive mission had been achieved. Chinese troops withdrew from Vietnam. Both China and Vietnam claimed victory in the last of the Indochina Wars; as Vietnamese troops remained in Cambodia until 1989, one can say that China remained unsuccessful in its goal of dissuading Vietnam from involvement in Cambodia. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Sino-Vietnamese border was finalized. Although unable to deter Vietnam from Cambodia, China succeeded in demonstrating that its Cold War communist adversary, the Soviet Union, was unable to protect its Vietnamese ally. Following worsening relations between the Soviet Union and China as a result of the Sino-Soviet split of 1956–1966, as many as 1.5 million Chinese troops were stationed along the Sino-Soviet border in preparation for a full-scale war against the Soviets.

The Sino-Vietnamese War is known as the Third Indochina War, in order to distinguish it from the First Indochina War, the Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War. In Vietnam, the conflict is known as the War against Chinese expansionism.. In China, the war is referred to as the Defensive Counterattack against Vietnam. Just as the First Indochina War—which emerged from the complex situation following World War II—and the Vietnam War both exploded from the unresolved aftermath of political relations, the Third Indochina War again followed the unresolved problems of the earlier wars; the major allied victors of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, all agreed that the area belonged to the French. As the French did not have the means to retake Indochina, the major powers agreed that the British would take control and troops would occupy the south while Nationalist Chinese forces would move in from the north. Nationalist Chinese troops entered the country to disarm Japanese troops north of the 16th parallel on 14 September 1945.

The parallel divided Indochina into Chinese and British controlled zones. The British landed in the south rearming the small body of interned French forces as well as parts of the surrendered Japanese forces to aid in retaking southern Vietnam, as there were not enough British troops available. On the urging of the Soviet Union, Ho Chi Minh attempted to negotiate with the French, who were reestablishing their control across the area, although still under British control until hostilities had ceased. Once hostilities had ended the British handed over the territory to the French. In January 1946, the Viet Minh won elections across northern Vietnam. On 6 March 1946, Ho signed an agreement allowing French forces to replace Nationalist Chinese forces, in exchange for French recognition of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam as a "free" republic within the French Union, with the specifics of such recognition to be determined by future negotiation. British forces departed on 26 March 1946; the French landed in Hanoi by March 1946 and in November of that year they ousted the Viet Minh from the city.

Soon thereafter, the Viet Minh began a guerrilla war against the French Union forces, beginning the first Indochina War. Vietnam first became a French colony when France invaded in 1858. By the 1880s, the French had expanded their sphere of influence in Southeast Asia to include all of Vietnam, by 1893 both Laos and Cambodia had become French colonies as well. Rebellions against French colonial power were common up to World War I; the European war heightened revolutionary sentiment in Southeast Asia, the independence-minded population rallied around revolutionaries such as Hồ Chí Minh and others, including royalists. Prior to their attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese occupied French Indochina, but left civil administration to the Vichy French administration. On 9 March 1945, fearing that the Vichy French were about to switch sides to support the Allies, the Japanese overthrew the Vichy administration and forces taking control of Indochina and establishing their own puppet administration, the Empire of Vietnam.

The Japanese surrender in August 1945 created a power vacuum in Indochina, as the various political factions scrambled for control. The events leading to the First Indochina War are subject to historical dispute; when the Việt Minh hastily sought to establish the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the remaining French acquiesced while waiting for the return of French forces to the region. The Kuomintang supported French restoration, but Viet Minh efforts towards independence were helped by Chinese communists under the Soviet Union's power; the Soviet Union at first indirectly supported Vietnamese communists, but directly supported Hồ Chí Minh. The Soviets nonetheless remained less supportive than China until after the Sino-Soviet split, during the time of Leonid Brezhnev when the Soviet Union became communist Vietnam's key ally; the war itself involved numerous events. Two major conferences were held to bring about a resoluti

Vikramaditya VI

Vikramaditya VI became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II, a political move he made by gaining the support of Chalukya vassals during the Chola invasion of Chalukya territory. Vikramaditya's reign is marked with the abolishment of the Saka era and the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era, he had the longest reign in the dynasty. He earned the title Tribhuvanamalla, he had several queens. One of his queens, Chandala Devi, a princess from the Shilahara ruling family of Karad was called Abhinava Saraswati for her skills as an artist. Queen Kethala Devi administered the Siruguppa region and Savala Devi was in charge of an Agrahara in Naregal. According to the historian Kamath, Vikramaditya VI was a "great king who ruled over South India" and he finds a "pride of place in Karnataka history". More inscriptions in Kannada are attributed to Vikramaditya VI than any other king prior to the Vijayanagara era. Vikramaditya VI is noted for his patronage of art and letters.

His court was adorned with famous Sanskrit poets. In Kannada, his brother prince Kirtivarma wrote Govaidya on veterinary science and the poet Brahmashiva wrote Samayaparikshe and received the title Kavi Chakravarti Noted Sanskrit scholars such as Bilhana who earned the title Vidyapati came to his court from faraway Kashmir and wrote a panegyric on the life of his patron king in Vikramankadevacharita; the poet compared his rule to Ramarajya. Vijnaneshwara the noted jurist in his court wrote Mitakshara, a commentary on Yagnavalkya Smriti. Of the king he wrote "A King like Vikramarka is neither to be seen nor heard of". Vikramaditya VI is known to be a Shaiva by faith, his rule saw prolific temple building activity. Notable constructions include the Mallikarjuna temple, the Mahadeva temple the Kaitabheshvara temple and the Kalleshvara temple. According to historian Sen, the 50-year reign of Vikramaditya VI was overall a peaceful and prosperous one. Sen estimates at his peak Vikramaditya VI controlled a vast empire stretching from the Tumkur district and Cuddapah in the south to the Narmada river in the north, up to the Khammam district and the Godavari district in the east and south-east.

Vikramaditya displayed his military ambitions as a prince, prior to 1068, during the rule of his father Someshvara I when he led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar and Bengal. After his father's death, as soon as his elder brother prince Someshvara II who administered the Belavola-300 and Puligere-300 provinces came to the throne, Vikramaditya VI started to plan to overthrow him and contend with the growing Chola power, he achieved his ends with skillful opportunism and diplomacy: by making use of the Chola invasion of Gutti and Kampili and striking diplomatic relations with Virarajendra Chola, gaining the support his younger brother Jayasimha and of the Chalukya feudatories, the Pandyas of Ucchangi, the Seuna, the Hoysalas of Malnad, the Kadambas of Konkan and Hangal. Someshvara II had the Kadambas of Goa; this sudden change in diplomatic relations bifurcated the Chalukya kingdom into two halves, giving Vikramaditya VI independent rule over the southern half. Vikramaditya married one of Virarajendra Chola's daughters bringing an age-old feud between the two kingdoms to a temporary end.

The balance of power changed again in 1069 with the death of Virarajendra Chola. Vikramaditya VI proceeded via Kanchi where he quelled a rebellion and installed his younger brother-in-law Athirajendra Chola on the throne at Gangaikonda Cholapuram, but this went against the designs of Kulottunga Chola I. Kulothunga expelled the Vengi ruler Vijayaditya. In a civil uprising in the Chola capital, Athirajendra was killed making way for Kulothunga Chola I to crown himself the monarch of the Chola empire. In 1070-72, when Vijayabahu revolted to rid Ceylon of the Chola rule and succeeded, Vikramaditya VI wasted no time in declaring the new king of Ceylon his "natural ally". By 1076, despite being surrounded by enemies at home and in Vengi and Chola country, Vikramaditya VI defeated his elder brother and took him captive, he crowned himself the Chalukya monarch and began a new era, the Vikrama Varsha. There was a rebellion by the emperor's younger brother Jayasimha, the viceroy of Banavasi, around c.1080-1082, quelled and the rebel pardoned.

The real threat, was from the Hoysala dynasty who rose to prominence from the Malnad region in modern Karnataka. Their territory acted as a buffer between the Chalukya and Chola kingdoms. For several decades, the Hoysalas had been faithful vassals of the Chalukyas. King Someshvara I had taken a Hoysala princess as his queen; the Hoysala kings Vinayaditya and Veera Ballala I had maintained cordial relations with Vikramaditya VI. But Ballala I's younger brother Vishnuvardhana, who according to historians Sastri and Kamath was a "great warrior" and an ambitious ruler had expansionist plans, he had the support of Kadamba king Jayakesi II of Goa. The Hoysalas under Vishnuvardhana began to expand their territory by defeating the Cholas in the famous battle of Talakad in 1116 resulting in the Hoysala annexation of Gangavadi, it was only when Vishnuvardhana turned his attention to the north, conquered Nolambavadi, marched beyond the Tungabh

Charles Parkin

Charles Parkin was an English clergyman and antiquarian. He was rector of Oxburgh in Norfolk, assisted Francis Blomefield on his history of the county, completing it after Blomefield's death; the son of William Parkin of London, he was born on 11 January 1689, educated at Merchant Taylors' School. In 1708 he went to Pembroke Hall, graduating B. A. 1711 and M. A. 1717. Entering holy orders, he became rector of Oxburgh, Norfolk, in 1717, he assisted Francis Blomefield with his History of Norfolk, writing the descriptions of Oxburgh and the adjoining parishes. When Blomefield died in 1752, having written about half of the third volume, Parkin undertook the completion of the unfinished History, the fourth and fifth volumes of which were published under his name. According to Craven Ord, the last sheets were finished by a bookseller's hack, employed by Whittingham of Lynn. Parkin's Topography of Freebridge Hundred and Half in Norfolk, containing the History and Antiquities of the Borough of King's Lynn, of the Towns and Religious Buildings in that Hundred and Half was reprinted from the fourth volume.

In the 1740s Parkin engaged in a vituperative dispute with William Stukeley over the antiquity and imagery of the carvings on the walls of the discovered cave at Royston. He attacked Stukeley's claim that the chamber had been the private oratory of one "Lady Roisia" in a pamphlet entitled An Answer to, or Remarks upon, Dr. Stukeley's "Origines Roystonianæ"; when Stukeley published a reply, Parkin responded with A Reply to the Peevish and Malevolent Objections brought by Dr. Stukeley in his Origines Roystonianæ, No.2. Joseph Beldam, a historian of the cave, wrote that "though both parties showed abundant learning and ingenuity, the cause of truth suffered much from their mutual loss of temper. Parkin died on 27 August 1765, by his will bequeathed money to his old college for the foundation of exhibitions to be held by scholars from the Merchant Taylors' School and from the free school at Bowes, founded by his uncle, William Hutchinson of Clement's Inn. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Parkin, Charles".

Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900