Hunter College

Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, a public university in New York City. The college offers studies in more than one hundred undergraduate and postgraduate fields across five schools, it administers Hunter College High School and Hunter College Elementary School. Hunter was founded in 1870 as a women's college; the main campus has been located on Park Avenue since 1873. In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated Franklin Delano Roosevelt's and her former townhouse to the college. Hunter College has its origins in the 19th-century movement for normal school training which swept across the United States. Hunter descends from the Female Normal and High School, established in New York City in 1870. Founded by Irish immigrant Thomas Hunter, president of the school during the first 37 years, it was a women's college for training teachers; the school, housed in an armory and saddle store at Broadway and East Fourth Street in Manhattan, was open to all qualified women, irrespective of race, religion or ethnic background.

At the time most women's colleges had ethno-religious admissions criteria. Created by the New York State Legislature, Hunter was deemed the only approved institution for those seeking to teach in New York City; the school incorporated an elementary and high school for gifted children, where students practiced teaching. In 1887, a kindergarten was established as well. During Thomas Hunter's tenure as president of the school, Hunter became known for its impartiality regarding race, ethnicity, financial or political favoritism; the first female professor at the school, Helen Gray Cone, was elected to the position in 1899. The college's student population expanded, the college subsequently moved uptown, in 1873, into a new red brick Gothic structure facing Park Avenue between 68th and 69th Streets, it was one of several public institutions built at the time on a Lenox Hill lot, set aside by the city for a park, before the creation of Central Park. In 1888 the school was incorporated as a college under the statutes of New York State, with the power to confer the degree of A.

B. This led to the separation of the school into two "camps": the "Normals", who pursued a four-year course of study to become licensed teachers, the "Academics", who sought non-teaching professions and the Bachelor of Arts degree. After 1902 when the "Normal" course of study was abolished, the "Academic" course became standard across the student body. In 1913 the east end of the building, housing the elementary school, was replaced by Thomas Hunter Hall, a new limestone Tudor building facing Lexington Avenue and designed by C. B. J. Snyder; the following year the Normal College became Hunter College in honor of its first president. At the same time, the college was experiencing a period of great expansion as increasing student enrollments necessitated more space; the college reacted by establishing branches in the boroughs of Brooklyn and Staten Island. By 1920, Hunter College had the largest enrollment of women of any municipally financed college in the United States. In 1930, Hunter's Brooklyn campus merged with City College's Brooklyn campus, the two were spun off to form Brooklyn College.

In 1936 fire destroyed the 1873 Gothic building facing Park Avenue, by 1940 the Public Works Administration replaced it with the Modernist north building, designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon along with Harrison & Fouilhoux. The late 1930s saw the construction of Hunter College in the Bronx. During the Second World War, Hunter leased the Bronx Campus buildings to the United States Navy who used the facilities to train 95,000 women volunteers for military service as WAVES and SPARS; when the Navy vacated the campus, the site was occupied by the nascent United Nations, which held its first Security Council sessions at the Bronx Campus in 1946, giving the school an international profile. In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated a town house at 47–49 East 65th Street in Manhattan to the college; the house had been a home for First Lady. Today it is known as The Roosevelt House of Public Policy and opened in fall 2010 as an academic center hosting prominent speakers. Hunter became the women's college of the municipal system, in the 1950s, when City College became coeducational, Hunter started admitting men to its Bronx campus.

In 1964, the Manhattan campus began admitting men also. The Bronx campus subsequently became Lehman College in 1968. In 1968–1969, Black and Puerto Rican students struggled to get a department that would teach about their history and experience; these and supportive students and faculty expressed this demand through building take-overs, etc. In Spring 1969, Hunter College established Puerto Rican Studies. An "open admissions" policy initiated in 1970 by the City University of New York opened the school's doors to underrepresented groups by guaranteeing a college education to any and all who graduated from NYC high schools. Many African Americans, Asian Americans, Puerto Ricans, students from the developing world made their presence felt at Hunter, after the end of "open admissions" still comprise a large part of the school's student body; as a result of this i

Philosophy in Malta

Philosophy in Malta refers to the philosophy of Maltese nationals or those of Maltese descent, whether living in Malta or abroad, whether writing in their native Maltese language or in a foreign language. Though Malta is not more than a tiny European island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, for the last six centuries its small population happened to come in close contact with some of Europe’s main political and intellectual movements. Philosophy was among the interests fostered by its intellectuals. For the greater part of its history, in Malta philosophy was studied as part of a basic institutional programme which prepared candidates to become priests, lawyers or physicians, it was only during the latter part of the 20th century that philosophy began to acquire an ever-growing importance of its own. Throughout the years a few Maltese academics and intellectuals have stood out for their philosophical prowess and acumen. Despite their limitations, they gave their modest share for the understanding of philosophy and some of the areas it covers.

Though, from the mid-16th century onwards, in Malta philosophy was taught at various institutions of higher education, from the latter part of the 18th century onwards the main academic body which promoted philosophical activity and research was the University of Malta. Today due to easier access to data sources and to enhanced communication networks, such philosophical inquiries and pursuits are more extensive in prevalence as in content. Before the advent of the Knights Hospitallers to Malta in the first half of the 16th century, the Maltese Islands were a forlorn place with little, if any, political importance; the few intellectuals who lived here grew within or around the Catholic religious orders that were present. Their cultural ties were with nearby Sicily. Philosophy was studied as a stepping stone to theology. Back Sicily was a celebrated and thriving academic and cultural centre, all local professionals studied there. At the time, the Renaissance was in full bloom. Though the Counter-Reformation played an important part in every academic and intellectual institution, literature issued by the major Reformation educationalists, including Martin Luther, were available and read extensively.

The Knights Hospitallers made Malta their island-home in 1530 and remained sovereign rulers of the islands until they were expelled by Napoleon in 1798. As a rule, they cared about education and cultivation as much as their military campaigns and their economic welfare. Though they encouraged higher learning by giving protection to the various colleges and universities that were established, they kept a strict surveillance on all aspects of scholarship, they did not like being picked on by the Inquisition, which could make them look bad with the Pope in Rome. Though philosophy continued to be viewed as the hand-maid of theology, some intellectuals had an interest in cautiously branching out along some pathways of their own. Though the philosophical contributioins of these masters are fascinating in themselves, prevalent control and restrictions on intellectual activity hardly left them room for originality and innovation. During this period intellectual circles were all part of the great movement of Scholasticism giving godlike status to Aristotle.

Nonetheless, they were divided into two intellectually opposing camps: the larger group which read the great Stagirite through the eyes of Thomas Aquinas, the others who read him through the eyes of John Duns Scotus. All of these academics and intellectuals produced large numbers of commentaries, either on Aristotle or on their respective mentor, their creativity was expressed within the confines of their particular school of thought, this restricted their novelty. During the 18th-century part of the period of the Knights Hospitallers and the scientific method began to make head-way over the trenches of the Scholastics; this line of thought was not pursued by ecclesiastics, on whom control was more stern, but by lay professionals doctors. These, however had no sway over students registered with academic institutions, which were still rigorously controlled by members of religious orders. Towards the end of the period of the Knights Hospitallers in Malta, ideas, explosive through the French Revolution of 1789 began to make way into some intellectual circles susceptible to them.

They came to full fruition around 1798. However, they were making the rounds during the decade preceding Napoleon. Of course, these ideas were much influenced by Illuminist philosophies in France. During this period, the higher schools resumed their business much as was done during the rule of the Knights Hospitallers. Again Scholasticism flourished. However, this time around, it was the Thomist version which prevailed exclusively if circumstances, along two centuries and a half of British rule, changed drastically over the years; as in former years, the larger part of the philosophsers of this period were ecclesiastics, predominantly members of religious orders. Again, due to censor and control, they hardly ventured to propose anything philosophically bold or imaginative. An outstanding exception to all of these was Manuel Dimech, who lived and worked during the first decade of the 20th century, he not only did not adhere to any form of Scholasticism but, was a innovative and original philosopher and social reformer.

By the time of Malta's independence Scholasticism had waned and faded away. Few c

Jim Maloney (politician)

James Joseph Maloney was an Australian Labor politician and diplomat. He was born in Goulburn to baker Mary Ann Pickels, he was educated locally and became a messenger boy, subsequently moving to Sydney to become a bootmaker. On 19 April 1924 he married Emily Dent, he had joined the Labor Party and the Australian Boot Trade Employees' Federation in 1915. He was a delegate to the Trades and Labor Council from 1927 to 1943, an executive member from 1930 to 1943, president from 1940 to 1943. From 1941 to 1972 he was a Labor member of the New South Wales Legislative Council. From 1966 to 1971 he was Deputy Leader of the Opposition. Prime Minister John Curtin appointed him the Australian Minister to the Soviet Union between December 1943 and February 1946, he was granted leave of absence from the Legislative Council to take up this post. Maloney died at Kogarah in 1982