Hunkpapa is a studio album by Throwing Muses, released in 1989. It peaked at number 59 on the UK Albums Chart. NME named it the 33rd best album of 1989. All tracks written except "Dragonhead" and "Angel" by Tanya Donelly. Credits adapted from liner notes. Throwing Muses Kristin Hersh – guitar, vocals Tanya Donelly – guitar, vocals Leslie Langston – bass guitar, vocals David Narcizo – drums, vocalsAdditional musicians Bernie Worrell – keyboards Russ Gershon – tenor saxophone Tom Halter – trumpet, flugelhorn Russell Jewell – trombone Guy Yarden – violinTechnical personnel Gary Smith – production Steve Haigler – engineering Matt Lane – engineering assistance Phil Magnotti – engineering assistance Greg Calbi – mastering Hunkpapa at Discogs Hunkpapa at MusicBrainz
The Arikara War was an armed conflict between the United States, their allies from the Sioux tribe and Arikara Native Americans that took place in the summer of 1823, along the Missouri River in present-day South Dakota. It was the first Indian war west of the Missouri fought by the U. S. Army and its only conflict with the Arikara; the war came as a response to an Arikara attack on trappers, called "the worst disaster in the history of the Western fur trade". When Lewis and Clark reached Arikara settlements in 1804, the inhabitants did not show hostility to the expedition. In 1806, during a trip to the United States capital, an Arikara leader died, many Arikara believed that Americans were involved in his death; as a result of the growing activity of fur trading companies, contact between Arikara and white merchants became more frequent, skirmishes followed. In the start of 1823, the Arikara "attacked the Missouri Fur Company's Fort Recovery and killed two traders"; the Sioux, both Yankton and Yanktonai east of the Missouri and Lakota on the west side, had for long been at war with the Arikara, interrupted by short truces on Sioux terms.
The Arikaras in question were living in a double village on the west shore of the Missouri, six or seven miles upstream from the mouth of Grand River. A small creek separated the two fortified villages of earth lodges, each with a heavy frame of wood. On 2 June 1823, Arikara warriors assaulted trappers working for General William Henry Ashley's Rocky Mountain Fur Company on the Missouri River, killing about 15 people; the surviving trappers retreated down the river and hid in shelters, where they stayed for more than a month. The United States responded with a combined force of 230 soldiers of the 6th Infantry, 750 Sioux allies, 50 trappers and other company employees under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Henry Leavenworth, Fort Atkinson, present-day Nebraska. "The forces thus organized, including regular troops, mountaineers and Indians, were styled the Missouri Legion". The 750 warriors were part Yankton and Yanktonai Sioux, part western Sioux from the Brule, the Blackfeet and the Hunkpapa divisions.
The Lakotas "... appeared anxious to join us". The Indian force received promises of Arikara horses and spoils, with the enemy's villages fallen new ranges would open for the Sioux. Leavenworth arrived at the Arikara villages on 9 August and commenced the attack using his Sioux cavalry, but this was held off by the Arikara. On 10 August Leavenworth ordered an artillery bombardment; this was ineffective, the shots falling beyond the villages, at which point Leavenworth ordered an infantry attack. Like the Sioux auxiliaries, the regular infantry failed to break into the villages, they left the battlefield with some captured horses and laden with corn taken from the farming Indians' fields. On 11 August Leavenworth negotiated a peace treaty. "In making this treaty, I met with every possible difficulty which it was in the power of the Missouri Fur Company to throw in my way." Fearing further attacks, the Arikara left the village that night. Leavenworth set off to return to Fort Atkinson on 15 August.
The Arikara village was burned behind him by resentful members of the Missouri Fur Company, much to Leavenworth's anger. The US Army suffered the first casualties in the West during the Arikara War. Seven people drowned in the Missouri; the causes of the war are not well recorded, but the trading relationship of the Arikara with white traders was a factor. The Arikara lived in permanent settlements for most of the year where they farmed and hunted buffalo on the surrounding plains. However, this was insufficient to sustain them and they relied on being a center of trade with neighboring tribes to survive. Ashley's expedition to directly acquire furs and pelts cut out the Arikara in their role as trading middle-men and was thus a direct threat to their livelihood. There was the issue of their desire to have a trading post on their territory so that they could have easy access to manufactured goods, they resented the fact that their long-time enemies, the Sioux, had such posts. Ashley had been asked to set up a trading post when he was in the area in 1822.
Not wishing to limit his operations by having to maintain a permanent base, Ashley instead promised the Arikara that he would have the goods they asked for shipped to them directly from St. Louis. Ashley had not made good this promise at the time of his 1823 expedition, never intended to. A further source of resentment, although not a direct cause of the war, was the death of the Arikara chief Ankedoucharo during a visit to Washington in 1806. Ankedoucharo died of natural causes, but it was believed among the Arikara that he was deliberately murdered; the initial episode at the Arikara villages on 2 June reached international level when some hinted, that the British Hudson's Bay Company was the mastermind behind it all. The plot, so some believed, was to put a wedge between the Arikaras; the British denied this. The Arikara refugees returned the following spring; the hostility between the United States and the Arikara ended on 18 July 1825, when the two opponents signed a peace treaty. The U. S. Army and the Arikara never engaged in battle again.
As for the Sioux, "the result of the expedition ruined the reputation of all whites in the eyes of the Indians". The Sioux continued to press them north, from one village to another. In 1851, the western Sioux claimed the 1823 battleground as Lakota territory and received formal treaty recognition on the former Arikara land. Although brief, the conflict was noted for two reasons: it
Arikara known as Sahnish, Arikaree or Hundi, are a tribe of Native Americans in North Dakota. Today, they are enrolled with the Mandan and the Hidatsa as the federally recognized tribe known as the Mandan and Arikara Nation; the Arikara's name is believed to mean "horns," in reference to the ancient custom of wearing two upright bones in their hair. The name could mean "elk people" or "corn eaters." The Arikara language is a member of the Caddoan language family. Arikara is close to the Pawnee language; as of 2007, the total number of remaining native speakers was reported as ten, one of whom, Maude Starr, died on 20 January 2010. She was a certified language teacher. Linguistic divergence between Arikara and Pawnee suggests a separation from the Skidi Pawnee in about the 15th century; the Arzberger Site near present-day Pierre, South Dakota, designated as a National Historic Landmark, is an archeological site from this period, containing the remains of a fortified village with more than 44 lodges.
An Arikara village, near where present-day Pierre, South Dakota developed, was visited in 1743 by two sons of the French trader and explorer La Vérendrye. In the last quarter of the 17th century, the Arikara came under attack from the Omaha/Ponca and the Iowa near the end of the Omaha/Ponca migration to Nebraska. With peace established the Arikara influenced the newcomers; the Omaha still credit the Arikara women for instructing them in the art of building earth lodges. The Arikara lived as a semi-nomadic people on the Great Plains. During the sedentary seasons, the Arikara lived in villages of earth lodges. While traveling or during the seasonal bison hunts, they erected portable tipis as temporary shelter, they were an agricultural society, whose women cultivated varieties of corn. The crop was such an important staple of their society that it was referred to as "Mother Corn."An early European, a botanist, praised the Arikara women as excellent cultivators. He had not seen finer crops anywhere in America.
The surplus corn and other crops, along with tobacco, were traded to the Lakota, the Cheyenne and more southern plains tribes during short-lived truces. The amount of trading items passing through the Arikara villages made them a "trading center on the Upper Missouri". Before smallpox epidemics hit the three village tribes, they were the "most influential and affluent peoples in the Northern Plains". Traditionally an Arikara family owned 30–40 dogs; the people used them for hunting and as sentries, but most for transportation in the centuries before the Plains tribes adopted the use of horses in the 1600s. Many of the Plains tribes had used the travois, a lightweight transportation device pulled by dogs, it consisted of two long poles attached by a harness at the dog's shoulders, with the butt ends dragging behind the animal. Women used dogs to pull travois to haul firewood or infants; the travois were used to carry meat harvested during the seasonal hunts. The Arikara played a central role in the Great Plains Indian trading networks based on an advantageous geographical position combined with a surplus from agriculture and craft.
Historical sources show that the Arikara villages were visited by Cree, Crow, Arapaho, Kiowa, Plains Apache and Comanche. In the late 18th century, the tribe suffered a high rate of fatalities from smallpox epidemics, which reduced their population from an estimated 30,000 to 6,000, disrupting their social structure. Other estimates range from less than 10,000 people as a peak population to 25,000; the smallpox epidemic of 1780-1782 reduced the Arikara villages along the Missouri to just two from thirty-two. The effects of the epidemic may have been so terrible that it could not be comprehended but in allegorical form. All-out war hit the weakened and divided Arikara. In a burned-down village, archaeologists found the mutilated skeletons of 71 men and children, killed in the early 1780s by unknown Indian attackers. Groups of Sioux were the ones, they attacked the vulnerable Arikara and increased "the pace of Sioux expansion" west of the Missouri. The Arikara faced many challenges during the first quarter of the 19th century: Reduced numbers, competition from white traders, military pressure from the Lakota and other groups of Sioux.
Alliances shifted constantly. The Arikara joined old foes the Sioux in raids on Hidatsa Indians, they negotiated for peace with both village tribes. Due to their reduced numbers, the Arikara started to live closer to the Mandan and Hidatsa in the same area for mutual protection, they migrated from present-day Nebraska and South Dakota into North Dakota in response to pressure from other tribes the Sioux, European-American settlers. The remainder of the group was encountered in 1804 by the Clark Expedition; the first Arikara delegation left for the capital, Washington, DC, in April 1805, urged by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Chief Ankedoucharo died in Washington; the delegates blamed the whites for the chief's death. That was one reason why the Arikara for the next decades were "notoriously hostile to white Americans". On June 2, 1823, the Arikara attacked a group of 70 trappers led by William Henry Ashley of the Henry/Ashley Company; the trappers were camped near an Arikara village at the mouth of Grand River.
7th Cavalry Regiment
The 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment formed in 1866. Its official nickname is "Garryowen", after the Irish air "Garryowen", adopted as its march tune. Following its activation, the Seventh Cavalry Regiment patrolled the Western plains for raiding Native Americans and to protect the westward movement of pioneers. From 1866 to 1881, the regiment marched a total of 181,692 miles across Kansas and Dakota Territory; the regiment was constituted on 28 July 1866 in the regular army as the 7th United States Cavalry. It was organized on 21 September 1866 at Fort Riley, Kansas, as part of an expansion of the regular army following the demobilization of the wartime volunteer and draft forces. From 1866 through 1871, the regiment was posted to Fort Riley and fought in the American Indian Wars. In the Battle of the Washita in 1868, the regiment sustained 22 losses, while inflicting more that 150 deaths on a Cheyenne encampment women and children; this attack was led by George Armstrong Custer, who led the 7th Cavalry to the most calamitous defeat of U.
S. forces in the Indian Wars. Typical of post-Civil War cavalry regiments, the 7th Cavalry was organized as a twelve-company regiment without a formal battalion organization. Battalions at this time were flexible tactical organizations, with companies being assigned and removed as the field commander desired or felt necessary. Throughout this period, the cavalryman was armed with the Colt Single Action Army.45 caliber revolvers and trapdoor Springfield carbines, caliber.45–70, until 1892. The regiment used the McClellan saddle. Sabres were issued but not carried on campaign; the 7th Cavalry, like the other U. S. Army regiments of the time, had a band, which performed mounted as well as on foot, seated for concerts. Established with the support of Major Alfred Gibbs, the 7th's band adopted Garryowen as their favorite tune and thus gave the Seventh their nickname among the rest of the army. From 1871 through 1873, 7th Cavalry companies participated in constabulary duties in the deep South in support of the Reconstruction Act and, for half the regiment, again in 1874–1876.
In 1873, the 7th Cavalry moved its garrison post to Dakota Territory. From here, the regiment carried out Custer's 1874 Black Hills Expedition; this led to the discovery of gold in the Black Hills, starting a gold rush in 1874 that precipitated the Great Sioux War of 1876–77. In June, 1876, Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, along with 267 soldiers of the 7th Cavalry. Although the regiment is well known for the Battle of the Little Bighorn, it participated in other battles of the American Indian Wars, including the Battle of Bear Paw in Montana and the Battle of Crow Agency in Montana. On 29 December 1890, the regiment instigated the Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota, an event that signaled the end of the American Indian Wars. Washita River, Indian Territory - November 27, 1868 Honsinger Bluff, Montana Territory - August 4, 1873 Yellowstone River, Montana Territory - August 11, 1873 Little Bighorn, Montana Territory - June 25–26, 1876 Canyon Creek, Montana Territory - September 13, 1877 Bear Paw Mountain, Montana Territory - September 30-October 5, 1877 Crow Agency, Montana Territory - November 5, 1887 Wounded Knee, South Dakota - December 29, 1890 Drexel Mission, South Dakota - December 30, 1890 September 1866 – November 1866 Maj. John W. Davidson.
November 1866 – April 1869 Col. Andrew J. Smith May 1869 – June 1886 Col. Samuel D. Sturgis July 1886 – November 1894 Col. James W. Forsyth A total of 45 men earned the Medal of Honor while serving with the 7th Cavalry during the American Indian Wars: 24 for actions during the Battle of the Little Bighorn, two during the Battle of Bear Paw, 17 for being involved in the Wounded Knee Massacre or an engagement at White Clay Creek the next day, two during other actions against the Sioux in December 1890. From 1895 until 1899, the regiment served in New Mexico and Oklahoma overseas in Cuba from 1899 to 1902. An enlisted trooper with the Seventh Cavalry, "B" Company, from May 1896 until March 1897 at Fort Grant Arizona Territory was author Edgar Rice Burroughs; the regiment served in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War from 1904 through 1907, with a second tour from 1911 through 1915. Back in the United States, the regiment was again stationed in the southwest, in Arizona, where it patrolled the U.
S.-Mexico border and was part of the Mexican Punitive Expedition of 1916 to 1917. In December 1917, 7th Cavalry was assigned to the 15th Cavalry Division, an on-paper organization designed for service in France during World War I, never more than a simple headquarters; this was because no significant role emerged for mounted troops on the Western Front during the 19 months between the entry of the United States into the war and the Armistice of 11 November 1918. The 7th Cavalry was released from this assignment in May 1918. On 13 September 1921, 7th Cavalry Regiment was assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, which assignment was maintained until 1957; the division and its 2nd Cavalry Brigade was garrisoned at Fort Bliss, while the 1st Cavalry Brigade was garrisoned at Douglas, Arizona. Additional garrison points were used as well; the 7th Cavalry Regiment continued to train as horse cavalry right up to the American entry into World War II, including participation in several training maneuvers at the Louisiana Maneuver Area on 26 April 1940 – 28 May 1940 12–22 August 1940.
Crow Agency, Montana
Crow Agency is a census-designated place in Big Horn County, United States and is near the actual location for the Little Bighorn National Monument and re-enactment produced by the Real Bird family known as Battle of the Little Bighorn Reenactment. The population was 1,616 at the 2010 census, it is the governmental headquarters of the Crow Native Americans. It is the location of the "agency offices" where the federal Superintendent of the Crow Indian Reservation and his staff interacts with the Crow Tribe, pursuant to federal treaties and statutes; the ending scenes in the film Little Big Man were filmed in Crow Agency. Crow Agency is located at 45°36′5″N 107°27′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 7.3 square miles, all of it land. The term "Crow Agency" has been used since 1868 for the headquarters where the United States directed the federal interaction with the Crow tribe on its reservation; the Crow Tribe's reservations, the tribe's relations to the United States were defined by treaties between the Crow Tribe and the United States, by United States statutes.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1851 created extensive reservation lands for the Indian tribes in Montana and the Dakotas at a time when the non-Indian presence in this area was limited to roving traders. A large reservation for the Crow Tribe was set out, centered on the Big Horn Mountains and extended eastward into the Powder River basin to the banks of the Powder River. However, this treaty did not indicate agency sites for any including the Crows. At the time of the treaty, 1851 the Crow tribe consisted of nomadic bands whose culture was based on hunting the migratory buffalo herds, including those herds in the Powder River Country. Hunting in the Powder River area on the east side of the Big Horn Mountains brought the Crow in increasing conflict with more powerful bands of Sioux who were migrating westward. In 1863 gold was discovered in commercial quantities in the mountains of the western Montana Territory. Travelers to the gold fields left the Oregon Trail and traveled through the Powder River country, going up the east side of the Big Horns to the Yellowstone valley, westward.
This route became known as the Bozeman Trail, three forts were built to protect travelers. The Sioux conducted an all out war against the forts and the travelers on the Bozeman Trail called "Red Cloud's War", which forced the United States to agree to abandon the forts, close the trail, to remake the boundaries of the reservations for the Crow and Sioux in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868; the Fort Laramie "Treaty with the Crows, 1868", was one of a series of treaties that recognized the encroaching presence of the Sioux tribes into the Powder River Basin, gave them that entire area as a hunting preserve. The separate 1868 treaty with the Crow moved the center of the Crow lands to the west of the Powder River Basin, into the western portions of the Yellowstone Valley; the 1868 Treaty provided for annuities and other federal support, stipulated that the Crow would have an agency "on the south side of the Yellowstone, near Otter Creek", close to present day Big Timber, Montana. The first Crow Agency was constructed about eight miles east of present-day Livingston, Montana on Mission Creek, became known as Fort Parker.
This first Crow Agency was located in the western reaches of the Yellowstone River Valley, north of the Absaroka Range of Mountains. The Crows continued a nomadic life style hunting on the buffalo ranges to the east, though this brought them in constant but sporadic conflict with the Sioux who dominated the Powder River area. In 1874 miners encroached on the western margins of Crow lands in the Absaroka Range, the reservation was reduced in 1875; the first Crow Agency was within these ceded lands and so the Agency was relocated eastward to a new site north of modern-day Absarokee, Montana. The second Crow Agency was still located north of the Absaroka Range of Mountains but about 66 miles further east of Fort Parker in the Yellowstone Valley, on the Stillwater River, a tributary of the Yellowstone River; the 9-year period from 1875 to 1884 was a time of rapid transition on the plains of eastern Montana and Wyoming. In 1876 the Crows provided scouts for the United States military forces in the Great Sioux War of 1876.
The defeat by the Sioux of George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876 resulted in a concerted military backlash against the Sioux, by 1877 and 1878 the hostile bands of Sioux had either fled to Canada, or they had surrendered and were confined to reservations along the Missouri River in the Dakotas. This left the Crows more secure in their use of the buffalo ranges on the eastern Montana and Wyoming plains, but in 1876 and 1877 federal forts were built across this area. With hostile Indian presence neutralized, hide hunters came to harvest the northern buffalo herds. By 1882 the buffalo were gone from this area. In 1880 the Northern Pacific Railroad began building eastward from Bismark, ND, in 1882 they completed their northern transcontinental line, which passed up the Yellowstone River valley just as the last of the buffalo disappeared. At once large Texas trail herds arrived in the Montana Territory to exploit the now empty open range on the vast plains of central and eastern Montana.
These successive rapid changes in this 9-year period eliminated the herds of bison and reduced other wild game on which the Crow culture relied, ended forever the Crow's nomadic way of life. In 1884 these events led to
The Oglala are one of the seven subtribes of the Lakota people who, along with the Dakota, make up the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ. A majority of the Oglala live on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, the eighth-largest Native American reservation in the United States; the Oglala are a federally recognized tribe. However, many Oglala reject the term "Sioux" due to the hypothesis that its origin may be a derogatory word meaning "snake" in the language of the Ojibwe, who were among the historical enemies of the Lakota, they are known as Oglala Lakota. Oglala elders relate stories about the origin of the name "Oglala" and their emergence as a distinct group sometime in the 18th century. In the early 1800s, Europeans passed through Lakota territory in greater numbers, they sought furs beaver fur at first, buffalo fur. The trade in fur changed the Oglala way of life. 1868 brought the Fort Laramie Treaty, in its wake the Oglala became polarized over this question: How should they react to continued American encroachment on their territory?
This treaty forfeited large amounts of Oglala territory to the United States in exchange for food and other necessities. Some bands turned to the Indian agencies—forerunners to the Indian reservations—where they received beef and other rations from the US government. Other bands held fast to traditional ways of life. Many bands moved between these two extremes, coming in to the agencies during the winter and joining their relatives in the north each spring; these challenges further split the various Oglala bands. The Great Sioux Reservation was broken up into five portions; this caused the Red Cloud Agency to be moved multiple times throughout the 1870s until it was relocated and renamed the Pine Ridge Reservation in 1878. By 1890, the reservation included 5,537 people, divided into a number of districts that included some 30 distinct communities; the respected Oglala elder Left Heron once explained that before the coming of the White Buffalo Calf Woman, "the people ran around the prairie like so many wild animals," not understanding the central importance of community.
Left Heron emphasized that not only did this revered spirit woman bring the Sacred Pipe to the tribe but she taught the Lakota people many valuable lessons, including the importance of family and community. The goal of promoting these two values became a priority, in the words of Dakota anthropologist Ella Cara Deloria, "every other consideration was secondary — property, personal ambition, good times, life itself. Without that aim and the constant struggle to attain it, the people would no longer be Dakotas in truth, they would no longer be human." This strong and enduring connection between related families profoundly influenced Oglala history. Dr. John J. Saville, the U. S. Indian agent at the Red Cloud Agency, observed in 1875 that the Oglala tribe was divided into three main groups: the Kiyuksa, the Oyuĥpe and the True Oglala. "Each of these bands are subdivided into smaller parties, variously named designated by the name of their chief or leader." As the Oglala were settled on the Pine Ridge Reservation in the late 1870s, their communities looked something like this: Oyuȟpe Tiyošpaye True Oyuȟpe.
Other members include: Black Elk Wakaŋ Makaicu Oglala Tiyośpaye True Oglala Caŋkahuȟaŋ. Other members include: Short Bull. Hokayuta Huŋkpatila Iteśica Payabya Wagluȟe Kiyaksa Tiyošpaye True Kiyaksa Kuinyan Tapišleca By 1830, the Oglala had around 3,000 members. In the 1820s and 1830s, the Oglala, along with the Brulé, another Lakota band, three other Sioux bands, formed the Sioux Alliance; this Alliance attacked surrounding tribes for hunting reasons. Women have been critical to the family's life: making everything used by the family and tribe, they have processed a variety of crops. Women have controlled the food and movable property, as well as owned the family's home. In the Oglala Lakota society, the men are in charge of the politics of the tribe; the men are the chiefs for political affairs, war leaders and warriors, hunters. Traditionally, when a man marries, he goes to live with his wife with her people. First used in 1961, this flag was approved by the Oglala Sioux Triba OST Council on March 9, 1962, as the flag of the Oglala Sioux Tribe.
The circle of eight teepees on the flag represent the nine districts of the reservation: Porcupine, Medicine Root, Pass Creek, Eagle Nest, White Clay, LaCreek, Wounded Knee, Pine Ridge. The red field represents the blood shed by the tribe in defense of their lands and an allegorical reference to the term "red man," by which they were referred to by European Americans; the blue represents the sky, as seen in all four cardinal directions during the worship of the Great Spirit, the elements. It represents the Lakota spiritual concept of heaven or "the Spirit World" to which departed tribal members go. American Horse American Horse Bryan Brewer Crazy Horse Crow Dog (Ka
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, autoimmune diseases. Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both nonspecific components; the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system may contain adaptive components; the innate system in mammalians, for example, is composed of primitive bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances and react. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self-substances and don't react; the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire.
The non-reaction to self-substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance. These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical state where the self is immunologically spared, what is foreign is inflammatorily and immunologically eliminated. "Disease" can arise what is self is not spared. Innate immunity called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution, its genetic make-up, without an external stimulation or a previous infection, it is divided into two types: Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a particular kind of microorganism only; as a result, some races, particular individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases. Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in'naturally acquired' through chance contact with a disease-causing agent, whereas'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination.
Both and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong.'Passive immunity' is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity. Adaptive immunity can be divided by the type of immune mediators involved. Humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its antibodies, passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Cell-mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ T-cells are stimulated, passive when T cells come from another organism; the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that supernatural forces caused it, that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for "bad deeds" or "evil thoughts" visited upon the soul by the gods or by one's enemies. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific methods were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors.
Popular during this time before learning that communicable diseases came from germs/microbes was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air". If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, they could get a disease; the modern word "immunity" derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"; the term "immunes", is found in the epic poem "Pharsalia" written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe's resistance to snake venom.
The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease-causing organism is Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity; the first scientist who developed a full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882. With Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further infections; the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous snakes. According to Jean de Male