Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is employed by some as a generic label for all such games. There are other variants that use of obstacles and targets. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, and Jackie Gleason, the modern term cue sports can be used to encompass the ancestral mace games, and even the modern cueless variants, such as finger billiards, for historical reasons. Cue itself came from queue, the French word for a tail and this refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion. A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, king Louis XI of France had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, and it spread among the French nobility. Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed that her table de billiard had been taken away by those who became her executioners. In 1588, the Duke of Norfolk, owned a billyard bord coered with a greene cloth, three billyard sticks and 11 balls of yvery.
Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in almost every Paris café, in England, the game was developing into a very popular activity for members of the gentry. By 1670, the butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion. The cue as it is today was finally developed by about 1800. Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them, the newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, after a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment. The demand for tables and other equipment was initially met in Europe by John Thurston, the early balls were made from wood and clay, but the rich preferred to use ivory. The early croquet-like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category – what most non-Commonwealth, variations include three-cushion, straight rail and the balkline variants, cushion caroms, five-pins, and four-ball, among others.
In the United States pool and billiards had died out for a bit, players in annual championships began to receive their own cigarette cards. This was mainly due to the fact that it was a pastime for troops to take their minds off from battle
A mullion is a vertical element that forms a division between units of a window, door, or screen, or is used decoratively. When dividing adjacent window units, its purpose is to provide structural support to an arch or lintel above the window opening. Its secondary purpose may be as a support to the glazing of the window. When used to support glazing, they are teamed with horizontal elements called transoms which divide an openings upper part into one or more additional lights. In the commercial industry, the term floating mullion is applied to an interlock profile which is fitted in between a pair of double swing doors. Stone mullions were used in Armenian and Islamic architecture prior to the 10th century and they became common across Europe in the Romanesque architecture, with paired windows divided by a mullion, set beneath a single arch becoming a fashionable architectural form. The same structural form was used for open arcades as well as windows, in Gothic architecture windows became larger and arrangements of multiple mullions and openings were used, both for structure and ornament.
This is particularly the case in Gothic churches where stained glass is set in lead, mullioned windows of a simpler form continued to be used into the Renaissance and various Revival styles. Italian windows with a mullion, dividing the window into two equal elements are said to be biforate, or to parallel the Italian, bifore windows. Mullions may be made of any material, but wood and aluminum are most common, I. M. Pei used all-glass mullions in his design of JFK Airports Terminal 6, unprecedented at the time. Mullions are vertical elements and are confused with transoms, which lie horizontally. The word is confused with the muntin which is the word for the very small strips of wood or metal that divide a sash into smaller glass panes or lights. A mullion acts as a member, in most applications the mullion transfers wind loads and weight of the glazing. Although in the instance of a wall screen, the mullions only support the weight of the transoms, glass. Also in the case of a wall screen the weight of glazing can be supported from above this puts the mullions under tension rather than compression.
In traditional designs today and transoms are normally used in combination with divided-light windows, came Glass mullion system Mullion wall Muntin Stained glass Transom Müller, W. G. Vogel. Examples of houses with mullioned windows in the UK
A hip roof, hip-roof or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof, a square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid. Hip roofs on houses could have two sides and two trapezoidal ones. A hip roof on a plan has four faces. They are almost always at the pitch or slope, which makes them symmetrical about the centerlines. Hip roofs often have a consistent level fascia, meaning that a gutter can be fitted all around, Hip roofs often have dormer slanted sides. Hip roofs are more difficult to construct than a gabled roof, Hip roofs can be constructed on a wide variety of plan shapes. Each ridge is central over the rectangle of the building below it, the triangular faces of the roof are called the hip ends, and they are bounded by the hips themselves. The hips and hip rafters sit on a corner of the building. Where the building has a corner, a valley makes the join between the sloping surfaces.
They have the advantage of giving a compact, solid appearance to a structure, in modern domestic architecture, hip roofs are commonly seen in bungalows and cottages, and have been integral to styles such as the American Foursquare. However, the hip roof has been used in different styles of architecture. A hip roof is self-bracing, requiring less diagonal bracing than a gable roof, Hip roofs are thus much better suited for hurricane regions than gable roofs. Hip roofs have no large, flat, or slab-sided ends to catch wind and are much more stable than gable roofs. However, for a region, the roof has to be steep-sloped. When wind flows over a shallow sloped hip roof, the roof can behave like an airplane wing, lift is created on the leeward side. The flatter the roof, the more likely this will happen, a steeper pitched hip roof tends to cause the wind to stall as it goes over the roof, breaking up the effect. If the roof slopes are less than 35 degrees from horizontal, greater than 35 degrees, and not only does wind blowing over it encounter a stalling effect, but the roof is actually held down on the wall plate by the wind pressure
The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft Freemasonry, members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are usually supervised and governed at the level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient. There is no international, worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry, each Grand Lodge is independent, modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Continental Freemasonry is now the term for the liberal jurisdictions who have removed some, or all. The Masonic Lodge is the organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets regularly to conduct the formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, at the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song.
The bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies, candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice. Some time later, in a ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft. In all of ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords, signs. Another ceremony is the installation of the Master and officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, in other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, and no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of calendar, allowing Masons. Often coupled with events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity. This occurs at both Lodge and Grand Lodge level, Masonic charities contribute to many fields from education to disaster relief. These private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, and a Freemason will necessarily have been initiated into one of these, there exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate anything from sport to Masonic research
Pontefract (UK Parliament constituency)
Pontefract had representation in the Model Parliament of 1295, and in that which followed it in 1298, but gained a continuous franchise only from 1621. The constituency was a borough, returning two members, consisting only of the town of Pontefract itself. Until 1783, Pontefract was a borough, where the right to vote was attached to the holders of about 325 specified properties in the borough. Consequently, the inhabitants generally had some voice in the choice of their MPs, at the next general election, in 1768, the indignant inhabitants put up their own candidates, and a riot on polling day prevented the imported voters from reaching the polling booth. The election was declared void and Walshs nominee duly returned at the by-election, defeated in 1774, when Charles James Fox stood as one of their candidates, they petitioned against the result, but the Commons upheld the burgage franchise. Nevertheless, Pontefract still classed as a borough, where the Earl of Harewood had the effective power to choose one of its two MPs.
This doubled the population to just over 10,000, in 4,832 houses, hugh Childers was re-elected on 15 August 1872 following his appointment as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Pontefract museum holds the original box, sealed in wax with a liquorice stamp. The third Reform Act, which came into effect at the election of 1885. At the 1950 general election Pontefract regained its status, being redrawn as a wholly urban constituency consisting of Pontefract, Castleford. From February 1974, the constituency was renamed Pontefract and Castleford, General Election 1914/15, Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915
A smoking room is a room which is specifically provided and furnished for smoking, generally in buildings where smoking is otherwise prohibited. Smoking rooms can be found in buildings such as airports. Such rooms are equipped with chairs and ventilation, a cigarette company sometimes sponsors these smoking rooms, displaying its brand names on the room walls and financing the room or its maintenance. Cigarette companies have worked hard to ensure smoking was accommodated in major airports, initially providing smoking and no smoking areas was their goal but when that policy failed they fell back on ventilated smoking rooms. When the Crimean War during the 1850s popularized Turkish tobacco, smoking gained in popularity but was considered indelicate. The velvet was intended to absorb the smoke, to avoid contaminating other rooms, mental health units in the NHS providing long term in-patient care have an exemption allowing the provision of designated smoking rooms for patients
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War, usually known as the Boer War and at the time as the South African War, started on 11 October 1899 and ended on 31 May 1902. Great Britain defeated two Boer states in South Africa, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, Britain was aided by its Cape Colony, Colony of Natal and some native African allies. The British war effort was supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, India. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion in them was largely hostile to Britain, inside Britain and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War. The British were overconfident and under-prepared, the Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mafeking in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British brought in numbers of soldiers and fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener and they relieved the three besieged cities, and invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900.
The onward marches of the British Army were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland, the British quickly seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile. In conventional terms, the war was over, Britain officially annexed the two countries in 1900, and called a khaki election to give the government another six years of power in London. However, the Boers refused to surrender and they reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two more years of attacks and quick escapes followed. As guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters easily blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places, the British solution was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, and barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. The civilian farmers were relocated into concentration camps, where very large proportions died of disease, especially the children, the British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the highly mobile Boer guerrilla units.
The battles at this stage were small operations with few combat casualties The war ended in surrender, the British successfully won over the Boer leaders, who now gave full support to the new political system. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, the conflict is commonly referred to as simply the Boer War, since the First Boer War is much less well known. Boer was the term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Companys original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope. It is officially called the South African War and it is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, in South Africa it is officially called the South African War
Padiham /ˈpædiəm/ is a small town and civil parish on the River Calder, about 3 miles west of Burnley and south of Pendle Hill, in Lancashire, England. It is part of the Borough of Burnley, but has its own council with varied powers. Padiham was originally a village lying by the River Calder. It is still surrounded by attractive countryside on an arc running from the north-west to the north-east in the foothills of Pendle Hill. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, the parish has a population of 10,098, no prehistoric or Roman sites have been found in the urban area and Padiham, a name of Anglo-Saxon origin, is not recorded in the Domesday Book. The first recorded mention of the town, as Padyngham, dates from 1294, for hundreds of years it was a market town where produce from Pendleside was bought and sold. The town expanded and was redeveloped during the Industrial Revolution. Padihams population peaked around 1921 at about 14,000 declining to 10,000 in the early 1960s and 8,998 at the time of the 2001 census.
This follows people moving to the south of England in search of work following the decline of the cotton, coal. The Queen, together with Prince Philip, first visited Burnley, Padiham was once a township in the ancient parish of Whalley. This became a parish in 1866. An urban district covered the town from 1894, however at this time the rural areas mainly to the north became a new parish called Northtown. But the Padiham Green area, previously part of Hapton, transferred to Padiham with another small area following in 1935, since 1974 Padiham has formed part of the Borough of Burnley. A Town Council was established in 2002, Burnley Borough Council now addresses public correspondence to both the people of Burnley and Padiham. Padiham is part of Lancashire County Council and the Parliamentary Constituency is Burnley currently represented by Julie Cooper for the Labour Party, in the 19th century, Padihams industry was based on coal-mining and weaving. Helm Mill on Factory Lane was the first mill built in 1807, by 1906 there were twenty cotton mills though the best preserved, now converted into flats, is Victoria Mill, built 1852–53 with an 1873 extension, in Ightenhall Street.
Industrial development was helped by the proximity of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal about 2 miles south, by 1848, Padiham had many coal pits around the town, including two large collieries and a number of smaller workings. The availability of coal and water nearby helped the development of the industry in the town
Listed buildings in Simonstone, Lancashire
Simonstone is a civil parish in Ribble Valley, England. It contains 22 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England, all of the listed buildings are designated at Grade II, the lowest of the three grades, which is applied to buildings of national importance and special interest. The parish contains the village of Simonstone and surrounding countryside, the listed buildings are almost all houses and associated structures, or farmhouses and farm buildings, the others being a milestone and a former toll house
Borough of Burnley
The Borough of Burnley is a local government district of Lancashire, with the status of a non-metropolitan district and borough. It has an area of 42.7 square miles and a population of 87,400, the borough is bounded by Hyndburn, Ribble Valley, Rossendale – all in Lancashire – and the borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. It is governed by Burnley Borough Council, which has controlled by the Liberal Democrats since 2008. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, when the county borough of Burnley merged with the urban district of Padiham. At this time Simonstone and the parish of North Town were included in the borough. Another part was transferred to Pendle districts Higham with West Close Booth and small adjustments occurred to the boundaries with Padiham, in 2007 its proposal to merge with neighbouring Pendle Borough Council to form a larger unitary authority was rejected by the government. Burnley Borough Council has had a predominantly Labour controlled history, the party returned to power in 2012, the borough comprises 15 wards electing a total of 45 councillors.
The borough contains the parishes of Ightenhill, Habergham Eaves and Clowbridge, Cliviger, Briercliffe. Padiham Town Council was established in 2002, since 2002, a number of BNP councillors have been elected in the borough, with the last councilor losing her seat in the Hapton with Park ward in 2012. Places in the borough of Burnley include, The boroughs population has fallen from a high of 130,339 in 1911 to an estimated 87,700 in 2005, between 1991 and 2001, it fell by 2. 6%. Its employment rate of 59. 0% places it 261st out of 376 local authorities in England & Wales, just 12. 6% of its workforce are graduates, education Services in the borough are provided and controlled by Lancashire County Council. The Hospital Trust operates Burnley General Hospital, while the PCT operates the network of GP surgeries, policing Services in the borough are provided by the Pennine division of Lancashire Constabulary based at Burnley Police station, and controlled by Lancashire County Council. Plans are in place to merge the pennine division into the eastern division.
Policing Services of the boroughs Railways are provided by North West division of the British Transport Police - the nearest Transport Police office being in Preston and rescue services in the borough are provided by Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service and controlled by Lancashire County Council. The borough Council has signed up to Lancashires Municipal Waste Management Strategy, there are currently 2 household waste recycling centres run by Lancashire County Council in the borough. One located on Grosvenor Street in Burnley and the second on Park Road in Padiham,3 months they announced the closure of the Padiham site as part of cost-cutting measures, increasing the unsuitability of the new Burnley site’s location
Hoghton Tower is a fortified manor house located about 0.7 miles to the east of the village of Hoghton, Lancashire and standing on a hilltop site on the highest point in the area. It takes its name from the de Hoghton family, its owners since at least the 12th century. The present house dates from about 1560–65 and it was damaged during the Civil War and subsequently became derelict, but was rebuilt and extended between 1862 and 1901. The house is listed at Grade I, as is the Great Barn in its grounds, in the grounds are two structures listed at Grade II. The house and garden are open to the public at advertised times, the land on which the house stands has been in the possession of the de Hoghton family from at least the 12th century. The present building dates from about 1560–65, and was built for Thomas de Hoghton and it has been suggested that the property has links to William Shakespeare through Alexander Hoghton who died in 1581. King James I stayed in the house for three days in 1617, in 1643 the house was damaged by Parliamentary forces during the Civil War, and in 1692–1702 Sir Charles de Hoghton carried out repairs and rebuilding.
The family ceased to live in the house from 1768, and it was derelict by the middle of the 19th century. Sir Henry de Hoghton, the 9th Baronet, inherited the estate in 1862, Sir Henry died in 1876, and restoration work was continued by his brother, the 10th Baronet, although the house was not ready for him to take up residence until 1880. Further work on the stables and farm buildings was carried out by the Blackburn-based architect James Bertwistle, Sir Charles died in 1893, and from 1896 to 1901 the London architect Robert Dudley Oliver added nursery accommodation, a smoking room, a billiards room and a large drawing room. Hoghton Tower is constructed in sandstone, with slate roofs. It has a courtyard plan, the outer courtyard being entered on the west side through a large gatehouse. The gatehouse is embattled and in two storeys, with a tower rising by more than one additional storey. Above its archway is a 16th-century cartouche containing a carving of Samson, on each side of the gateway, embattled walls lead to square corner pavilions, which are embattled.
Buildings of differing dates stand on the north and south sides of the outer courtyard and this is in two levels, the eastern part being higher than the western. Between the two levels is a wall, and steps leading up to a gateway with 18th-century wrought iron gates between gate piers. In the northeast corner of the courtyard is a 17th-century well house, which stands on the traditional site of the original tower that was destroyed in the Civil War. The inner courtyard has a west gateway, a hall and kitchen on the north side, state rooms on the east
It lies north and east of the Trent & Mersey Canal which goes through two tunnels to the west of the village. Barnton boasts an excellent range of amenities and is within easy reach of the A49, M56 and M6 making it popular with commuters to Liverpool. It is surrounded by wonderful Cheshire countryside and enjoys a location on some of Cheshire’s most attractive inland waterways. The village has no identifiable centre with some shops along the Runcorn Road. There are currently two pubs, a small number for such a large village and greatly fewer than there were 100 years ago. The parish church is Christ Church in Church Road in the old part of the village, there are Catholic, Barnton F. C. were founder members of the Mid Cheshire Football League and now compete in the North-West counties league. The new village hall is located within the Barnton F. C. ground off Townfield Lane, the village has a cricket club which is located close to Barnton School which is in Townfield Lane. Below the village where the main A533 crosses the River Weaver, a plaque marking this was until recently mounted on the bridge stonework.
This has now been replaced. The Parish Church, Christ Church, Barnton was completed in 1842, further along at Church Road junction stands the old Police Station which was built in 1902 for the sergeant who lived on Bells Brow. It contained an office, a room and three cells. There is still has a row of houses on Bell’s Brow at the top of Barnton Hill built in 1810 to accommodate Brunner Mond labourers. Barnton became known as Jam Town in the late 1800s due to so many people owning, people in Barnton eat Jam butties so that they can own not only their own houses, but buy their neighbours too