Humpty Dumpty is a character in an English nursery rhyme originally a riddle and one of the best known in the English-speaking world. He is portrayed as an anthropomorphic egg, though he is not explicitly described as such; the first recorded versions of the rhyme date from late eighteenth-century England and the tune from 1870 in James William Elliott's National Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Songs. Its origins are obscure, several theories have been advanced to suggest original meanings; the character of Humpty Dumpty was popularised in the United States by actor George L. Fox; as a character and literary allusion, he has appeared or been referred to in many works of literature and popular culture English author Lewis Carroll's 1871 book Through the Looking-Glass, in which he was described as an egg. The rhyme is listed in the Roud Folk Song Index as No. 13026. The rhyme is one of the best known in the English language; the common text from 1954 is: It is a single quatrain with external rhymes that follow the pattern of AABB and with a trochaic metre, common in nursery rhymes.
The melody associated with the rhyme was first recorded by composer and nursery rhyme collector James William Elliott in his National Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Songs, as outlined below: The earliest known version was published in Samuel Arnold's Juvenile Amusements in 1797 with the lyrics: William Carey Richards quoted the poem in 1843, commenting, "when we were five years old... the following parallel lines... were propounded as a riddle... Humpty-dumpty, reader, is the Dutch or something else for an egg". A manuscript addition to a copy of Mother Goose's Melody published in 1803 has the modern version with a different last line: "Could not set Humpty Dumpty up again", it was published in 1810 in a version of Gammer Gurton's Garland. In 1842, James Orchard Halliwell published a collected version as: The modern-day version of this nursery rhyme, as known throughout the UK since at least the mid-twentieth century, is as follows: According to the Oxford English Dictionary, in the 17th century the term "humpty dumpty" referred to a drink of brandy boiled with ale.
The riddle exploited, for misdirection, the fact that "humpty dumpty" was eighteenth-century reduplicative slang for a short and clumsy person. The riddle may depend upon the assumption that a clumsy person falling off a wall might not be irreparably damaged, whereas an egg would be; the rhyme is no longer posed as a riddle. Similar riddles have been recorded by folklorists in other languages, such as "Boule Boule" in French, "Lille Trille" in Swedish and Norwegian, "Runtzelken-Puntzelken" or "Humpelken-Pumpelken" in different parts of Germany—although none is as known as Humpty Dumpty is in English; the rhyme does not explicitly state that the subject is an egg because it may have been posed as a riddle. There are various theories of an original "Humpty Dumpty". One, advanced by Katherine Elwes Thomas in 1930 and adopted by Robert Ripley, posits that Humpty Dumpty is King Richard III of England, depicted as humpbacked in Tudor histories and in Shakespeare's play, and, defeated, despite his armies, at Bosworth Field in 1485.
Punch in 1842 suggested jocularly. Professor David Daube suggested in The Oxford Magazine of 16 February 1956 that Humpty Dumpty was a "tortoise" siege engine, an armoured frame, used unsuccessfully to approach the walls of the Parliamentary-held city of Gloucester in 1643 during the Siege of Gloucester in the English Civil War; this was on the basis of a contemporary account of the attack, but without evidence that the rhyme was connected. The theory was part of an anonymous series of articles on the origin of nursery rhymes and was acclaimed in academia, but it was derided by others as "ingenuity for ingenuity's sake" and declared to be a spoof; the link was popularised by a children's opera All the King's Men by Richard Rodney Bennett, first performed in 1969. From 1996, the website of the Colchester tourist board attributed the origin of the rhyme to a cannon recorded as used from the church of St Mary-at-the-Wall by the Royalist defenders in the siege of 1648. In 1648, Colchester was a walled town with a castle and several churches and was protected by the city wall.
The story given was that a large cannon, which the website claimed was colloquially called Humpty Dumpty, was strategically placed on the wall. A shot from a Parliamentary cannon succeeded in damaging the wall beneath Humpty Dumpty, which caused the cannon to tumble to the ground; the Royalists attempted to raise Humpty Dumpty on to another part of the wall, but the cannon was so heavy that "All the King's horses and all the King's men couldn't put Humpty together again". Author Albert Jack claimed in his 2008 book Pop Goes the Weasel: The Secret Meanings of Nursery Rhymes that there were two other verses supporting this claim. Elsewhere, he claimed to have found them in an "old dusty library, an older book", but did not state what the book was or where it was found, it has been pointed out that the two additional verses are not in the style of the seventeenth century or of the existing rhyme, that they do not fit with the earliest printed versions of the rhyme, which do not mention horses and men.
1359 Prieska, provisional designation 1935 OC, is a rare-type carbonaceous asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt 50 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 22 July 1935, by English-born South-African astronomer Cyril Jackson at Johannesburg Observatory in South Africa; the asteroid was named after the South African town of Prieska. Prieska orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.9–3.3 AU once every 5 years and 6 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 11 ° with respect to the ecliptic. In 1903, Prieska was first identified as A903 UE at Heidelberg Observatory, extending the body's observation arc by 32 years prior to its official discovery observation at Johannesburg. According to the surveys carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission and the Japanese Akari satellite, Prieska measures between 36.45 and 65.86 kilometers in diameter, its surface has an albedo between 0.03 and 0.07. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0494 and a diameter of 52.07 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 10.3.
In the Tholen taxonomy, Prieska is a rare CX:-subtype, that transitions from the dark C to the X-type asteroids. Only a few asteroids have been assigned this spectral type by Tholen. Photometric lightcurve observations of Prieska at the Australian Oakley Southern Sky Observatory in May 2011 and October 2013 were inconclusive due to insufficient data; as of 2017, the asteroid's rotation period still remains unknown. This minor planet was named for the South African town of Prieska, located on the south bank of the Orange River, in the province of the Northern Cape; the official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1359 Prieska at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1359 Prieska at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Zhang Jingyang is a Chinese football player who plays for Sichuan Longfor in the China League One. In 2006, Zhang Jingyang started his professional footballer career with Harbin Yiteng in the China League Two. In February 2011, Sun transferred to China League Two side Fushun Xinye. In January 2012, Sun transferred to Chinese Super League side Liaoning Whowin, he would make his league debut for Liaoning on 10 March 2012 in a game against Henan Jianye. On 24 January 2017, Zhang moved to League Two side Sichuan Longfor. Statistics accurate as of match played 4 November 2018. Zhang Jingyang at Soccerway
The Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição is an 18th-century church located in the civil parish of Santa Cruz in the municipality of Santa Cruz das Flores, in the Portuguese island of Flores, in the archipelago of the Azores. The construction of the church began in 1781, on the site of a primitive temple in an area, once the centre of the original town, under the direction of its first vicar, the Ouvidor Father Manuel Lourenço Vieira, it was only 1859. On 5 November 1998, a resolution by the President of the regional government supported the classification of the property as a landmark of municipal importance. On 9 September 2004, it was reclassified under terms of Article 94 as a Imóvel de Interesse Público; the church is situated to the left of the Praceta Roberto de Mesquita, incorporated into a walled garden with an octagonal reflecting pool. The large church is situated in an elevated courtyard relation to the road, accessible by five large paved stairs with Portuguese pavement stone in a semi-circular form that amplifies the courtyard.
The open space to the left of the church is defined by a lateral facade and sacristy, as well as being paved in Portuguese pavement between stonework. The areas to the right facade are covered in grass; the building assumes an important position in Santa Cruz, being visible from most places in the town. It includes a principal body, a narrower chancel, two bell towers and annex structures on either side of the presbytery forming "L"-shaped extensions of the presbytery and nave; the entire building is constructed in masonry and stonework and painted in white, except for the soclos, cornices, columns, frames and decorative elements, that include interior arches, pillars and stonework. The principal facade is divided into three levels by cornices and three vertical sections by pilasters. On the ground floor, each section has a doorway. Framing the doorways are double lintels and cornices, with the doors flanked by large columns on pronounced pedestals; the capitals of the columns integrate into the cornice of the door, with the lateral columns topped by Ionic columns, while the central portico is topped by Corinthian columns.
On the first lintel of each door is a rosette in relief, while above each capital is a bulky element that unites the cornice from the other levels. Over the cornice are vertical pinnacles above the columns; the intermediary level is occupied a guillotine window per section, aligned to the doorway on the ground floor. Each window is framed in a similar form of the doors, but with skirt between the pedestals and its columns. In each of the pedestals are inscriptions in Latin that read: CONCEPTIONEM, BEATÆ, VIRGINIS, MARIÆ, CUMGAUDIO and RECOLAMUS Conception, Virgin, MaryAbove the capitals of the columns are windows, which are more elaborated the doors, bulky elements that connect the second cornice, to the upper; the third level of the facade is divided into sections by the pilasters that rise from the preceding base into the curvilinear frontispiece topped by iron cross on a plinth. The pilaster divisions terminate in pinnacles just below the edge of the frontispiece; the central section has polylobal oculus framed by square stonework and cornice, from which rises a pilaster terminating at the central apex of the frontispiece in a diamond.
Complementing the central oculus are lateral double-framed diamond-shaped oculi, surmounted by small niche in relief. Above each of the oculi is a linear cornice, supporting a segment of pilaster that terminates in another pinnacle that erupts from the frontispiece; the bell towers are implanted on either side of the facade, divided into three sections by the extension of the cornices. The ground floor section includes a guillotine window with simple stonework frame, repeated in the second section; the framed window valance is decorated with a small central rosetta, although the second-floor window includes a larger shell-like element of larger dimensions. Over the sill is a cornice, supported by two half-scrolls that define the skirt, with an incomplete cartouche in their centre. Above this section is the belfry, with an archway on each of the three principal faces, defined by an extension of the stonework that begins at the base; the towers are topped by a cornice and surmounted by a bulbous octagonal cupola over a drum, surmounted by pinnacle.
The doors of the lateral facades are framed by a double lintel and cornice and flanked by pilasters over high, framed pedestals. A second cornice is situated above these doors, separated from the first by small extensions of the pilasters, decorated by a pinnacle on either extreme, where a window is placed; the interior consists of three naves divided by two lines of five arches supported by square pillars over protruding pedestal and capitals. The axial doorway is protected by a wooden windbreak, supporting a high-choir that occupies the first part of the naves (whose pillars are lower and support the walls that divided the choir in three sections; the supports for the central section are reinforced by four pillerettes in wood connected to the windbreak, with the connection between the three sections accomplished through the doors. In addition to a central organ, on either side of the choir there are doorways that connecting it to the bell
Ticks are arachnids 3 to 5 mm long, part of the superorder Parasitiformes. Along with mites, they constitute the subclass Acari. Ticks are external parasites, living by feeding on the blood of mammals and sometimes reptiles and amphibians. Ticks evolved by the most common form of fossilisation being amber immersion. Ticks are distributed around the world in warm, humid climates. All ticks belong to one of two major families, the Ixodidae or hard ticks, the Argasidae or soft ticks. Adults have ovoid or pear-shaped bodies, which become engorged with blood when they feed, eight legs. In addition to having a hard shield on their dorsal surfaces, hard ticks have a beak-like structure at the front containing the mouthparts, whereas soft ticks have their mouthparts on the underside of their bodies. Both families locate a potential host from changes in the environment. Ticks have four stages to their lifecycle, namely egg, larva and adult. Ixodid ticks have three hosts, taking at least a year to complete their lifecycle.
Argasid ticks have up to each one requiring a blood meal. Because of their habit of ingesting blood, ticks are vectors of many diseases that affect humans and other animals. Fossilized ticks are known from the Cretaceous onwards, most in amber, they most originated in the Cretaceous, with most of the evolution and dispersal occurring during the Tertiary. The oldest example is an argasid bird tick from Cretaceous New Jersey amber; the younger Baltic and Dominican ambers have yielded examples that can be placed in living genera. The tick Deinocroton draculi has been found with dinosaur feathers preserved in Cretaceous Burmese amber from 99 million years ago. Three families of ticks are described; the two large ones are the sister families of Argasidae. The third is the Nuttalliellidae, named for the bacteriologist George Nuttall, it comprises a single species, Nuttalliella namaqua, is the most basal lineage. It is found in southern Africa from Tanzania to South Africa. Ticks are related to the mites, within the subclass Acari.
RDNA analysis suggests that the Argasidae may be paraphyletic. The Ixodidae contain over 700 species of hard ticks with a scutum or hard shield, which the Argasidae lack; the Argasidae contain about 200 species. They have no scutum, the capitulum is concealed beneath the body; the phylogeny of the Ixodida within the Acari is shown in the cladogram, based on a 2014 maximum parsimony study of amino acid sequences of 12 mitochondrial proteins. The Argasidae appear monophyletic in this study. Tick species are distributed around the world, but they tend to flourish more in countries with warm, humid climates, because they require a certain amount of moisture in the air to undergo metamorphosis, because low temperatures inhibit their development from eggs to larvae. Ticks are widely distributed among host taxa, which include marsupial and placental mammals, birds and amphibians. Ticks of domestic animals cause considerable harm to livestock by transmission of many species of pathogens, as well as causing anaemia and damaging wool and hides.
Some of the most debilitating species occur in tropical countries. Tropical bont ticks occur in Africa and the Caribbean; the spinose ear tick has a worldwide distribution, the young feeding inside the ears of cattle and wild animals. In general, ticks are to be found. Migrating birds carry ticks with them on their journeys; the species of tick differed between the autumn and spring migrations because of the seasonal periodicities of the different species. For an ecosystem to support ticks, it must satisfy two requirements. Due to their role in transmitting Lyme disease, ixodid ticks the North American I. scapularis, have been studied using geographic information systems to develop predictive models for ideal tick habitats. According to these studies, certain features of a given microclimate – such as sandy soil, hardwood trees and the presence of deer – were determined to be good predictors of dense tick populations. A habitat preferred by ticks is the interface where a lawn meets the woods, or more the ecotone, unmaintained transitional edge habitat between woodlands and open areas.
Therefore, one tick management strategy is to remove leaf litter and weeds at the edge of the woods. Ticks like shady, moist leaf litter with an overstory of trees or at least shrubs, they deposit their eggs into such places in the spring, so that the larvae can emerge in the fall and crawl into low-lying vegetation; the 3 m of boundary closest to the lawn's edge are a tick migration zone, where 82% of tick nymphs in lawns are found. Ticks, like mites, are arthropods that have lost the segmentation of the abdomen that their ancestors had, with a subsequent fusion of the abdomen with the cephalothorax; the tagmata typical of other Chelicerata have been replaced by two new body sections, the anterior capitulum, retractable and contains the mouthparts, the posterior idiosoma, which contains the legs, digestive tract, reproductive organs. The capitulum is a
Isla Mujeres is an island where the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea meet, about 13 kilometres off the Yucatán Peninsula coast. The island is 7 kilometres long and 650 metres wide. To the east is the Caribbean Sea with a strong surf and rocky coast, to the west the skyline of Cancún can be seen across the clear waters. In the 2010 census, the namesake town on the island had a population of 12,642 inhabitants; the island is part of the Isla Mujeres Municipality in the State of Quintana Roo and includes an impoverished colonia on the mainland. In Pre-Columbian times the island was sacred to the Maya goddess of Ixchel; when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century they named it "Isla Mujeres" because of the many images of goddesses. The first information available about Isla Mujeres is from the period between 564–1516 AD, when it was part of the Maya province called Ekab. There were 4 Maya provinces in; the Maya exploited the salt that the island produced in the "salinas". The salt was used not only for the preservation of food and medicine but as a accepted currency for commerce of goods along the whole Maya region.
The Maya goddess Ixchel had a temple in. The island was a favorite stopping place for pirates in the early 1800’s; the shallow lagoon on the mainland side of the island was a good place for sailors to sit out major storms, careen their hulls and trade for salt. Pirates Henry Morgan, Jean Lafitte and Hernan Mundaca spent time there. Hernan Mundaca lived on the island for quite some time, building a large hacienda with which he hoped to entice a local beauty, Martiniana Gomez Pantoja, into marriage, she married someone else, to his regret. A small bit of his Hacienda is still there, it has served as a place for young "novias" to find some privacy. A small Maya temple was once located on the southern tip of the island. However, in 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused extensive damage, leaving most of the foundation but only a small portion of the temple. Since the 1970s, along with nearby Cancún, there has been substantial tourist development in Isla Mujeres. Transportation on the island of Isla Mujeres consists of taxis or golf carts and moped scooters.
As of 2005 there were 121 taxis, 500 golf carts, 1500 moped scooters. There is a bus service that runs from the downtown to the different neighborhoods, called colonias in Spanish; the island used to be served by Isla Mujeres National Airport but the airport and landing strip is no longer used for more than a place to get exercise, as many locals, military personnel, and/or tourist can be seen jogging up and down the runway at various times throughout the day. There are two main ferry boat companies that run to the island from Puerto Juárez, Cancun, or Gran Puerto on the mainland. There are party boats of all sorts that make day trips to Isla Mujeres; the island is popular with day trippers, but activity quiets down in the evening after the tour groups leave. There are numerous places to eat fresh seafood cooked with local and traditional recipes, other restaurants offer Mexican, Italian, Mediterranean, French, Thai and Maya cuisine. Hotel prices vary from cheap to expensive at the resorts on the southwest end such as Hotel Villa Rolandi, Playa Norte.
In the north is El Centro, whose central axis, Hidalgo Street, is the main dining and entertainment area. Located on the north end is a famous beach called Playa Norte, which has recovered since Hurricane Wilma hit the area in 2005. Besides these attractions, swimming with dolphins can be experienced at the Island; the island of Isla Mujeres is located close to one of many coral reefs such as the one located in Garrafon Park, an area popular for its snorkeling and scuba diving. The Cancún Underwater Museum, created by English sculptor Jason deCaires Taylor, is located off the western coast of Isla Mujeres. Isla Mujeres is home to a population of sea turtles; because of the recent endangerment of sea turtles in the area, a facility was set up on the southern end of the island for their rehabilitation and breeding. This facility is open to the public; the island's relative proximity to Cuba has made it one of the favorite stepping stones of Cubans trying to reach the United States in recent years.
Isla Mujeres is considered to be one of the best places in the world to catch Sailfish. Isla Mujeres travel guide from Wikivoyage Fideicomiso de Promoción Turística de Isla Mujeres Official tourism website Isla Mujeres at Curlie